Urutonde rw’abakire 10 b’ibihe byose isi yagize

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 19 Ukwakira 2017 saa 01:34
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Umuntu akura ashaka ubukire agapfa akibwiruka inyuma ariko siko bose bahirwa no kubugeraho. Buri mwaka hakorwa urutonde rw’abaherwe ku isi ariko akenshi uwarujeho uyu mwaka si we urugarukaho umwaka ukurikiyeho.

Nubwo bimeze gutyo, hari abatunzi babayeho mu mateka y’isi kugeza n’ubu batarabona ubasimbura.Bamwe babayeho kera amafaranga ataraza abandi babaho yaraje, gusa icyo bahuriraho ni uko bari batunze.

Ikinyamakuru The Time cyakoze urutonde rw’abaherwe 10 babayeho ku isi.Cyagendeye ku bushakashasti cyakoze kivugana n’abahanga mu by’ubukungu ndetse n’inzobere mu mateka y’isi.

10.Genghis Kahn

Uyu yahoze ari umwami w’abami wa Mongol, ubwami bwavaga ahari u Bushinwa bw’uyu munsi bukagera mu Burayi.Yabayeho hagati y’umwaka wa 1162 na 1227.

Ubutunzi bwa Genghis nta handi bwari bushingiye atari ku butaka.Yari afite ubutaka bwinshi cyane ahanini buturutse ku duce yagendaga yigarurira.Nubwo yari afite ubutaka bunini, Genghis nta gikorwa na kimwe yasize kerekana ko yari umutunzi.Ntiyigeze yubaka ingoro nziza nkuko abandi babigenzaga, yavukiye mu ihema aripfiramo.No mu gupfa kwe yahambwe nk’abandi bantu basanzwe.

9.Bill Gates

Uyu muherwe w’Umunyamerika yavutse mu 1955.Na n’ubu aracyariho, ntajya abura ku rutonde rw’abaherwe ku isi.Afite ubutunzi bungana na miliyari 78.9 z’amadolari.

8. Alan Rufus

Rufus ni umuherwe wabayeho mu Bwongereza hagati y’umwaka wa 1040 na 1093. Yari afite ubutunzi bungana na miliyari 194 z’amadolari. Bivugwa ko umutungo w’uyu mugabo wari ugize 7 % by’umusaruro mbumbe w’u Bwongereza (GDP) muri icyo gihe.

7. John D Rockefeller

Umunyamerika Rockefeller yabayeho hagati y’umwaka wa 1839 na 1937.Yari afite ubutunzi bwa miliyari 341 z’amadolari. Uyu mugabo yatangiye gushora imari mu bya peteroli mu mwaka wa 1863. Mu 1880 sosiyete ye Standard Oil Company yatunganyaga peteroli ingana na 90 % by’iyatunganywaga muri Amerika.

Mu mwaka wa 1918, Rockefeller yari afite ubutunzi bwa miliyari 1.5 z’amadolari. Uyashyize ku gaciro k’idorali mu mwaka wa 2014, angana na miliyari 341 z’amadolari.

6.Andrew Carnegie

Uyu mugabo yavukiye muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika mu mwaka wa 1835, apfa mu 1919. Abarirwa ubutunzi bwa miliyari 372 z’amadolari ya Amerika.Uyu mugabo waje muri Amerika aturutse muri Ecosse, yagurishije uruganda rw’ibyuma yari afite rwitwaga U.S steel, arugurirwa na JP Morgan, amwishyura miliyoni 408 z’madolari mu mwaka wa 1901. Ayo mafaranga yanganaga na 2.1 % by’umusaruro mbumbe wa Amerika muri icyo gihe.

Ayo mafaranga uyashyize ku gaciro k’idolari mu mwaka wa 2014, angana na milyari 372 z’amadolari.

5. Joseph Staline

Stalin yavutse mu mwaka wa 1878, apfa mu 1953.Ni umutegetsi w’umunyagitugu wayoboye Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Abasoviyete (URSS). Iki gihugu yakiyoboraga nk’urugo rwe, ubukungu bwa URSS Staline yari abufite mu biganza ku buryo abanyamateka n’abahanga mu by’ubukungu bibagora gutandukanya ubutunzi bwe n’ubw’igihugu yayoboraga.

Mu 1950, URSS yari ifite ubukungu bungana na 9.5 % by’ubukungu bwose buri ku isi.Ugendeye ku bukungu bw’isi muri 2014, Staline n’igihugu cye bari bafite ubukungu bwa miliyari ibihumbi 7.5 z’amadolari.

Nubwo ayo mafaranga yose atari aya Staline, kuba nta tegeko ryamubuzaga gukoresha amafaranga ya Leta uko ashaka, kuba yarafataga ibyemezo ashaka akabishoramo ayo ashaka kandi ayakuye mu mutungo wa Leta, niho bahera bavuga ko ari umwe mu baherwe bakomeye isi yagize.

4.Akbar I

Umwami w’abami w’u Buhinde Akbar I yabayeho hagati y’umwaka wa 1542 na 1605. Akabar yayoboraga ubwami bwari bugize 25 % by’umusaruro mbumbe w’isi muri ibyo bihe.

Bivugwa ko Akbar n’umuryango we babagaho ubuzima buhenze ndetse budafite aho buhuriye n’ubw’abandi bami b’icyo gihe bo mu bice by’Uburayi. Umuryango we ni umwe mu ivugwaho kunyunyuza bikabije ubutunzi bw’abaturage.

3.Umwami w’Abami Shenzog

Yavukiye mu Bushinwa, abaho hagati y’umwaka wa 1048 kugeza mu 1085. Ubwami yayoboraga bwari bwihariye hagati ya 25 na 30 % by’umusaruro mbumbe w’isi muri icyo gihe.Umuryango Shenzog akomokamo witwa Song, ni umwe mu miryango ya cyami yabayeho ikomeye mu bukungu.

Kimwe mu byatumye umuryango wa Song ari nawo Shenzog akomokaho ugira ubukire, ni uguhanga udushya mu ikoranabuhanga ubwo bwami bwari bufite no kumenya amayeri yo gukusanya imisoro.Ubwami bw’abakomoka muri uwo muryango kandi bwari bwaregerejwe abaturage ku buryo Umwami w’abami byamworoheraga kugenzura neza ubutunzi bw’igihugu.

2.Augustus Caesar

Umwami w’abami Kayizari yabayeho mu mwaka wa 63 mbere ya Yezu kugeza muri 14 nyuma ya Yezu.Yayoboye ubwami bwa Roma bwari bwihariye hagati ya 25 na 30 % by’ubukungu bw’isi.

Umwarimu w’ubukungu muri Kaminuza ya Stanford, Ian Morris yavuze ko Kayizari yari yihariye kimwe cya gatanu cy’ubukungu bw’igihugu cye.Ubwo bukire bungana na miliyari ibihumbi 4.5 z’amadolari ugendeye ku gipimo cy’ubukungu mu mwaka wa 2014.Icyakora Morris anavuga ko icyo gihe Kayizari ku giti cye yigenzuriraga igihugu cya Misiri.

1.Mansa Musa

Uyu mugabo niwe mukire wa mbere bivugwa ko isi yagize.Yabayeho hagati ya 1280 kugeza mu 1337, ayobora ubwami bwa Timbuktu muri Mali y’ubu.

Ubwami bwa Musa nibwo bwo mbere bwari bufite zahabu nyinshi ku isi kandi muri icyo gihe zahabu yari imari ikomeye.

Abanyabukungu n’abanyamateka ntibajya babasha kubara agaciro k’ubukungu bwa Musa mu mafaranga kuko bigoye kubishyira mu gaciro k’iki gihe.

Hari inkuru zikunze kuvugwa ko ubwo uwo mwami yagiriraga urugendo rutagatifu mu mujyi wa Maka, kubera ubwinshi bw’amafaranga yari yitwaje ngo byateje ikibazo cy’amafaranga menshi muri Arabia Saoudite. Icyo gihe ngo yari yitwaje ingamiya nyinshi kandi imwe ihetse zahabu nyinshi.

Umwarimu w’amateka muri Kaminuza ya Michigan, Rudolph Ware yavuze ko bigoye gushyira mu gaciro ubukire bwa Musa kuko yari atunze zahabu nyinshi cyane. Ware avuga ko abantu bagerageza kumushushanya no kumuvuga ariko bidashobora kugaragaza neza ingano y’ubukire bwe kuko burenze uko umuntu abyiyumvisha.


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