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Uko byagenze hashyirwaho Umunsi Mpuzamahanga w’Umubu mu myaka 91 ishize

Yanditswe na Dufitumukiza Salathiel
Kuya 20 Kanama 2021 saa 07:31
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Imyaka 124 irashize uhereye ku wa 20 Kanama 1897 ubwo Umuhinde, Sir Ronald Ross, yemeje bidasubirwaho ko Malaria iterwa n’umubu w’ingore wo mu bwoko bwa Anopheles. Yari amaze igihe akora ku bushakashatsi bwatangijwe n’Umufaransa, Dr Alphonse Leveran, wanditse ko “imibu igira uruhare mu kuba umuntu yarwara Malaria” mu 1891.

Hari hashize imyaka myinshi ibihumbi by’abatuye Isi bicwa na Malaria nta n’umwe uzi icyo iri cyo n’ikiyitera. Bajya kuyita izina, bakekaga ko iterwa n“umwuka mubi” wo mu bishanga, bahuza amagambo abiri afite icyo gisobanuro mu rurimi rw’Abataliyani “mala aria”.

Mu myaka ya 1880 ni bwo Dr Leveran wari umuganga mu ngabo z’u Bufaransa yatangiye kuyikoraho ubushakashatsi nyuma yo koherezwa muri Algérie yakoronizwaga n’icyo gihugu.

Abasisikare benshi barayirwaye muri iyo myaka ndetse irabahitana, kuko yakundaga ubuvuzi atangira kwiga ku bimenyetso byayo neza, ibiyitera, ingaruka zayo n’impinduka ziba mu mubiri ku wayirwaye.

Yabanje kugenzura ibyo abayirwaye bahuriraho yifashishije abasirikare yavuraga, asanga bose mu maraso yabo harimo udukoko (parasites plasmodiques) tumeze kimwe.

Mu 1882 yavuye muri Algérie ajya mu bishanga by’u Butaliyani agenzura ko utwo dukoko turi mu mwuka, amazi cyangwa ubutaka byaho. Yasanze tutabibonekamo, ahita yanzura ko duturuka mu mibu kuko ni yo yahagaragara ari uruhuri.

Bamwe barabyemeye abandi babyima agaciro cyane ko mu bihugu byinshi hakorwaga inyigo zitandukanye ngo hamenyekane igitera iyo ndwara yari ihangayikishije.

Nyuma y’aho ni bwo Ross yakomeje inyigo zitandukanye muri za laboratwari ahuza utunyangingo tw’imibu n’udukoko twari twaragaragaye mu barwayi ba Malaria.

Yifashishije umubu wari umaze iminsi ine urumye umurwayi wa Malaria, arawubaga maze awusangamo parasites plasmodiques ahita yemeza bidasubirwaho ko ari wo utera iyo ndwara. Hari ku wa 20 Kanama 1897.

Haciyemo imyaka 33, mu 1930 aba ari bwo iyo tariki yemezwa nk’Umunsi Mpuzamahanga wahariwe Umubu ugomba kwizihizwa buri mwaka, hazirikanwa ubwo bushakashatsi bwasobanuye iby’iyo ndwara yahujwe n’imibu.

Sir Ronald Ross yahawe igihembo cyitiwe Nobel mu 1902, na ho Dr Alphonse Leveran agihabwa mu 1907 bashimirwa ibyo bikorwa.

Ibyo wamenya ku mibu

Iboneka hirya no hino mu Isi uretse ku mugabane wa Antarctica. Irimo amoko arenga 3.500 ariko atera malaria ni 70 muri 760 ya Anopheles.

Ubu imibu ishyirwa ku isonga mu bisimba bihitana abantu benshi ku Isi, aho nibura buri mwaka hapfa abagera ku bihumbi 750 ibigizemo uruhare.

Amoko y’imibu yanduza Malaria yororokera mu ngo cyangwa agatura ahandi biyorohera guhura n’abantu kurusha izindi nyamaswa. Ikunze kurumana mu masaha ya nijoro, ari na yo mpamvu inzego z’ubuzima zisaba gufunga inzugi n’amadirishya mu masaha y’umugoroba.

Uretse Malaria, imibu ibamo n’andi moko nka Aides yanduza indwara zirimo Zika, dengue, fièvre jaune na zo zica. Hari kandi iya Culex yanduza virus du Nil occidental iteza ibibazo by’ubwonko bishobora guteza impfu ndetse na encéphalite japonaise.

Hagaragazwa ko imibu y’ingore iruma abantu ishaka ibiyitunga kandi bikayifasha gutera amagi. Ntabwo imibu yose irumana. Ubushakashatsi bwerekanye ko idashobora gukwirakwiza COVID-19, SIDA na Ebola.

Magingo aya Malaria ni indwara ivurwa igakira kandi ishobora kwirindwa binyuze mu kuryama mu nzitiramibu, gutema ibihuru no gukuraho imizenga n’ibidendezi by’amazi mabi byegereye urugo n’ahandi haba abantu.

Mu 2019 habaruwe ko mu Isi yose abayirwaye bari miliyoni 229, abagera ku bihumbi 409 muri bo bahasiga ubuzima.

Hashize imyaka 91 hashyizweho Umunsi Mpuzamahanga w'Umubu hazirikanwa ubushakashatsi bwerekanye ko malaria iterwa n'aka gakoko

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