Uko amateka yo kubohora u Rwanda yahiritse Mobutu akibeshya ku mugambanyi Désiré Kabila

Yanditswe na Rabbi Malo Umucunguzi
Kuya 8 Nyakanga 2019 saa 08:36
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Mu gihe u Rwanda rwizihiza ku nshuro ya 25 umunsi wo Kwibohora, ni ngombwa gusubiza amaso inyuma ku nkurikizi z’uru rugamba rwahagaritse Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, maze Ingabo zari iza FPR Inkotanyi zikamenesha abicanyi, ariko bakagumana umugambi wa Jenoside bifuzaga kuzashyira mu bikorwa umunsi babonye urwaho.

Nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994, abayigizemo uruhare, abasirikare ba leta y’icyo gihe n’abandi basivili, bahungiye muri Zaire ndetse abafite intwaro bazambukana bakingiwe ikibaba n’u Bufaransa muri Zone Turqoise, icyo gihe hari ku butegetsi bwa Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga.

Impunzi z’abasirikare n’abasivili barivanze bahungira ku mupaka wa Zaire n’u Rwanda, bakomeza imigambi yo kugaruka gukomeza ubwicanyi basize batarangije, ndetse imyitozo ya gisirikare ikomereza aho.

Filime mbarankuru ‘L’Afrique en Morceaux: La tragédie des Grand Lacs’ yakozwe na Hervé Chabalier, Peter Chappell na Jihan El-Tahri yatangiye kwerekanwa mu 2004, igaruka by’umwihariko ku izamba ry’umubano w’u Rwanda na Congo muri icyo gihe n’izahurwa ryawo, ahanini bitewe n’ibikowa by’abashakaga kugaba ibitero ku Rwanda bahunze.

Honoré N’Gbanda Nzambo-ko-Atumba wabaye umujyanama mu by’umutekano wa Mobutu mu 1992-1997, avuga ko guverinoma yose y’u Rwanda icyo gihe yahunganye ibikoresho bya leta, igisirikare gifite n’intwaro nto n’inini, na Banki Nkuru igenda ityo kimwe n’imodoka za leta.

Ati “Byari uruvangitirane rw’abantu, ukabona abasirikare bambukana za burende, ibifaru, bahunze intambara bose bakaza iwanyu.”

Abo bahungiye muri Zaire icyo gihe basangagayo Abanyamulenge bakoresha ikinyarwanda, barimo Abatutsi muri Kivu y’Amajyepfo, bari bakomeje gutotezwa muri icyo gihugu.

Kubera guhungabanya umutekano ndetse abari abasirikare bagakomeza imyitozo n’ibindi bikorwa, Mobutu yasabwe gukura izo mpunzi ku mupaka zigahabwa ubuhungiro hagati muri Congo ndetse abasirikare bagatandukanywa n’abasivili nk’uko amabwiriza mpuzamahanga abisaba, ariko arinangira.

Perezida Kagame yasabye umuryango mpuzamahanga kugira icyo ukora birananirana, ni bwo havutse igitekerezo cyo gukuraho Mobutu, binyura mu gushyigikira abari basanzwe barwanya ubutegetsi bwe.

Icyo gihe byari bimaze kugaragara ko nubwo urugamba rwo kubohora u Rwanda rugeze ku musozo, umutekano urambye wifuzwa udashobora kuboneka mu gihe abagambiriye kuwuhungabanya bahawe rugari mu baturanyi.

Ni uko Laurent-Désiré Kabila yagezweho nyuma y’imyaka isaga 30 arwanya Mobutu. Yabaga muri Tanzania icyo gihe. Icyo gihe intumwa yamenyesheje uwari Visi Perezida w’u Rwanda Gen Maj Paul Kagame izina rya Kabila, ndetse na we yemera ko atari amuzi.

Paul Kagame yagize ati “Ntabwo nibuka neza icyatumye mwumva ariko twagombaga guhangana n’ikibazo cyari muri Congo. Reka tuvuge ko ikibazo cyazanywe n’amateka ari cyo cyatumye tugera kuri Kabila.”

Urugamba rwatangiye binyuze mu guhuriza hamwe abarwanyaga Mobutu no kubongerera imbaraga, barimo Deogratias Bugera wayoboraga ADP (Alliance démocratiques des Peuples), bashinga AFDL (Alliance de forces démocratiques pour la libération du Congo). Colonel James Kabarebe (ubu ni Jenerali w’inyenyeri enye) wari ushinzwe ibikorwa bya gisirikare muri AFDL.

Avuga ko ubwo urugamba rwari ruhinanye, bageze i Kisangani basanze Mobutu arwanisha abacanshuro gusa, ku buryo ahitwa Watsa, Isiro, barwanye nabo. Muri Kisangani ngo abasirikare ba Mobutu banze kurwana, bishyira mu maboko ya AFDL bari hagati ya 2000-3000.

Ubwo Kisangani yafatwaga, Kabila yahuriye n’abaturage muri Stade ababaza ibyo bashaka, na bo bati “dukomeze i Kinshasa”, izina rya Kabila riraririmbwa karahava, nk’umuntu wari ku rugamba rwo kubohora Kinshasa.

Kabarebe ati “Bari bishimiye cyane impinduka zari zirimo kuba. Ariko kuri Kabila by’umwihariko, icyari guhindura uko ibintu byari bimeze cyose cyari cyemewe. Baririmba rero ngo harakabaho ukwibohora, ukwibohora.”

“Ariko ndibuka icyo gihe icyo nabwiye umuhungu we Joseph Kabila, nti ‘ntimuhumwe amaso n’izi ndirimbo, aba baturage uyu munsi baririmba ukwibohora, ukwibohora, ejo cyangwa undi munsi nibo bashobora kuzajya mu mihanda bigaragambya kubera mwe. Iby’ingenzi ni ibyo muzabaha. Aba bantu batsikamiwe imyaka myinshi, bafite icyizere ko umunsi umwe tuzabazanira ikintu gishya. Rero utagize icyiza ubakorera, mwitegure kugira ibibazo.”

Ubwo ibintu byari bikomeye, Mobutu yahise ava mu gihugu, Kabila akomeza gusatira Umurwa Mukuru Kinshasa. Ubwo wari umaze gufatwa, Abanyarwanda bakuriwe ingofero.

Kabarebe ari “Nahamagaye Kabila kuri telefoni y’icyogajuru, ndamubwira nti ‘Kinshasa twayifashe. Ati ‘Nibyo?’ Ibyishimo biramurenga, araseka, arishima cyane ndamubwira nti ‘ibintu byose biri ku murongo, ushobora kuza.’ Akomeza kumbaza niba ndimo kuvugisha ukuri. Yari mu nzu ye i Lubumbashi ari kumwe na Lt Col Murokore. Murokore yatatse asaba ubufasha kubera ko Kabila yari yamutuye hasi.”

“Ibaze Kabila na Lt Col Murokore barimo kwibarangura hasi n’ibilo bya Kabila, yari atangiye kubura umwuka. Kabila yari arimo gusakuza ati ubu mbonye ubutegetsi, ndi perezida wa Congo, ndi byose …”

Mbere ariko hari hanageragejwe ibiganiro ku gusaranganya ubutegetsi hagatiya Mobutu na Kabila byayobowe na Nelson Mandela mu bwato bw’intambara, ariko ntacyo byatanze.

Mbere yo kwinjira i Kinshasa, Perezida wa AFDL Laurent-Désiré Kabila yahise arahirira kuyobora igihugu, maze icyari Zaire kibatizwa Repubulika ya Demokarasi ya Congo, RDC. Ingabo z’u Rwanda zahise zitangira guharura amayira ya Perezida mushya ngo abashe kwinjira muri Kinshasa, umutekano urakazwa cyane.

Congo yihindutse u Rwanda

Kabila yemeye kuva mu mujyi w’amavuko wa Lubumbashi, agera i Kinshasa yakirwa nk’umwami, ndetse ategura ibirori bikomeye muri Stade yarahiriyemo, binitabirwa n’abayobozi b’ibihugu bikikije RDC aribo Pasteur Bizimungu w’u Rwanda, Yoweri Museveni wa Uganda na Eduardo Dos Santos wa Angola.

Gusa ibirori ntibyitabiriwe n’abaturage benshi kuko stade itari yuzuye nk’uko byatekerezwaga, ahubwo hanze hari abari mu myigaragambyo yamagana Kabila n’ibihugu byamufashije kugera ku butegetsi.

Col Kabarebe ati “Ikibazo cyavaga mu mashyaka atavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi arangajwe imbere na UDPS (ya Etienne Tshisekedi, se wa Felix, perezida uriho ubu), batekerezaga ko mbere yo gufata ubutegetsi, Kabila azabanza kwicarana na bo ku meza ngo baganire ku buryo bwo kuyobora igihugu. Ariko ibyo ntiyabikoze.”

Desire Kabila yahise atangaza ko icyari Zaire ku bwa Mobutu kibaye Repubulika ya Demokarasi ya Congo.

Kabila yatangiye guhinduka

Nyuma yo kugeza Kabila ku butegetsi, Colonel James Kabarebe yaje kugirwa Umugaba Mukuru w’Ingabo za RDC, bitewe ahanini n’uruhare u Rwanda rwari rumaze kugira mu kugeza ku butegetsi Laurent-Désiré Kabila.

Nyuma hatangiye kuza umwuka mubi hagati y’Ingabo z’u Rwanda na RDC, Kabila atangira gushinja u Rwanda kwiba imitungo kamere y’igihugu cye, aho nyuma y’amezi atandatu gusa, ubufatanye bwarangaga izi mpande zombi bwahise buzamo ibibazo.

Col Kabarebe we ati “Kabila yashinje twe abanyarwanda ko mu buryo bw’ibanga twari turimo kwiba amabuye y’agaciro ya Congo. Njye mu buzima sinigeze njya muri magendu, sinigeze mu buzima bwanjye haba muri Congo cyangwa ahandi, ntabwo aricyo cyanjyanye muri icyo gihugu. Nkibimenya nahise nsaba kwegura, Kabila ansaba kuba mpagumye. Kabila aranyinginga ati ‘reba mwadukoreye byinshi, ntabwo mwagenda gutya.”

Icyo gihe ngo Kabarebe yahise yohereza raporo i Kigali, Kabila nawe ahita ayikurikira mu biganiro n’u Rwanda.

Ageze i Kigali ariko yakomeje kuvuga ko “ibilo amagana bya zahabu mu cyumweru inyura mu Rwanda ijya mu bindi bihugu.” Ati “Twubatse umubano n’ubuvandimwe, ariko ubucuti bugomba gusigasirwa. Ni ngombwa kubahana.”

Léonard She Okitundu wabaye Minisitiri w’uburenganzira bwa muntu wa RDC mu 1998/2000, avuga ko “aho ariho ugutandukana kw’ibihugu byombi kwatangiye kunozwa mu buryo bweruye.”

Kuva icyo gihe Kabila yatangiye kwipakurura u Rwanda rwari rumaze igihe rumucungiye umutekano, atangira kwerekeza amaso mu gace ka Katanga ngo ashinge igisirikare cye bwite, ariko abanyarwanda bamushinja ko muri urwo rugendo yatangiye gushyiramo n’abagize uruhare muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu Rwanda.

Kabarebe ati “Kabila yatangiye kwishisha abanye-congo b’abatutsi bamufashije kugera ku butegetsi, akizera abanya-Katanga. Buhoro buhoro agenda yigizayo abatangiranye na AFDL, urugero nka Masasu, agenda abigizayo umwe ku wundi.” Yabashinjaga gushaka kumuhirika.

Ingabo z’u Rwanda zanavuze ko ziboneye “ubutumwa bwa Kabila bubuza abayobozi b’ingabo guta muri yombi abanzi bacu, abari mu gisirikare cy’u Rwanda bahungiye mu burasirazuba bwa Congo. Yashakaga ko bisuganya ashaka no kubajyana ahantu hatazapfa kumenyekana.”

U Rwanda rwatangiye gushinja Kabila gushyigikira inyeshyamba zishaka guhungabanya umutekano warwo, nyamara mbere hose ari cyo rwarwanaga nacyo.

Kabarebe yasimbujwe Jenerali wazanye ubupfumu

Ubuyobozi bwakongeje mu baturage urwango ku banyarwanda, maze Colonel Kabarebe waharuye amayira yagejeje Kabila i Kinshasa, asimbuzwa ku buyobozi bw’ingabo na Gen Kifua, bitangira guca amarenga ko abanyarwanda bagiye gutaha.

Kabarebe avuga ko icyari gihangayikishije icyo gihe kitari ugusimburwa, ahubwo kwari ukuba basimbuwe n’abantu badafite imyitwarire ihamye ndetse bashoboraga kuzambya umubano w’u Rwanda na Kabila.

Agaruka kuri General Kifua wari umusimbuye, Kabarebe yagize ati “ubwo yinjiraga mu biro byanjye ansimbuye, yaje afite ihene, ayikata umutwe ubundi amaraso yayo ayanyanyagiza ahantu hose, hasi mu nzu, kuri escaliers, ngo ibyo byose ni ukwirukana amadayimoni y’abanyarwanda.”

Nyuma umusirikare warindaga Kabarebe yaje kwicirwa hafi ya Camp Tchatchi, ibintu byagaragazaga ko isura yahindutse. Nyuma hahise hanozwa umugambi, Ingabo z’u Rwanda zigaruka mu gihugu.

Col Kabarebe ati “Ubwo twavaga muri Kinshasa, iryo joro, abatutsi b’abanye-congo n’abandi bazayirwa bari mu ngabo zacu batabashije kujyana natwe i Kigali, kuko batari abanyarwanda, bahise batangira guhigwa, barafungwa, baricwa, abandi bagerageza kwisuganya barema indi mitwe yitwaje intwaro.”

Byatumye nyuma y’iminsi ine gusa Kabarebe ahavuye, i Goma havutse umutwe mushya w’inyeshyamba, ndetse abari inshuti za Kabila bahinduka abanzi be bashya banavuye mu gisirikare cye.

Aho kugira ngo akorane n’ibihugu byamufashije kugera ku butegetsi kubera umutekano wabyo wari ukomeje guhutazwa, yabiteye umugongo ahubwo atangira imikoranire mishya n’ibihugu byo mu majyepfo birimo Angola na Zimbabwe.

Imitwe y’inyeshyamba yari yemeye kujya inyuma ya Kabila yarahindukiye iramurwanya, kandi impamvu ziba zimwe n’izatumye barwanya Mobutu.

Désiré Kabila yaje kwicwa tariki 16 Mutarama 2001 na Rachidi Kasereka, umusirikare muto wari mu bamurindaga. Ahagana saa munani zibura iminota mike, yinjiye muri "Palais de Marbre", inyubako iherereye mu gace ka Binza mu Mujyi wa Kinshasa, arasa amasasu abiri Kabila, rimwe rimufata mu nda, irindi ku gikanu, arahwera.

Nyuma y’iminsi umunani Désiré Kabila yaje gusimburwa n’umuhungu we wari umusirikare, General Major Joseph Kabila. Ku butegetsi bwe na we muri RDC habayeho imitwe myinshi igamije guhungabanya umutekano, harimo na P5, ihuriro ry’amashyaka ryashinzeyo umutwe uyoborwa na Kayumba Nyamasa, wagezeyo usanga FDLR imazeyo imyaka 25.

Joseph Kabila aheruka gusImburwa na Felix Tshisekedi, umuhungu wa Etienne Tshisekedi, guhera ku isegonda rya mbere washakaga ko Kabila mukuru yicarana n’abandi ngo baganire uko bayobora RD Congo.

Ku buyobozi bwe amaze kugaragaza ko yifuza kurandura iyi mitwe yitwaje intwaro, aho ingabo za FARDC zikomeje kuyigabaho ibitero, ndetse Perezida Tshisekedi aheruka gutangaza ko yiteguye gufatanya n’u Rwanda, ibintu na Perezida Paul Kagame yakirije yombi.

Laurent-Désiré Kabila yagiye ku butegetsi afashijwe n'u Rwanda, aza kurwihinduka akorana n'abarurwanya

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