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Yiswe umusazi, gatanya n’umugabo: Ibidasanzwe kuri Agathe Habyarimana, isubyo mu mubano w’u Rwanda n’u Bufaransa

Yanditswe na Musangwa Arthur
Kuya 21 Kamena 2021 saa 07:03
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Imyaka 27 nta byangombwa bimwemerera kuba mu Bufaransa, gukekwaho kwicisha umugabo we wapfuye ashaka gatanya, umugore na Perezida François Marie Adrien Maurice Mitterrand yabonye akivugira ko ashobora kuba yarahanzweho na shitani ’na n’ubu aracyagarukwaho kubera uruhare rukomeye acyekwaho mu itegurwa n’ishyirwa mu bikorwa rya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi yahitanye abasaga miliyoni.

Agathe Kanziga Habyarimana w’imyaka 79, aracyari ihwa mu mubano w’u Rwanda n’u Bufaransa nyuma y’imyaka 27 icyo gihugu kigize uruhare mu gushyigikira politiki y’umugabo we Juvenal Habyarimana yagejeje kuri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

Kanziga ni umwe mu bagore bake ku Isi basinze ubutegetsi kurusha abagabo babo babaga baburiho, aho yigaruriye ijambo rikomeye mu butegetsi bw’umugabo we guhera mu 1973 kugeza mu 1994 ubwo Habyarimana yapfaga ahanuwe mu ndege, na nyuma gato Jenoside imaze gutangira.

Urukundo rwa Habyarimana mwene Jean-Baptiste Ntibazirikana na Kanziga Agathe mwene Gervais Magera rwatangiye mu 1963, umwaka umwe u Rwanda rubonye ubwigenge.

Habyarimana wari Captaine mu ngabo yabengutse Kanziga wari mu myaka 20 bahuriye mu Misa, aza kumwandikira akabaruwa kasubijwe nyuma y’iminsi icyenda Kanziga avuye mu ‘masengesho ya Noveni’ nk’uko yabibwiye Televiziyo VRT yo mu Bubiligi mu 2017.

Tariki 17 Kanama 1963 nibwo ubukwe bwa Habyarimana umuhungu w’umu-catéchiste w’i Rambura n’umukobwa w’umucuruzi wo mu Bushiru bwabaye mu cyubahiro cya gisirikare. Umuryango wa Kanziga wari wishoboye kurusha uwo kwa Habyarimana ariko kubera amapeti yagendaga yiyungikanya ku ntugu z’umukwe wabo, barushijeho kumwizera no kumwubaha mu muryango.

Habyarimana yarushijeho kwizerwa mu butegetsi bwa Grégoire Kayibanda ari nako azamurwa mu ntera no mu myanya kugeza amuhiritse ku butegetsi muri Nyakanga 1973.

Agathe Kanziga nawe yarushijeho kwigaragaza cyane muri Repubulika ya kabiri ubwo umugabo we yari amaze guhirika Kayibanda, umuryango we awinjiza mu nda y’ingoma bashinga ‘Akazu’ kaje kuba akarwa ko kwigwizaho ubutunzi bw’igihugu, kwikiza abashakaga kwitambika imigambi y’ubutegetsi no gutegura umugambi wa Jenoside.

Raporo Muse yakozwe ku busabe bwa Guverinoma y’u Rwanda, igaragaza ko Habyarimana ari we wari ukuriye ‘Akazu’ kari kagizwe n’abo mu muryango we ndetse n’abandi bahezanguni b’Abahutu bo mu bice by’Amajyaruguru bafatwaga nk’inkoramutima z’ibukuru.

Bamwe mu bantu bari bagize Akazu bakomeye harimo nka musaza wa Kanziga, Protais Zigiranyirazo wari uzwi nka Mr Z. Uyu ku myaka 35 yari Perefe wa Kibuye. Mu mwaka umwe yahise agirwa Perefe wa Ruhengeri, intara yari ifite byinshi isobanuye ku bucuruzi kuko ariho hanyuraga ibicuruzwa biva cyangwa bijya Uganda, za magendu z’amabuye y’agaciro, ubukerarugendo mu ngagi n’ibindi.

Mr Z niwe wari igikomerezwa kurusha abandi ndetse anatinyitse mu Akazu. Uyu yaje gukora akandi gatsiko kagenzuraga hafi ubucuruzi bwose bwakoreraga mu gihugu kandi kabufitemo akaboko. Kari karimo kandi Col Elie Sagatwa wari mwene wabo wa Kanziga ndetse na Col Pierre-Célestin Rwagafilita, mubyara we.

Muri Guverinoma ya Habyarimana mu 1973, Pierre-Célestin Rwagafilita yahise agirwa Minisitiri w’Urubyiruko. Nyuma yaje guhabwa kuyobora Gendarmerie.

Agathe na bene wabo bakomeje gushakisha abizerwa bo kwinjiza mu Akazu, hinjizwamo abandi barimo Laurent Serubuga wavaga mu gace kamwe na Agatha ka Bushiru muri Komine Giciye waje kuba Umugaba Mukuru wungirije w’ingabo.

Habyarimana n'umugore we mu misa

Col Théoneste Bagosora na we wo mu Bushiru, yabaye icyegera cya hafi cy’Akazu. Niwe wahawe kuyobora ikigo cya gisirikare cya Kanombe nyuma y’urupfu rudasobanutse rwa Col Mayuya wakiyoboraga. Bivugwa ko Mayuya yishwe ku mabwiriza ya Agathe Kanziga Habyarimana kuko yashakaga kwivanga mu mikorere y’Akazu.

Raporo Duclert ivuga ko “Akazu” cyangwa "Réseau Zéro" kari kagizwe n’abahezanguni b’Abahutu baturuka mu Majyaruguru barimo abasivile n’abasirikare bari hafi y’umuryango wa Perezida kandi batari bashyigikiye na mba ibitekerezo byo gusangira ubutegetsi mu buryo bwa demokarasi.”

Ubwo urugamba rwo kubohora igihugu rwatangizwaga mu Ukwakira 1990, Akazu kagize uruhare mu gushinga agatsiko k’abicanyi bise ‘escadrons de la mort ‘ kari kagamije kwica abo badashaka barimo abanyapolitiki n’Abatutsi, kugira ngo barusheho kwanganisha Abahutu n’Abatutsi.

Mu Akazu niho hacuriwe imigambi yo gushinga ibinyamakuru byashishikarizaga abahutu kwanga abatutsi birimo Radio rutwitsi RTLM n’ikinyamakuru Kangura.

Gatanya no kwicisha umugabo we

Kugeza ubu ntiharamenyekana abahanuye indege yari itwaye Habyarimana ariko Akazu na Agathe Kanziga bagiye batungwa agatoki kenshi, by’umwihariko kuko batari bashyigikiye ibiganiro by’amahoro bya Arusha.

Kuri Kanziga we, kuba yari kwicisha umugabo we bari bamaranye imyaka 31 bifite indi mvano.

Hari amakuru yagiye hanze mu 2007 ubwo Agathe yasabaga ubuhungiro mu Bufaransa yimwe kugeza n’ubu, aho umwe mu bayobozi b’u Bufaransa wari ukurikiranye iyo dosiye yavuze ko mu minsi yapfuyemo, Perezida Habyarimana yifuzaga gutandukana n’umugore we.

Hari amakuru ko Habyarimana yapfuye yifuza gutandukana n'umugore we

Ntabwo hasobanurwa impamvu Habyarimana yashakaga gatanya ariko birumvikana ko amakuru y’iyo gatanya yatanzwe n’umugore ubwo yashakaga ubuhungiro mu Bufaransa. Uwo muyobozi watangaje ayo makuru, yemeza ko kubera iyo mpamvu ya gatanya, Agathe na we yashoboraga kwivugana umugabo we.

Muri Kamena 1994, Uwanyirigira Jeanne wari ufite imyaka 24 na Uwimbabazi Marie Claire wari ufite imyaka 22, abana ba Dr Emmanuel Akingeneye wari umuganga wihariye wa Habyarimana, batanze ubuhamya mu Bubiligi, bavuga inzira banyuzemo nyuma y’urupfu rw’umubyeyi wabo waguye mu ndege ya Habyarimana.

Abo bakobwa bavuga ko ubwo amakuru y’ihanurwa ry’indege yamenyekanaga, bajyanywe mu rugo rwa Perezida bakahamara iminsi. Aho bahaboneye indi shusho ya Kanziga itandukanye n’iyo bari bazi ku mugiraneza washinze ikigo cy’impfubyi Sainte Agathe cyari giherereye i Masaka.

Mu buhamya bwabo, bavuze ko bari kwa Habyarimana i Kanombe baje kumva amakuru y’uburyo ngo mbere y’umunsi umwe ngo Habyarimana ahanurwe mu ndege, Perezida Mobutu wayoboraga Zaïre yahamagaye Agathe amusaba kumenyesha umugabo we ngo ahindure urugendo kuko yari yamenye amakuru y’uko hari abashaka kumwicira mu ndege. Abo bana bavuga ko atabikoze kuko iyo aza kumuburira atari kujyayo.

Raporo Duclert ivuga ko hari abantu bari bari hejuru mu butegetsi bashobora kuba baragize uruhare mu rupfu rwa Habyarimana. Hejuru ya byose hari Akazu kuko imigambi myinshi ariho yacurirwaga.

Hari raporo y’ikigo gishinzwe iperereza ryo hanze mu Bufaransa, DGSE yo mu 1994 ivuga ko umwe mu basirikare bakuru ba FAR, yari yaravuze ko muri Mata 1994 hazaba akantu.

Hari aho raporo igira iti “Tariki 1 Mata 1994, hari inyandiko yasinywe yemera ko ibikoresho birimo lisansi, intwaro nyinshi zivanwa mu kigo cya gisirikare cya Kanombe zijyanwa mu kigo cya gisirikare cya Kimihurura cyabarizwagamo abarindaga Perezida. Kompanyi ebyiri z’abasirikare barwanira mu kirere (zarimo abasirikare nka 300) nabo boherejwe ku Kimihurura bavuye Kanombe. Byakozwe mu bwiru bukomeye ngo batabonwa n’Ingabo za Loni zari mu butumwa bw’amahoro (MINUAR).”

“Uwo musirikare yavuze ko uko kongerera imbaraga kwari kugamije korohereza aba GP mu Kigo cya Kanombe kugira gno bashyire mu bikorwa umugambi wabo tariki 6 Mata.”

Umugabo amaze gupfa, ubutegetsi bwasigaye mu biganza bya Agathe

Guhera tariki 6 Mata 1994, ubutegetsi bwasigaye mu biganza bya Kanziga n’abari mu Akazu. Nibo bari bashinzwe kugena abajya mu buyobozi, kwemeza abagomba kwicwa n’ibindi.

Mu buhamya bw’abana ba Dr Akingeneye bageze mu rugo rwa Habyarimana mu ijoro ryo kuwa 6 Mata, bavuga ko basanze abo muri urwo rugo barubiye, bakubita agatoki ku kandi ko ‘Abatutsi’ bagomba kwishyura urupfu rw’ “Umubyeyi”.

Bavuga ko bahageze bagasanga “Mu ruganiriro hari umugore wa Perezida, umukobwa we Jeanne n’umugore wa Ambasaderi Renzaho. Mu ruganiriro hari hari imirambo irindwi.”

Mu mirambo yari iryamye aho, hari harimo uw’umubyeyi wabo Dr Akingeneye. Bafashwe n’ikiniga, baramwegera ngo bamuririre, Agathe Habyarimana arabihangiriza, ngo “umwanzi atavaho ababona.”

Bati “Yongeyeho ko ahubwo natwe dukwiriye gufata imbunda nk’umuhungu we Jean Luc wari ufite imbunda ya R4. Ubwo twatangiraga gusenga, [Agathe] yatubwiye mu ijwi ryo hejuru ko dukwiriye ahubwo kujya gufasha interahamwe kwikiza umwanzi. Muri ako kanya ababikira bashiki ba Perezida bari bahageze na Musenyeri wa Kigali. Twumvise Umubikira Godelieve [mushiki wa Habyarimana] wari mu gikoni avuga ko Abatutsi bose bagomba gupfa.”

Muri urwo rugo, Uwanyirigira na Uwimbabazi bavuga ko biyumviye Agathe Habyarimana abwira abasirikare ko ikintu cyose bashaka gukora, bagomba kubanza kumubaza. Yabivuze ubwo bamubwiraga ko bashaka kwemeza Marcel Gatsinzi nk’Umugaba Mukuru usimbura General Déogratias Nsabimana wari waguye mu ndege imwe na Habyarimana.

Kanziga n'Akazu baza imbere cyane ku rutonde rw'abateguye bagashyira mu bikorwa Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi

Agathe Habyarimana n’ubu ucyemeza ko Jenoside yamenye ibyayo ageze mu Bufaransa, abana ba Dr Akingeneye bavuga ko “Tariki 7 Mata, twiboneye n’amaso yacu ko umuryango wa Perezida wabaga uri mu byishimo igihe cyose babwirwaga amakuru y’uko utavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi yishwe.”

Umusazi washatse gukomereza Jenoside mu Bufaransa

Mu gihe ibihumbi by’Abatutsi bari bari kwicwa hirya no hino mu Rwanda, umuryango wa Habyarimana wabaye uwa mbere mu guhungishirizwa mu Bufaransa na mbere ya bamwe mu Baturage b’u Bufaransa bari bari mu Rwanda.

Tariki 9 Mata ahagana saa saba z’amanywa nibwo u Bufaransa bwemeye guhungisha umuryango wa Habyarimana. Saa kumi z’umugoroba uwo munsi nibwo imodoka zitwaye Agathe Habyarimana n’umuryango we zirinzwe bikomeye zahagurutse aho bari batuye i Kanombe zerekeza ku kibuga cy’indege.

Abantu 12 bo mu muryango wa Habyarimana binjiye mu ndege yagiyemo abandi Bafaransa 44, ihaguruka i Kigali saa kumi n’ebyiri n’iminota 15 yerekeza i Bangui.

Tariki 13 Mata 1994, Uwari Minisitiri w’Ububanyi n’amahanga Alain Juppé yabwiye Perezida ati “Umuryango wa Habyarimana kuri ubu wageze muri Centrafrique. Perezida Patassé ntabashaka. Hari uburyo bubiri, kubohereza muri Zaïre cyangwa mu Bufaransa”. Perezida Mitterrand yahise asubiza ati “Niba bashaka kuza mu Bufaransa, tuzabakira neza cyane.”

Tariki 16 Mata, mu nyandiko Minisitiri w’Ubutwererane Michel Roussin yoherereje Minisitiri w’Intebe yagize ati “Mu nama iherutse, Perezida yasabye ko uriya muryango wakwakirwa mu Bufaransa. Iby’ingenzi byateguwe ku buryo ku Cyumweru tariki 17 Mata bafata indege ku gicamunsi. Itike y’indege izishyurwa na Minisiteri y’Ubutwererane.”

Roussin yavuze ko bemeye gucumbikira uwo muryango muri hoteli i Paris mu gihe kitarenze amezi atatu.

Michel Roussin kandi yavuze ko icyo gikorwa kizatwara hafi ibihumbi 250 by’amafaranga yakoreshwaga mu Bufaransa (Amayero asaga ibihumbi 38). Icyakora yavuze ko ayo mafaranga Minisiteri ayoboye ndetse n’iy’Ububanyi n’Amahanga ntayo bafite, bityo ko bagomba kwitabaza DGSE isanzwe itanga ubutabazi mu bikorwa nk’ibyo mu gihe Minisitiri w’Intebe yabyemeza.

Hari inyandiko yabonywe yanditswe na Jean-Marc Simon wari ushinzwe imirimo y’inama y’abaminisitiri avuga ko uwitwa Bazi yemeye kwishyura ayo mafaranga.

Umuryango wa Habyarimana umaze kugezwa mu Bufaransa, icyo gihugu cyakoze ibishoboka byose ngo n’abandi bo mu muryango we bahungishwe. Agathe amaze kugera mu Bufaransa yakomeje gushyigikira Jenoside, ibintu Mitterrand yinubiye ubwo yahuraga n’abakozi b’Umuryango Médecins sans frontiers tariki 14 Kamena 1994, aho yavuze ko uwo mugore afite ‘amadayimoni”.

Yagize ati “Twahaye icumbi Agathe Habyarimana, ariko ni umusazi ushaka gukomeza guhamagarira abantu gukora Jenoside kuri radio zo mu Bufaransa. Biragoye kumucubya.”

Imyaka 27 ayimaze nta cyangombwa ariko abayeho mu mudendezo

Akigera mu Bufaransa, mu butegetsi bw’icyo gihugu hari huzuyemo benshi mu bakoranye n’umugabo we. Bakomeje kumworohereza mu ngendo, agahabwa ibyangombwa bihimbano.

Icyo gihe kandi ibya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi byari bikirimo igihu ku buryo uruhare rwe muri ayo mahano rutari rwakavuzwe cyane nk’uko biri ubu. Byamuhaye uburyo bwo gukomeza gutembera isi nta nkomyi.

Ibiro Ntaramakuru Hirondelle byatangaje ko guhera mu 1994, Agathe Habyarimana yagiye yoroherezwa gutembera mu mahanga abikesha pasiporo y’abadipolomate yahawe na Gabon mu mazina atari aye ndetse n’indi yari yarahawe n’ubutegetsi bwa Zaire ikiyoborwa na Marshal Mobutu.

Uruhare rwe muri Jenoside uko rwakomezaga kuvugwa, u Bufaransa bwafashe umwanzuro wo kumwima ibyangombwa by’ubuhunzi. Ni ukuvuga ko imyaka 27 ayimaze mu gihugu nta byangombwa.

Mu 2004, Agathe yegereye ibiro bishinzwe kurinda impunzi mu Bufaransa OFPRA, nyuma agana Komisiyo yita ku mpunzi na Conseil d’État, ikigo kigira Guverinoma inama ku by’amategeko. Hose yahageze asaba ko yakwemerewa ubuhungiro barabumwima.

Ubusanzwe abandi bafatiwe mu gihugu runaka nta byangombwa, feri ya mbere bahita bapakirwa bagasubizwa mu bihugu byabo.

Igitangaje kuri Kanziga, ni uko yanashyiriweho impapuro zo kumuta muri yombi kubera uruhare akekwaho muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, nyamara u Bufaransa bwakomeje kumukingira ikibaba.

Mu 2010 ubwo hari hashize ukwezi Perezida Nicolas Sarkozy asuye u Rwanda, Agathe yarafashwe hakurikijwe impapuro yari yarashyiriweho nyamara yaje kurekurwa nyuma.

Uyu mugore wahoze avuga rikijyana muri Repubulika ya Kabiri, ashinjwa by’umwihariko uruhare mu bwicanyi bwibasiye Abatutsi mu 1992, gutoza Interahamwe, gutegura umugambi wa Jenoside n’ibindi.

Mu 2017 yatunguranye avugira kuri VRT ko radiyo RTLM bamushinja gushinga ntayo azi.

Yagize ati “Ntabwo nzi radio RTLM, ubundi se yakoraga iki? Uzi ko ntigeze nyumva? Umukozi wanjye rimwe niwe wigeze kumbwira ko hari radio ebyiri, RTLM na Muhabura ziri guterana amagambo. Sinigeze numva iyo radio, n’umugabo wanjye ntabwo yigeze ayumva, nta mwanya nari mbifitiye.”

Kanziga yahakanye gutegura Jenoside nubwo ibimenyetso byinshi bigaragaza uruhare rwe mu kuyitegura no kuyigerageza.

Icyo gihe yagize ati “Twamenye buri kimwe turi mu Bufaransa, ntacyo nakubwira ku bwicanyi. Ndakubwiza ukuri ko iyo umugabo wanjye aticwa, ubu bwicanyi ntibuba bwarabaye.”

Ubu umupira uri mu maboko ya Perezida Macron nyuma yo kwemerera i Kigali igihugu cye cyagize uruhare muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, no gushimangira ko nta wayigizemo uruhare ‘uzahabwa rugari mu Bufaransa’.

Habyarimana n'umugore we mu birori ubwo bari bakiri ku butegetsi
Kanziga ari kumwe na Papa Yohani Paul II ubwo yasuraga u Rwanda mu 1990
Mu birori bitandukanye no mu nzinduko mpuzamahanga Habyarimana akenshi yabaga ari kumwe n'umugore we
Agathe Habyarimana n'umuryango we bagihungira mu Bufaransa
Raporo Muse igaragaza ko Agathe Habyarimana yakomeje gutanga amabwiriza ku bigomba gukorwa harimo no kwikiza abo adashaka nyuma y'urupfu rw'umugabo we
Inkiko zo mu Bufaransa zagiye zitumiza Agathe Habyarimana kenshi nyamara nta na rimwe ziramuburanisha ku byaha bya Jenoside akekwaho

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