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Ibihugu 10 bya mbere muri Afurika bifite abaturage benshi bize

Yanditswe na Muhonzire Sylvine
Kuya 17 Kanama 2021 saa 09:33
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Afurika ni umwe mu migabane ikiri inyuma ku Isi mu bijyanye n’uburezi ahanini kubera ubukene, intambara, ubujiji n’amateka y’abakoloni baje bashyira imbere kunyunyuza Abanyafurika n’ibyabo na ho iby’amashuri bikaza nyuma ndetse bigakorwa mu buryo butazatuma barenga abanyaburayi.

Nubwo bimeze bityo ariko hari ibihugu bike muri Afurika bifite umubare munini w’abantu bize ku buryo hari ibyo usanga abarenga 90% by’abaturage barengeje imyaka 15 baba barize, hakaba n’ibindi bifite abize bari munsi ya 25% by’abaturage mu gihe ibihugu byinshi by’i Burayi 99% by’abaturage babyo baba bajijutse.

Raporo ya World Population Review yo mu 2021 yerekana ko Afurika yo munsi y’Ubutayu bwa Sahara, Aziya y’Epfo n’Iburengerazuba ariho haba ibihugu byinshi bifite abaturage batize, bikajyana n’ubusumbane hagati y’abagabo n’abagore kuko bibiri bya gatatu bya miliyoni 781 z’abatarize ku Isi hose ari abagore.

Niger ni cyo gihugu ku Isi gifite umubare munini w’abaturage batageze mu ishuri kuko 19% byabo nibo babasha gusoma no kwandika nubwo kwiga ari ubuntu kandi ari n’itegeko ku bana bafite imyaka 7 kugeza kuri 15. Ikurikirwa na Chad ifite 22.3%, Guinee Bisau ikaza ku mwanya wa gatatu na 30.4%.

Ibi byose biterwa n’ubukene ndetse no kudaha agaciro uburezi, nubwo hari ibihugu bikize muri Afurika bitaragara mu 10 bya mbere bifite umubare munini w’abize, nka Nigeria, Misiri cyangwa Ethiopia.

Ibi ni byo bihugu 10 bya mbere muri Afurika bifite abaturage benshi bize

1. Guinée Équatoriale

Guinée Équatoriale iherereye mu burengerazuba bwa Afurika ni cyo gihugu cya mbere kuri uyu mugabane gifite umubare munini w’abaturage bize ndetse muri miliyoni 1.4 z’abahatuye, 95.3% muri bo barize.

Imwe mu mpamvu zituma iki gihugu kiza imbere ni uko mu bihe by’ubukoloni, Espagne yagikolonizaga yari ifite amashuri menshi ndetse ishyira ingufu mu kwigisha iki-Espagnol kugira ngo kijye gikoreshwa nk’ururimi rw’iki gihugu bituma benshi bitabira ishuri ku rugero rwa 90%.

Ubu muri Guinée Équatoriale kwiga ni ubuntu kandi ni itegeko kugeza ku bafite imyaka 14, aho iki gihugu gishyira imbaraga nyinshi mu mashuri makuru na Kaminuza ariko kigafashwa cyane na Kaminuza Nkuru muri Espagne.

Abarenga 500.000 muri iki gihugu babonye buruse zo kwiga cyangwa gukora amahugurwa mu bihugu byo hanze byateye imbere, binyuze mu mikoranire ndetse n’ubufatanye Ministeri y’Uburezi ya Guinée Équatoriale igirana na Kaminuza mpuzamahanga ku Isi.

2. Namibia

Namibia iherereye mu Majyepfo ya Afurika, iza ku mwanya wa Kabiri mu bihugu bifite abaturage benshi bize bagera kuri 91.5% muri miliyoni 2.49 bayituye.

Muri iki gihugu kwiga ni itegeko ku bana bafite imyaka 6 kugeza kuri 16, ndetse 20% by’ingengo y’imari ya Namibia ishyirwa mu burezi harimo 7% by’umusaruro mbumbe w’igihugu [GDP], bituma kiza mu bihugu bitatu bya mbere ku Isi bishora akayabo mu burezi kavuye muri GDP.

Guverinoma y’iki gihugu itegeka ko abanyeshuri bo mu mashuri abanza n’ayisumbuye bigira ubuntu, ariko amafaranga yo kurya, imyenda y’ishuri, ibitabo cyangwa kuba mu kigo bikishyurwa.

Imfashanyigisho z’amasomo muri iki gihugu zishingiye ku nteganyanyigisho ya Cambridge International, bumwe mu buryo bukomeye ku Isi bw’imyigishirize, ndetse hari amashuri agera ku 1900 yigisha amasomo yo ku rwego mpuzamahanga.

3. Libya

Libya ni cyo gihugu cya Gatatu muri Afurika gifite umubare munini w’abantu bize, ndetse kikaba icya mbere mu bihugu by’Abarabu, aho 91% by’abaturage bose b’iki gihugu bangana na miliyoni 6.7 bize.

Kuva mu myaka ya kera Libya ni kimwe mu bihugu byo muri Afurika byashyiraga imbere uburezi cyane na mbere ikiri ubwami, ndetse byarushijeho ku buyobozi bwa Muammar Gadaffi kuko kaminuza zavuye kuri ebyiri mu 1975 zigera kuri kaminuza 9 mu 2004 ndetse hashyirwaho n’amashuri y’ubumenyingiro 84.

Nyuma yuko akuwe ku buyobozi mu 2011, uburezi bwarahungabanye ariko mu 2013 bwongera busubira ku murongo ndetse iki gihugu kigirana amasezerano na za kaminuza zitandukanye yo kohereza abanyeshuri benshi hanze y’igihugu. Nubwo ibibazo bya politiki byatumaga amashuri afunga bya hato na hato benshi bigiraga kuri murandasi.

Ubu ni kimwe mu bihugu bya mbere muri Afurika bifite abantu benshi bize ndetse kwiga ni ubuntu guhera mu kiburamwaka kugeza muri kaminuza yaba mu gihugu no hanze yacyo.

4. Botswana

Repubulika ya Botswana iherereye mu Majyepfo ya Afurika iza ku mwanya wa Kane mu bihugu bya Afurika bifite abantu benshi bize bagera kuri 88.5% by’abaturage.

Nubwo iki gihugu kiri mu by’imbere, kwiga si itegeko ubishatse arabikora cyangwa akabireka, gusa gishora akayabo mu burezi aho buri mwaka byibura ishoramo hafi 10% by’umusaruro mbumbe w’igihugu bikigira kimwe mu bihugu bya mbere ku Isi bishora amafaranga menshi mu burezi.

Igitangaje ni uko abagore ari bo benshi bize muri Botswana kurusha abagabo. Amashuri abanza ni ubuntu mu gihe mu mashuri yisumbuye ababyeyi bishyura 10% by’amafaranga y’ishuri ndetse 97% by’abarangiza amashuri abanza bose bajya kwiga mu yisumbuye.

5. Eswatini

Raporo ya World Population Review ya 2021 ishyira eSwatini ku mwanya wa Gatanu muri Afurika mu bihugu bifite abaturage benshi bize, aho 88.4% by’abaturage barengeje imyaka 15 baba barize.

6. Afurika y’Epfo

Ntibitangaje kuba Afurika y’Epfo iri mu bihugu bya mbere bifite abaturage benshi bize bangana na 87%, kuko ni igihugu giteye imbere ndetse cya gatatu gikize muri Afurika nyuma ya Nigeria na Misiri kuko gifite umusaruro mbumbe ungana na miliyari 329.53$.

Amateka y’igihugu agira ingaruka ku burezi bwacyo, aho kubera abamisiyoneri n’abakoloni bageze muri Afurika y’Epfo kera, amashuri yatangiye mu kinyejana cya 17 nubwo yigagamo abazungu benshi kuruta abirabura. Gusa mu kinyejana cya 20 habayeho amavugurura, abirabura na bo bahabwa ijambo biga ari benshi ariko bahabwa uburezi buri munsi y’ubw’abazungu.

Mu 1997 ku buyobozi bwa Nelson Mandela, Apartheid imaze imyaka 7 ihagaritswe, hashyizweho uburyo bushya bw’imyigishirize ndetse ubu Afurika y’Epfo ni igihugu cya Kabiri muri Afurika gifite systeme y’uburezi nziza ikaba iya 84 ku Isi.

18% by’ingengo y’imari y’igihugu ishyirwa mu guteza imbere uburezi, aho kaminuza eshanu za mbere muri Afurika ari izo muri Afurika y’Epfo.

7. Zimbabwe

Iki gihugu giherereye mu Majyepfo ashyira Uburasirazuba bwa Afurika ni kimwe mu bifite abaturage benshi bize bangana na 86.5% bavuye kuri 88% mu 2014 kubera ibibazo by’ubukungu byabayeho mu 2015 bitejwe no gutakaza agaciro k’ifaranga byatumye iki gihugu gisubira inyuma mu myigire.

Mu gihe cy’ubukoloni mu 1890, abakoloni batangije amashuri muri iki gihugu no mu bindi byari bituranye na cyo bya Zambia na Malawi, gusa abanyafurika bagahabwa uburezi butameze nk’ubw’abazungu kugeza mu myaka ya 1970, aho byibura 43.5% by’Abanyafurika ari bo bajyaga mu ishuri.

Mu 1980, nyuma y’aho ishyaka rya Zanu PF ritsinze intambara yo kwigobotora abakoloni b’Abongereza yamaze imyaka 15, Robert Mugabe wari uriyoboye yategetse ko kwiga mu mashuri abanza n’ayisumbuye biba itegeko kandi bikaba ubuntu ndetse avuga ko kwiga ari uburenganzira bwa buri wese.

Zimbabwe ubu ifite intego y’uko mu 2030 izaba igeza uburezi mpuzamahanga ku banyeshuri bose kandi ku buntu. Abanyeshuri muri iki gihugu biga ibyumweru 40 umwaka wose mu bihembwe bitatu, aho hagati y’igihembwe n’ikindi harimo ukwezi kw’ikiruhuko.

8. Gabon

Gabon iherereye muri Afurika yo hagati ni kimwe mu bihugu bike bikoresha Igifaransa bifite abaturage benshi bize bangana na 84.7%.

Kwiga ni itegeko ku bana bafite imyaka itandatu kugeza kuri 16. Gabon ifite Minisiteri z’Uburezi ebyiri, imwe ishinzwe amashuri abanza n’ayisumbuye n’indi ishinzwe amashuri makuru na Kaminuza.

Guhera mu 1960 iki gihugu cyashyizeho porogaramu nyinshi zigamije guteza imbere uburezi zirimo no guha buruse abanyeshuri batsinze neza amashuri yisumbuye bakajya kwiga muri Kaminuza zitandukanye ku Isi bishyurirwa buri kimwe. Ubu Gabon ishora 9.6% by’ingengo y’imari mu burezi.

9. Tunisia

Iki ni cyo gihugu cya Kabiri mu bihugu by’Abarabu byo muri Afurika bifite abaturage benshi bize, kikaza ku mwanya wa cyenda muri Afurika yose n’abaturage bangana na 81.80% bize.

Kuva Tunisia yava mu maboko y’Abakoloni b’Abafaransa mu 1956, yashyize ingufu nyinshi mu burezi ndetse mu 1960-70 yabaye kimwe mu bihugu bya mbere muri Afurika byahawe inkunga na Banki y’Isi yo guteza imbere uburezi harimo kubaka amashuri, kuyageza mu baturage bo mu cyaro no gushishikariza abakobwa kwiga.

Ubu Tunisia ni igihugu cya kane muri Afurika gifite ‘systèmes’ z’uburezi nziza, ndetse kiracyashora akayabo mu bikorwa by’uburezi, aho 20% by’ingengo y’imari y’igihugu ari ho ishyirwa.

Mu 2004, iki gihugu cyari gifite 74.3% by’abaturage bize, uyu mubare urazamuka ugera kuri 79% mu 2014 none mu 2021 kigeze kuri 81.8%.

10. Kenya

Kenya ni cyo gihugu cyonyine mu Karere ka Afurika y’Iburasirazuba kiza mu bihugu 10 bya Mbere muri Afurika bifite abaturage benshi bize bagera kuri 81.5%.

Iki gihugu gifite uburezi buteye imbere cyane ko amashuri yahageze cyera kuko iryubatswe bwa mbere ryatangiye kwigisha mu 1846, ndetse ubwo ishuri rya mbere ryatangiraga mu Rwanda mu 1929 muri Kenya hari hamaze gushyirwaho amashuri abanza n’ayisumbuye 19.

Jomo Kenyatta, Perezida wa mbere w’iki gihugu afata ubutegetsi mu 1964 yasezeranije abaturage ko kwiga bigiye kuba ubuntu nubwo byashyizwe mu bikorwa mu 1974. Ubu Kenya ni igihugu cya gatanu muri Afurika gifite ‘système’ z’imyigishirize zimeze neza, ndetse Kaminuza ya Nairobi ni iya cyenda nziza muri Afurika.

U Rwanda ruza ku mwanya wa 18 muri Afurika, aho 73.2% by’abaturage barwo bize, rukaba rukurikira Uganda ifite 76.5%.

Mu bihugu bike muri Afurika ni byo usanga bifite umubare munini w’abantu bize; hari ibyo usanga abarenga 90% by’abaturage barengeje imyaka 15 barize

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