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Uruhisho u Rwanda rujyanye i Glasgow aho Isi igiye gusasa inzobe ku iyangirika ry’ibidukikije

Yanditswe na Ndahayo Emmanuel
Kuya 31 Ukwakira 2021 saa 11:39
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Kuri iki Cyumweru, i Glasgow muri Ecosse haratangira inama karundura yiga ku hazaza h’Isi mu bijyanye no guhangana n’ihindagurika ry’ikirere, inama yitabirwa n’ibihumbi by’abayobozi baturutse mu bihugu hafi ya byose byo ku Isi.

U Rwanda narwo ruzitabira iyi nama mpuzamahanga izamara iminsi 12, aho itsinda ryarwo rizaba riyobowe na Minisitiri w’Intebe, Dr. Edouard Ngirente, mu gihe Minisitiri w’Ibidukikije, Dr. Mujawamariya Jeanne d’Arc, uri mu bagize ibiganiro bigamije gutuma ibihugu byose byemeranya ku gihe cya nyacyo bigomba kuba byageze ku ntego byihaye mu bijyanye no kugabanya umwuka wangiza ikirere, na we azitabira iyi nama.

Muri iyi nama, ingingo eshatu nizo zizibandwaho cyane, zirimo gushyiraho igihe gihuriweho ibihugu byose bizaba byageze ku ntego byiyemeje yo kugabanya umwuka wangiza ikirere.

Ubusanzwe, ibihugu nibyo byiha intego y’umwuka wangiza ikirere bizagabanya ndetse n’igihe bizakorerwa. U Rwanda rwiyemeje kugera ku ntego mu 2050, naho u Bushinwa bikaba mu 2060, mu gihe ibindi bihugu ari mu 2040 cyangwa se mbere na nyuma yaho.

Icyo cyo kwemeranya igihe nikirangira, iyi nama izanagaruka ku kibazo kimaze iminsi kigarukwaho, aho usanga ibihugu bidatangaza amakuru y’ukuri ku ngano y’umwuka wangiza ikirere byagabanyije, rimwe bikavuga ko uwo byagabanyije ari mwinshi nyamara ari muke. Indi ngingo y’ingenzi ni ugushaka amafaranga azashorwa mu bikorwa birimo ishoramari rizatuma ibikorwa byo kugabanya umwuka wangiza ikirere rishoboka.

Nk’urugero, u Rwanda rufite intego yo kuzagabanya umwuka wangiza ikirere ku kigero cya 38% kugera mu 2030, bivuze ko ruzakumira toni miliyoni 4,6 z’umwuka wa CO2 woherezwa mu kirere. Kugira ngo ibyo bigerweho, u Rwanda rugomba gukora ibikorwa birimo kugabanya imodoka zikoresha mazutu na lisansi, hakibandwa ku zikoresha amashanyarazi n’izindi ngufu zitangiza ikirere, ibyo bikajyana no gutera ibiti, gufasha abaturage kureka gukoresha inkwi mu guteka n’izindi ngamba zitandukanye. Ibyo byose bikeneye amafaranga.

U Rwanda rusabwa iki?

Kugira ngo ibyo byose bigerweho, u Rwanda rukeneye miliyari 11$ kugera mu 2030, amafaranga aruta gato umusaruro mbumbe w’ubukungu bwarwo. Kimwe n’ibindi bihugu biri mu nzira y’amajyambere, u Rwanda rwifuza ko ibihugu bikize, ari nabyo bigira uruhare rukomeye mu bikorwa byangiza ikirere cyane, bifata iya mbere mu gutanga umusanzu uzatuma ibihugu bishyiraho ingamba zo guhangana n’iyangirika ry’ikirere, ndetse no kwirinda gukomeza kucyangiza.

Izi ngamba ziri mu byiciro bibiri; hari uguhangana n’ingaruka zamaze kubaho kubera ingaruka z’iyangirika ry’ikirere, nko guhangana n’imyuzure ndetse n’ubushyuhe bukabije bushobora kwangiza imyaka mu mirima n’ibindi birimo indwara, byitezwe ko zizagera ku bantu, amatungo n’ibihingwa.

Nko mu rwego rw’ubuhinzi, ingamba zo muri iki cyiciro cya mbere zirimo gukora ubushakashatsi ku bundi bwoko bw’imbuto z’ibihingwa zishobora kwihanganira izuba rikabije, kuko izisanzwe zitagifite ubushobozi bwo kwera neza kubera ihindagurika ry’ikirere. Muri iki cyiciro, u Rwanda rukeneye miliyari 5,3$.

Ku rundi ruhande, hari ugushyiraho ingamba zo mu cyiciro cya kabiri, zigamije gukomeza gukumira ubwiyongere bw’ubushyuhe ku Isi, binyuze mu kugabanya umwuka wangiza ikirere uturutse mu bikorwa bya muntu. Ibishobora gukorwa muri iki cyiciro harimo gutera amashyamba, gukoresha ingufu zishingiye ku mashanyarazi n’ibindi bitandukanye. Muri iki cyiciro, u Rwanda rukeneye nibura miliyari 5,7$ kugera muri 2030.

U Rwanda rukomeje ibikorwa byo guhangana n'ihindagurika ry'ikirere, aho rufite umugambi wo gukoresha utumodoka dukoresha amashanyarazi mu ngendo rusange

Birumvikana ko aya mafaranga ari akayabo, ndetse bigoye ko Leta y’u Rwanda yayishakamo yose, ari nayo mpamvu ibihugu bikize biri gushishikarizwa gushyigikira imigambi nk’iyi izatuma ibihugu biri mu nzira y’amajyambere bidakomeza kwikorezwa urusyo nyamara nta ruhare runini bifite mu guteza ibi byago by’iyangirika ry’ikirere.

Nk’urugero, Afurika igira uruhare rwa 4% mu mwuka wangiza ikirere woherezwa uvuye ku Isi, mu gihe u Bushinwa bwa mbere bwoherezayo 28%, bugakurikirwa na Amerika yohereza 15% by’umwuka wose uba waturutse ku Isi. Ikbazo ni uko ibihugu byo muri Afurika ari byo bigirwaho ingaruka zikomeye n’iyangirika ry’ikirere, kuko ubukungu bwabyo bushingiye ku buhinzi n’ibindi bikorwa nk’uburobyi n’ubworozi, kandi byose bikaba bigirwaho ingaruka zikomeye n’iyangirika ry’ikirere.

Minisitiri Mujawamariya yavuze ko ikibazo cy’ihindagurika ry’ikirere giteye inkeke, bityo ko iyi nama ari amahirwe akomeye ku bihugu byose yo gushyiraho uburyo bwo guhangana nacyo.

Yagize ati “Dushobora guhangana n’ibibazo bikomeye igihe dufatanyije dufite intego imwe. Niyo mpamvu u Rwanda rufite icyizere ko COP26 izagera ku bwumvikane bwuzuye ku bibazo bikomeye [bizaganirwaho], birimo ishyirwaho ry’igihe cyo kubahiriza amasezerano y’i Paris [aho buri gihugu cyiyemeje ingano y’umwuka wangiza ikirere kizagabanya], gushyiraho amabwiriza azagenga iyubahirizwa ry’igabanywa ry’umwuka wangiza ikirere ndetse [no gushaka] amafaranga akenewe duhanganye n’ingaruka z’ihindagurika ry’ikirere ndetse no kubana n’ingaruka zamaze kutugeraho.”

Muri iyi nama, ibihugu birimo u Bushinwa na Amerika byari byitezweho kuzagaragaza aho bigeze intego zo kugabanya umwuka wangiza ikirere, uretse ko Umunyamabanga Mukuru w’Umuryango w’Abibumbye, Antonio Guterres, yatangaje ko hagaragaye ubwumvikane buke mu mishyikirano itegura iyi nama, asaba ko Isi ikwiye kugirirana icyizere kugira ngo igere ku ntego yihaye.

Biteganyijwe ko bitarenze mu 2100, ubushyuhe bw’Isi bugomba kuguma kuri dogere Celcius ziri munsi ya 1,5C, kuri ubu, buracyari munsi ya 1,1C. Izi dogere ziramutse zizamutse zikagera nko kuri 2C, byagira ingaruka zikomeye ku buzima abantu babamo uyu munsi kuko imyuzure yakwiyongera mu bice byose by’Isi, ibihingwa byinshi bigatakaza ubushobozi bwo kwera, ubutaka bugakamuka cyane, indwara nyinshi zigatera, amazi akaba ingume mu bice bimwe na bimwe by’Isi, ku buryo ikiguzi cyo guhangana n’ibyo bibazo byose, kiri munsi cyane y’icyo byatwara mu kwirinda ko Isi yinjira muri ako kaga.

Minisitiri Mujawamariya yavuze ko “Kugira ngo Isi igere ku ntego yihaye mu guhangana n’ihindagurika ry’ikirere, ibihugu bisabwa ubushake bwo gushora imari mu bikorwa birambye byo kurengera ibidukikije. COP26 ni amahirwe Isi ibonye yo gusezera ku ikoreshwa ry’ibikomoka kuri peteroli, urusobe rw’ibinyabuzima rukongera rukisuganya, mu gihe turinda ibisigaye.”

Muri Gicurasi umwaka ushize, u Rwanda nicyo gihugu cya mbere ku Mugabane wa Afurika cyagaragaje umugambi muremure wo kugabanya umwuka wangiza ikirere rwoherezayo, aho uwo mugambi ugena ko ibi bizagerwaho mu 2050, ariko mu 2030, 38% by’uwo mwuka bikazaba byaragabanyijwe.

Mu bindi bikorwa u Rwanda rwakoze muri iki cyiciro, harimo gutera amashyamba ku buso bungana na 30,4% bw’igihugu, korohereza abaturage gutekesha gaz, aho kuba amakara n’inkwi.

Byitezwe ko mu 2030, nibura 30% bya moto ziri muri Kigali zizaba zikoresha amashanyarazi, mu gihe imodoka zigomba kuba ari 8%, izitwara abantu mu buryo bwa rusange zikaba ari 20% ndetse na 25% bw’izindi modoka zisanzwe. Moto zirenga 7000 ziri muri gahunda yo gutangira gukoresha amashanyarazi vuba, zivuye ku gukoresha ibikomoka kuri peteroli.

Ishoramari rizagira uruhare rinini muri ibi bikorwa

Muri za miliyari 11$ akenewe kugira ngo u Rwanda rugere ku ntego zarwo, amwe muri yo azaturuka mu bikorwa by’abashoramari, aho u Rwanda ruri gukora ibishoboka byose kugira ngo rube icyicaro cy’ishoramari mu bijyanye no kurengera ibidukikije muri Afurika (green investment).

Ni muri urwo rwego Leta yashyizeho Ikigega cya Fonerwa kimaze kwakira ishoramari rya miliyoni 217$ kuva cyashingwa, ari kugenda ashorwa mu bikorwa byo guhangana n’ingaruka z’iyangirika ry’ikirere.

Irindi shoramari rizakururwa binyuze mu bikorwa birimo kugabanya imosoro cyane cyane ku modoka zikoresha amashanyarazi, sitasiyo zazo ndetse n’ibindi byuma zikoresha, ibi byose bikaba byitezweho kongera umubare w’abashoramari bifuza kuzizana mu Rwanda.

Ibi byose kandi byitezweho kuzagabanya ikiguzi u Rwanda rukoresha rutumiza ibikomoka kuri peteroli, bigize 16% by’ibyo u Rwanda rutumiza hanze, bingana na miliyoni 411$. Ibi bisobanuye ko kugabanya ingano ya peteroli ikenerwa mu Rwanda, bizahita bigira ingaruka nziza ku kugabanya ibyo u Rwanda rutumiza mu mahanga, bityo ubukungu bw’igihugu burusheho guhagarara neza.

Imodoka zikoresha amashanyarazi zizahabwa umwanya munini mu Rwanda mu rwego rwo kugabanya umwuka wangiza ikirere
Moto zikoresha amashanyarazi zatangiye gukoreshwa mu Rwanda
Kugira ngo intego rwihaye zigerweho, u Rwanda rwatangiye gushishikariza abantu gutunga imodoka zikoresha amashanyarazi aho kunamba ku zikoresha ibikomoka kuri peteroli
Mu kwirinda imyotsi ituruka mu icanwa ry'ibiti no kwangiza amashyamba, Leta y'u Rwanda imaze igihe ishishikariza abaturage gukoresha gaz
Umushinga Green Gicumbi, ni umwe mu yo u Rwanda rwatangije igamije gutera amashyamba mu duce yari atangiye gucikamo

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