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Intwari z’igihugu z’ikubitiro

Intwari z’igihugu z’ikubitiro


Yanditswe kuya 31-01-2013 - Saa 14:50' na Karirima A. Ngarambe

Ku wa 1 Gashyantare buri mwaka ni umunsi mukuru w’Intwari z’Igihugu, wizihizwa mu gihugu hose. Ni wo munsi Abanyarwanda bibuka kandi bakazirikana Intwari z’Igihugu n’ibikorwa byaziranze. Uyu mwaka wa 2013, insanganyamatsiko y’Umunsi Mukuru w’Intwari z’Igihugu igira iti “Ubutwari ni ishingiro ry’agaciro n’iterambere.” Kamari Karegesa, Umunyambanga Nshingwabikorwa w’Urwego rw’Igihugu rushinzwe Intwari, Imidari n’Impeta by’Ishimwe aratwibutsa Intwari z’igihugu z’ikubitiro, mu kiganiro yagiranye na IGIHE.

Intwari z’igihugu z’ikubitiro

Urwego rw’Intwari z‘igihugu z’Imanzi

1. Ingabo itazwi izina

Ingabo itazwi izina yatoranijwe mu zindi ngabo zemeye guhara ubuzima bwazo kandi zitabashije kumenyekana ku buryo bwihariye.

Ingabo itazwi izina ihagarariye Ingabo zose z’u Rwanda zaguye ku rugamba cyangwa zashoboraga kurugwaho mu gihe cyahise, icy’ubungubu n’ikizaza zirwanira igihugu.

Ingabo itazwi izina ihagararirwa ni ikimenyetso cyo guha icyubahiro gihebuje abana b’u Rwanda bitanze, baharanira guhanga no kwagura u Rwanda, ubwigenge n’ubusugire bwarwo.

2. Major General Fred Gisa Rwigema

Yavukiye i Mukiranze mu karere ka Kamonyi mu Ntara y’Amjyejyepfo ku wa 10 Mata 1957.

Ni mwene Kimonyo Anasitazi na Mukandirima Gatarina . Yashakanye na Jeannette Urujeni, basezerana ku wa 20 Kamena 1987. Babyaranye abana babiri, ari bo Gisa Junior na Gisa Teta.
Yatabarutse ku wa 2 Ukwakira 1990 i Kagitumba mu karere ka Nyagatare mu Ntara y’Iburasirazuba, agwa ku rugamba amaze gutangiza intambara yo kubohora u Rwanda.

Mu bwana bwe, Fred Rwigema yakundaga kwibaza icyatumye iwabo bava i Rwanda n’icyabuze kugira ngo basubireyo. Yakundaga gusoma ibitabo by’abaharaniye kubohora ibihugu byabo nka Kwame N‘krumah, Mao-Tse-Tung na Fidel Castro.

Mu mwaka wa 1974, ni bwo yiyemeje kureka amashuri asanzwe, ajya muri Tanzaniya gukurikirana imyitozo ya gisilikare na politike.

Mu 1976, yayikomereje muri Mozambike, ari kumwe n’abandi mu mutwe wa Front for National Salvation (FRONASA) bari hamwe n’indi mitwe nka ZANU, ZAPU, ANC, KM na FRELIMO. Bafashwaga na Nyakwigendera Mwalimu Julius Nyerere.

Mu wa 1979, yari mu bagaba ba FRONASA mu ntambara yavanyeho ubutegetsi bw’igitugu bwa Idi Amin, ayoboye “Mondlane 4th Infantry Column”.

Mu 1981, hamwe n’abandi basore 27, barimo Abanyarwanda babiri Rwigema Fred na Paul Kagame, batangiranye na Kaguta Museveni intambara yo kurwanya igitugu cya Obote.

Kuva mu 1985, Fred Rwigema yakomeje kuba umwe mu bayobozi bakuru ba National Resistance Army (NRA), ishami rya gisilikare rya National Resistance Movement (NRM). Ni ho yaboneye umwanya wo gukomeza gutegurira abanyarwanda intambara yo kwibohora.

Ataretse kuba Umunyarwanda, Fred Rwigema yagiye agira imyanya ikomeye muri NRA nko kuba Uwungirije Umugaba Mukuru w’Ingabo (Deputy Army Commander), Minisitiri Wungirije w’Ingabo (Deputy Minister for Defense) n’Umugaba Mukuru w’imirwano (Overall Operations Commander).

Muri iyo mirwano yose yo mu mahanga, Fred Rwigema yari umusirikare nyakuri, w’intangarugero mu mikorere n’imyifatire no kubahiriza amategeko.

Ariko muri byose yahozaga u Rwanda ku mutima, adahwema kuvuga ko “kubohora u Rwanda ari ngombwa”.
Fred Rwigema yaranzwe n’ubupfura n’ubuhanga, kuba umunyakuri, areba kure, azi kwihangana, yubaha bose, ategekesha urugero, akunda umuco wa kinyarwanda n’imikino, aba umuhuza w’abantu. Yabaye urugero rwo kwitanga no gukunda igihugu bihebuje.

Urwego rw’intwari z’Ighugu z’IMENA

3◦. Umwami Mutara wa III Rudahigwa Charles Léon Pierre

Yavukiye i Nyanza, mu karere ka Nyanza, mu Ntara y’Amajyepfo muri Werurwe 1911.

Ni igikomangoma, mwene Yuhi wa V Musinga na Nyiramavugo Kankazi Radegonde.

Mutara III yimitswe ku ngoma na Guverineri Voisin abifashijwemo na Musenyeri Classe ku wa 16 Ugushyingo 1931, Umwami Musinga amaze gukurwa ku ngoma kuwa 12 Ugushyingo 1931 agacirirwa i Kamembe mu Kinyaga, nyuma akajyanwa i Moba muri Congo Mbiligi.

Ku wa 15 Ukwakira 1933, yashakanye na Nyiramakomari, batana mu bya 1940, nyuma ku wa 18 Mutarama 1942, ashakana na Rosaliya Gicanda ; ntiyabyaranye na bo.

Ku wa 17 Ukwakira 1943, yabatijwe na Musenyeri Léon Classe, yitwa Charles Léon Pierre, abyarwa muri Batisimu na Guverineri Mukuru wa Congo Mbiligi na Rwanda-Urundi, Pierre Ryckmans ; abatiranwa na nyina, umugabekazi Nyiramavugo Kankazi, wiswe Radegonde.

Kuva mu 1929, yagizwe umutware wa Nduga na Marangara, kugeza mu 1950.

Umwami Mutara wa III Rudahigwa yakoze politike yo kumvikana na Kiliziya Gatolika na Leta Mbiligi, kugeza n’aho atuye Kirisitu Umwami ingoma z’u Rwanda i Nyanza ku munsi wa Kirisitu Umwami ku wa 27 Uwakira 1946.

Hagati ya 1950 na 1959 ubwo yatanze, aguye i Bujumbura mu buryo butunguranye kandi budafututse, ku wa 25 Nyakanga, Umwami Mutara wa III Rudahigwa yaharaniye guteza imbere imibereho y’Abanyarwanda n’Ubwigenge bw’u Rwanda.

Rudahigwa yaranzwe no kurwanya akarengane mu butabera abigaragariza mu rukiko rw’Umwami no mu mirimo ya buri munsi, aho yirirwaga arenganura abaturage cyane cyane abatobato.

Rudahigwa yitaye cyane ku bujijuke bw’Abanyarwanda, ashinga Ikigega cyamwitiriwe (Fonds Mutara), asaba Abayezuwiti gushinga koleji i Gatagara, bayijyana i Bujumbura iba Collège Interracial du Saint-esprit, ashinga Ishuri ry’abayisilamu ku Ntwari ry’i Nyamirambo, ashinga amashuri atabogamiye ku idini (Ecoles laïques), ashinga ishuri ry’abenemutara ry’i Kanyanza, anohereza Abanyarwanda ba mbere kwiga i Burayi.

Mutara wa III yatangiye impinduramatwara muri politike akuraho inkuke zakamirwaga umwami, yishakira ize bwite ; akuraho imirimo y’agahato yitwaga akazi, akuraho ubuhake abagaragu bagabana na bashebuja, ashaka gukuraho igitabo cy’umusoro cyanditsemo amoko, Ababiligi barabyanga.

Rudahigwa yahirimbaniye Ubumwe n’Ubwigenge by’Abanyarwanda ku buryo batekereza ko ari byo yazize, kimwe ba Lumumba na Rwagasore.

4◦. Rwagasana Michel :

Yavukiye i Gitisi na Nyamagana mu karere ka Ruhango mu Ntara y’Amajyepfo mu 1927.

Mu 1956, yashakanye na Suzana Nzayire babyarana abana batatu.
Hagati ya 1945 na 1950, yize muri Groupe scolaire ya Astrida (Urwunge rw’Amashuri rw’i Butare mu Karere ka Huye), bitaga shariti, ahakura impamyabumenyi mu by’ubutegetsi (Diplôme d’Assistant Administratif).

Rwagasana yakoze imirimo inyuranye yose yerekana ko yagirirwaga icyizere kubera ubunyangamugayo n’umwete bye. Yabaye umukozi wa Leta mbiligi i Bujumbura, aba umunyamabanga w’Inama Nkuru y’Igihugu kuva yajyaho mu 1954, yabaye kandi Umunyamabanga wihariye w’Umwami Mutara wa III Rudahigwa.

Kubera guharanira Ubumwe, Ubwigenge bw’u Rwanda no kurwanya amacakubiri, yabaye Umunyamabanaga wa mbere wa UNAR ajya mu ntumwa z’u Rwanda zaruhagarariraga mu bindi bihugu no muri Loni.

Rwagasana Michel yatanze urugero ruhebuje rwo gushyira imbere inyungu z’Igihugu aho kwita ku ze bwite kuko aba yaremeye politike y’irondakoko agahabwa umwanya ukomeye mu Rwanda rwari rutegetswe na mwene se wabo Kayibanda Gerigori nka Perezida wa Repubulika. Rwagasana yaje kwicwa na Leta ya Kayibanda azize ibitekerezo bye byo kwamagana amacakubiri kuwa 23 Ukuboza 1963.

5◦. Uwiringiyimana Agatha :

Yavukiye i Gikore mu karere ka Gisagara mu Ntara y’Amajyepfo ku wa 23 Kamena 1953.

Ni mwene Ntibashirakandi Yuvenali na Nyirantibangwa Saverina.
Yashakanye na Barahira Ignace mu 1976, babyarana abana batanu.
Yabaye Minisitiri w’Intebe wa mbere w’umugore kuva ku wa 17 Nyakanga 1993 kugeza kuwa 7 Mata 1994. Mu gihe cya Jenoside yishwe n’abari ingabo z’Igihugu.

Uwiringiyimana Agathe yagize umutima wa kigabo arwanya akarengane k’ iringaniza mu gihe yari Minisitiri w’Amashuri Abanza n’Ayisumbuye mu butegetsi bw’irondakarere n’irondakoko bwa Habyarimana.

Yongeye kugaragaza ubwitange bwe buhebuje mu gihe cya Jenoside agerageza kugarura ituze mu gihugu cyari cyigabijwe n’abicanyi.
Ntawashidikanya ko ari umwe mu bagore b’Abanyarwanda baharaniye uburenganzira bw’Umunyarwandakazi.

6◦. Félicité Niyitegeka :

Yavukiye i Vumbi mu karere ka Huye mu Ntara y’Amajyepfo mu 1934.
Ni mwene Sekabwa Simoni na Nyirampabuka Angelina.

Yishwe ku wa 21 Mata 1994, mu gihe cya Jenoside kubera ko yanze kwitandukanya n’abo yari yahaye ubuhungiro hamwe na bagenzi be bari mu kigo cya Petero Mutagatifu (Centre St Pierre) ku Gisenyi. Musaza we Koloneli Nzungize yari yamutumyeho ngo asezerere izo mpuzi, maze ave muri icyo kigo agisigemo ba nyagupfa. Ni byo yanze mu kabaruwa kuzuye urukundo n’ubutwari yandikiye uwo musaza we.

Mu mibereho ye, Niyitegeka Félicité yerekanye bwa butwari bwa buri munsi mu mirimo umuntu aba ashinzwe, haba mu byerekeye kwigisha no kurera, mu gucunga umutungo w’ibigo yakozemo, haba mu kuyobora abinjiraga mu muryango w’Abafasha b’Ubutumwa no gufasha abatishoboye. Ibyo byose yabigiranye ubushobozi bwinshi bagenzi be bakabimwubahira kandi bakabimukundira.

Kuba intangarugero yari yarabigize umuco, ni cyo cyamufashije mu kwemera kwitangira abari baramugannye, ahitamo kwicwa aho kugwa mu ngengabitekerezo y’ivanguramoko.

7◦. Abanyeshuri b’i Nyange :

Abemezwaho ubutwari ni abari mu kigo cy’i Nyange mu ijoro ryo ku wa 18 Werurwe 1997 mu ishuri ry’umwaka wa gatandatu n’uwa gatanu igihe abacengezi batera icyo kigo, ari abapfuye ari n’abatarapfuye iryo joro.

Abanyeshuri b’i Nyange baharaniye ku mugaragaro amahame y’ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda kugeza aho bamwe babizira babizi, bemera guhara ubuzima bwabo aho kwivangura.

Babereye Abanyarwanda muri rusange n’urubyiruko by’umwihariko, urugero rw’urukundo rwo kurwanya amacakubiri no kwitangira uburenganzira bwa muntu.

5. Abahawe impeta cyangwa imidari y’ishimwe

Ku munsi Mukuru w’Intwari z’Igihugu, hibukwa kandi hakazirikanwa abandi bantu b’ingirakamaro bahawe n’ubuyobozi bw’Igihugu impeta n’imidari y’ishimwe.

Impeta y’ishimwe ni ikimenyetso gitangwa n’ubuyobozi bw’igihugu, igenerwa ingabo z’igihugu, abapolisi n’abandi bagize uruhare mu bikorwa by’ingirakamaro, kandi bihebuje bijyanye no kurengera umutekano w’iguhugu n’uw’Abanyarwanda.

Umudari w’ishimwe ni ikimenyetso gitangwa n’ubuyobozi bw’igihugu, gihabwa abagaragaje ibikorwa by’ingirakamaro kandi bihebuje.

Iyo midari n’impeta na byo bitangwa hashingiwe k’ubwitange umuntu, ku kamaro umuntu yagize no ku rugero yatanze.

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