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Ibidasanzwe kuri Norvège yamaze imyaka itanu iyobowe n’abari mu buhungiro

Yanditswe na Dufitumukiza Salathiel
Kuya 26 Kanama 2021 saa 07:28
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Ni igihugu gihereye mu Majyaruguru y’u Burayi, ahazwi nk’Ikigobe cya Scandinavie. Ababarirwa muri miliyoni 5,3 ni bo batuye mu Bwami bwacyo ku buso bwa kilometero kare 323.802.

Cyihagazeho mu ngeri zitandukanye, ibigiha igitinyiro mu ruhando mpuzamahanga. Nko mu bukungu ni icya gatandatu ku Isi aho umusaruro mbumbe wacyo ubarirwa muri miliyari 403$.

Mu 2020 cyashyizwe ku mwanya wa karindwi mu kurwanya ruswa, kikaba icya gatanu gifite abaturage bishimye ku Isi mu 2021.

Kizwiho cyane gucukura no gutunganya gaz n’amavuta ku rwego rwo hejuru ku buryo gishyirwa ku mwanya wa gatatu mu byohereza mu mahanga gaz naturel nyinshi nyuma ya Qatar iyoboye n’u Burusiya bwa kabiri.

Abakizi neza bahamya ko ubukungu bwacyo bwazamutse mu myaka itari iya kera kuko mbere y’ikinyejana cya 19 cyari ku rutonde rw’ibikennye cyane mu Burayi.

Prof Halvor Mehlum wigisha ibijyanye n’ubukungu muri Kaminuza yitiriwe Umurwa Mukuru w’icyo gihugu Oslo, aherutse kubwira Ikinyamakuru, The Local ko mu 1960 Norvège yari iciriritse ugereranyije na Suède ndetse na Danemark.

Yagize ati “Amavuta ni ingenzi ku mpamvu eshatu zikomeye. Iya mbere ni uko ari yo yazanye ubukungu bufatika kuri Norvège, iya kabiri ni uko yongeye ayinjirizwa mu byoherezwa mu mahanga, iya gatatu ikaba kuzana uruganda rutanga umusaruro cyane.”

Yavuze ko nubwo yagize uruhare mu iterambere ry’ubukungu bw’icyo gihugu atari yo yonyine yagikijije cyane ko gifite n’amabuye y’agaciro arimo Zahabu yirabura (Or noire), Peteroli,Titanium, Nickel n’Ubutare.

Yarakomeje ati “Norvège irakize uyu munsi kubera ko ifite abakozi bize neza, ifite inzego zigenga n’iz’abikorera zitanga umusaruro mwiza ikagira n’umutungo kamere. Byongeye ishobora kugura ibicuruzwa ku giciro kiri hasi ku masoko mpuzamahanga.”

Norvège ni iya 13 mu bihugu byiza cyane ku Isi, ikaba iya 11 mu bifite ubuzima bwiza ndetse n’iya mbere ishyira mu bikorwa ingamba zo kurinda imihindagurikire y’ibihe.

Muri byinshi byihariye kuri icyo gihugu kiyobowe n’Umwami Herald V na Erna Solberg nka Minisitiri w’Intebe, hari icumi bitangaje bigiye kugarukwaho muri iyi nkuru.

1.Mu ngabo zirinda Umwami harimo inyoni ifite ipeti rikomeye

Ntibisanzwe gusanga inyamaswa mu ngabo, usibye imbwa zikunze kwifashishwa mu kurinda umutekano no gutahura abanyabyaha. Mu mutwe w’izirinda Umwami Herald V harimo inyoni yo mu bwoko bwa manchote (Penguin mu Cyongereza).

Yinjijwemo mu 1972 nyuma y’uko Nils Egelien wari Lieutenant mu ngabo zarindaga Umwami Olav (se wa Herald V) yagaragaje ko ayishimiye ubugira kabiri ubwo bajyaga gusura icyanya cy’inyamaswa kiri Edinburgh muri Ecosse.

Imaze gutoranywa yahawe izina rya Sir Nils Olav III, hahujwe iry’uwo musirikare n’iry’Umwami.

Nubwo ifatwa nk’umutsindo, mu bihe bitandukanye yahawe amapeti izamurwa mu ntera ku buryo ubu igeze ku rya Brigadier yambitswe mu 2016.

Yahawe amashimwe n’imidali byinshi kubera uko yigaragariza neza abashyitsi ikanarangwa n’imyitwarire myiza.

Inyoni yo mu bwoko bwa manchote yahawe izina rya Sir Nils Olav III ifite ipeti rya Brigadier mu ngabo zirinda Umwami wa Norvège

2. Umutungo w’abenegihugu n’amafaranga binjiza bishyirwa ku karubanda

Buri wese utuye muri Norvège umutungo we uba ugaragara mu ikoranabuhanga, ayo yinjiza ku mwaka n’umusoro ayatangira.

Ibyo bikorwa hagamijwe korohereza itangazamakuru kumenya abishyura imisoro myinshi n’abatunze agatubutse kurusha abandi.

Binafasha guhangana n’inyerezwa ry’imisoro kuko iyo hari uwishyura mike kandi ubutunzi bwe bwiyongera ku muvuduko atangira kwigwaho.

3. Norvège yayobowe imyaka itanu na guverinoma iri mu buhungiro

Mu gihe Hitler yari ayoboye u Budage yashoje intambara mu bihugu byinshi by’u Burayi. Norvège na Danemark yabyigabije ku wa 9 Mata 1940, yoherezayo abasirikare babarirwa mu bihumbi n’amato y’intambara.

Byongeye ikibatsi cy’umuriro mu bushyamirane kuri uwo mugabane wari wugarijwe n’intambara yiswe “Phoney War” yabanjirije iya Kabiri y’Isi.

Kwigarurira Norvège byagizwemo uruhare na Vidkun Quisling wari warabaye Minisitiri w’Umutekano wayo akava kuri uwo mwanya mu 1934. Mu 1940 yagiye i Berlin mu Budage aragambana kuko yashakaga gushinga ishyaka nk’iry’Aba-Nazi rya Hitler.

Abadage bamaze kwigarurira icyo gihugu n’Intambara ya Kabiri y’Isi ishyushye, mu 1942 Quisling yashyizeho guverinoma ariko yakorerwagamo kuko nta bubasha busesuye yahawe.

Ku rundi ruhande, ubwo icyo gihugu cyafatwaga, Umwami Haakon wari ugitwaye n’umuryango we, abari bagize guverinoma iyobowe na Johan Nygaardsvold n’abandi bayobozi bahungiye mu Bwongereza.

Bahamaze imyaka itanu ari ho bakorera ndetse bategura neza uko bazagaruka bahangana n’Abadage ariko noneho babifashijwemo n’Abongereza.

Mu 1945 ni bwo urugamba rwo kubohoza Norvège rwayobowe n’Igikomangoma Olav cyari cyaragizwe Umugaba w’Ingabo, bigeze muri Gicurasi Abadage bakubitwa inshuro barayamanika.

Igihugu cyasubiranye bene cyo, Quisling afungwa ashinjwa ubugambanyi nyuma aza kuraswa. Kuva icyo igihe izina rye ryagizwe ijambo risanzwe risobanura “umugambanyi”.

Umwami Haakon VII yamaranye imyaka itanu na guverinoma mu buhungiro. Bayoboraga Norvège bari mu Bwongereza

4. Umunyamabanga Mukuru wa Loni wa mbere akomoka muri Norvège

Norvège yari mu bihugu 50 byashyize umukono ku masezerano atangiza Umuryango w’Abibumbye, yasinyiwe i San Francisco ku wa 26 Kamena 1945.

Trygve Halvdan Lie wari Minisitiri w’Ububanyi n’Amahanga wayo hagati ya 1940 na 1945, ni we wagizwe Umunyamabanga Mukuru wa Loni kuva mu 1946 kugeza mu 1952.

Yeguye kuri uwo mwanya kubera intambara yo muri Koreya yarangiye mu 1953, igasiga Amajyepfo abaye igihugu ukwacyo n’Amajyaruguru akaba ikindi.

Trygve Halvdan Lie wabaye Umunyamabanga Mukuru wa Loni kuva mu 1946 kugeza mu 195 ni Umunya-Norvège

5. Kuri bamwe Norvège si ryo zina ryayo nyaryo

Abenshi iyo bavuga izina ry’icyo gihugu bavuga “Norge” mu rurimi rw’iwabo rwitwa Nynorsk rukoreshwa n’umubare munini w’abatuye mu bice by’icyaro.

Iyo bavuga izina ry’igihugu bavuga “Kongeriket Norge” bisobanuye “Ubwami bwa Norvège”.

Ni ukuvuga ko iyo hari uvuze Norvège gusa abayituye ntibumva ko avuze igihugu.

6. Mu batuye mu Murwa Mukuru wa Norvège, 30% ni abimukira

Mu bagera ku bihumbi 648 batuye mu Murwa Mukuru wa Norvège, Oslo, ibihumbi 190 ni abimukira cyangwa ababakomokaho. Bangana na 30% by’abatuye uwo Mujyi, mu gihe abimukira mu gihugu hose bangana na 14%.

Abo bimukira batuye muri Oslo bagizwe ahanini n’abakomoka muri Pakistan, bagakurikirwa n’abo muri Suède, Somalie na Pologne.

Bivugwa ko mu myaka yashize Oslo yari ifite umuvuduko uri hejuru mu iterambere bigatuma benshi bajya kuhatura. Ubu abawujyamo baragabanutse ugereranyije n’abawuvamo bimukira ahandi.

Mu batuye mu Murwa Mukuru wa Norvège, Oslo, 30% ni abimukira

7. Ibihembo byitiriwe Nobel by’abaharaniye amahoro bitangirwa muri Norvège buri gihe

Kuva mu 1901, ibihembo byitiriwe Nobel bihabwa abakoze iby’indashyikirwa mu guharanira amahoro bitangirwa muri Norvège.

Alfred Nobel wari Umunya-Suède ajya gutabaruka yasabye ko umutungo we wazakoreshwa hashimirwa abakoze ibifitiye akamaro gakomeye rubanda.
Bishyirwa mu byiciro birimo icyo cy’Amahoro, icy’Ubutabire, Ubuvanganzo, Ubugenge n’icy’Ubuvuzi.

Uretse icy’Amahoro, ibindi byose bitangirwa i Stockholm muri Suède. Nta we urasobanukirwa neza impamvu Nobel yahisemo ko cyo cyajya gitangirwa muri Norvège.

Aha ni ho hatangirwa ibihembo byitiriwe Nobel kuva mu 2005. Buri gihe bitangirwa muri Norvège

8. Norvège ifite umuhanda wa gatandatu muremure ku Isi unyura munsi y’ubutaka

Norvège ifite umuhanda unyura munsi y’umusozi ureshya na kilometero 24. Uhuza abatuye ahitwa Laerdal na Aurland.

Ni uwa gatandatu mu miremire yubatswe muri ubwo buryo, ukaba waratwaye miliyoni 110 z’amadolari.

Ukoze mu buryo wishimirwa na benshi kubera amatara y’amabara atandukanye agiye awutatsemo ndetse n’ibimenyetso kuri buri kilometero esheshatu, ibituma abawugendamo batarambirwa.

9.Uburezi muri Norvège ni ntagereranywa

Abasesenguzi bagaragaza ko iterambere riri ku muvuduko wo hejuru Norvège ifite ritagizwemo uruhare n’umutungo kamere gusa, ahubwo n’uburezi bwaho buteye imbere hari icyo bwafashije.

Magingo aya iza ku mwanya wa 19 mu bihugu bifite uburezi bwiza mu 2021. Itanga impamyabumenyi ziri ku rwego mpuzamahanga, ku buryo bigoye ko uwahigiye yabura akazi.

Ibyo byiyongeraho kuba kwiga mu mashuri ya Leta ari Ubuntu kugeza muri kaminuza, aho n’abanyamahanga bayemererwa. Impamvu ngo ni uko icyo gihugu cyiyemeje ko buri wese yabasha kugera ku burezi bimworoheye bidashingiye ku mikoro ye.

Abenshi mu bahiga amashuri makuru na kaminuza baba bafite akazi kuko amasaha yo kuba mu ishuri aba ari make.

Batangira saa mbili n’iminota 15 za mu gitondo, bagasoza saa saba n’iminota 10.

10. Norvège nta ruhande yigeze ibogamiraho mu ntambara z’Isi

Mu ntambara ebyiri z’Isi zashyamiranyije ibihugu by’ibihangange, ibidafite ubushobozi buhanitse bikagenda byiyunga ku mpande zihanganye bitewe n’urwo byifuza gushyigikira, Norvège yatangaje ubugira kabiri ko nta ruhande iriho.

Kubera ko u Bwongereza bwakunze kuyiba hafi kandi na bwo bukaba bwari mu ntambara, byari byoroshye ko yifatanya na bwo.

Ku rundi ruhande, intambara ya Kabiri y’Isi yabaye guverinoma yayo yarahungiye mu Bwongereza ariko cyarigaruriwe n’Abadage bashakaga kuyobora u Burayi.

Ntabwo yabazwe ku ruhunde rw’Abadage ariko bo bayifataga nk’ahantu h’ingenzi by’umwihariko habafashaga kubona ubushobozi bwo kurwana binyuze mu mutungo kamere bahakuraga.

Agace ka Aker Brygge ni kamwe mu dukunze gusurwa mu bihe by'impeshyi
Akershus Fortress, inyubako imaze imyaka isaga 700 yubatswe, yahinduwe ingoro ndangamurage
Ikirwa cya Bygdoy giherereye hagati muri Oslo, gikunda gusurwa mu masaha y'amanywa
Frogner Park & Vigeland ni hamwe mu hakurura abantu benshi mu Mujyi wa Oslo
Holmenkollen Ski Jump, inyubako yabereyemo imikino olempike na shampiyona ya Ski ku rwego rw’isi
Ikigo gitangirwamo ibihembo byitiriwe Nobel
Uduce hafi ya twose tugize Umujyi wa Oslo igihe cyose tuba dutoshye
Inzu mberabyombi y'Umujyi wa Oslo
Izi nzu ziherereye ku mazi mu Murwa Mukuru wa Norvege ahitwa Oslo Fjord
Mu Mujyi wa Oslo uhasanga inyubako ziteye amabengeza zirimo n'izi ku mazi
Ingoro y’Umwami ikaba n’icumbi ry’Umwami wa Norvège ishobora gusurwa na buri wese

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