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Uburyarya bwa HRW ku Rwanda bukomeje kwigaragaza

Yanditswe na Mushimire Olivier
Kuya 6 Nyakanga 2021 saa 06:51
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Abantu bamwe bashobora kuba baratunguwe n’icyemezo cya Leta y’u Rwanda mu 2018, cyo guhagarika imikoranire yayo n’Umuryango wiyita ko Urengera Uburenganzira bwa Muntu (HRW). Binyuze mu nyandiko iherutse kwandikwa na Lewis Mudge, Umuyobozi wa HRW muri Afurika yo Hagati, ifite umutwe ugira uti “Ubutabera ntiburagerwaho mu Rwanda", abatunguwe n’iki cyemezo bashobora gusobanukirwa noneho impamvu u Rwanda rwahisemo gucana umubano na HRW.

Iyi nyandiko ya Mudge ishimangira ibirego u Rwanda rurega HRW, by’uko uwo Muryango utarajwe ishinga no kurengera uburenganzira bwa muntu mu Rwanda, ahubwo ugamije izindi nyungu zituma ukomeza guharabika u Rwanda kabone nubwo nta bimenyetso waba ufite ku byo unenga.

Iyi nyandiko kandi ishimangira ukuri kwa Richard Johnson, wigeze kuba umukozi muri Minisiteri y’Ububanyi n’Amahanga ya Amerika, wavuze mu 2013 ko ibirego bya HRW ku Rwanda "byuzuyemo ibinyoma kuva mu buryo bikorwa ndetse n’uko biteye.”

Bimaze kumenyerwa ko inyandiko nyinshi za HRW zivuga ku Rwanda, zikunze kugaruka kuri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi nubwo ibivugwa ntaho byaba bihuriye, ari nayo mpamvu mu nyandiko ya Mudge iheruka, atari kubura kuyigarukaho.

Nko muri iyi nyandiko iheruka, Mudge wari wayihariye ingingo y’ubutabera, yanakoresheje uwo mwanya mu gushyigikira abahakana Jenoside, avuga ko “Intandaro y’amakimbirane [hagati y’u Rwanda n’u Bufaransa] ifite imizi kuri Jenoside yo mu 1994 mu Rwanda, yateguwe ikanashyirwa mu bikorwa n’abahezanguni b’Abahutu bari mu gisirikare n’inzego za Leta, bafite umugambo wo kurimbura ubwoko bw’Abatutsi. [Iyo Jenoside yaguyemo abantu 500.000].”

Nk’uko byasobanuwe na Johnson, kuvuga ko Jenoside yaguyemo igice cya miliyoni y’Abatutsi (500.000) bishingiye ku mibare ya HRW ivuga ko ko harokotse Abatutsi 150.000, iyi mibare nayo igashingira ku yari yatanzwe na Leta ya Habyarimana mu 1991, igaragaza ko umubare w’Abatutsi wari 657.000 mu gihugu hose.

Iyi mibare yose ariko yari ishingiye ku binyoma, nk’uko Johnson abisobanura, kuko ”Uretse abakozi ba Leta ya Habyarimana, bigoye cyane ko abandi bantu bakwizera ubuziranenge bw’iyo mibare” kubera impamvu zitandukanye.

Icya mbere, Johnson agaragaza ko bigoye cyane kwizera ko ibarura ry’Abatutsi ryakozwe icyo gihe ryari rishingiye ku kuri, bitewe n’uko kubera uburyo Abatutsi batotezwaga, benshi muri bo batashatse kwemera ubwoko bwabo mu rwego rwo kwirinda ko bamenyekana byoroshye, bityo bakarushaho gutotezwa.

Indi mpamvu ni uko na Leta ya Habyarimana yari ifite inyungu zumvikana zo kugabanya umubare w’Abatutsi mu buryo bushoboka bwose, kuko byari bijyanye na politiki yayo yo kubaheza mu mashuri yisumbuye na kaminuza, ndetse no mu myanya y’akazi ka Leta.

Johnson yavuze ko nubwo ubu bushakashatsi bwagaragajwe nk’ubutuzuye, ndetse budashingiye ku makuru ashidikanywaho, HRW yakomeje kubukoresha mu guha urwaho abapfobya Jenoside, nyamara yaranze kwemera imibare yashyizwe hanze na Leta y’u Rwanda mu 2002, [igaragaza abaguye muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi]. Ibi bigaragaza ukubogama gukomeye kwa Mudge na HRW, bahisemo kwizera ibyakozwe na Leta yashyize mu bikorwa Jenoside, aho kwizera ibyakozwe na Leta yayihagaritse.

Indi mpamvu yatumye Leta y’u Rwanda icana umubano na HRW, ni uburyo uyu Muryango usa nk’utumva impamvu Leta ishyiraho ingamba zo kurwanya abahakana Jenoside, abayipfobya n’abayiha ishingiro, bikiyongeraho uburyo Leta yahagurukiye guca amacakubiri, byose bigasa nk’ibirya mu matwi HRW, kuko itekereza ko ibyo Abanyarwanda bakwiriye ari ibindi bitari ibyo, byitirirwa ko bikowa mu ishusho y’uburenganzira bwa buri muntu.

Nyamara nubwo HRW yamagana amategeko y’u Rwanda mu kurwanya no gukumira Jenoside, ivuga ko abangamira uburenganzira bwa muntu bwo kuvuga icyo atekereza, ntacyo uyu Muryango uvuga ku mategeko y’u Budage ajya gusa nk’ay’u Rwanda, nayo yamagana ikwirakwizwa ry’imvugo z’urwango no guhakana Jenoside yakorewe Abayahudi (Holocaust).

Kuri iyi ngingo, HRW ivuga ko u Budage bwatoye ayo mategeko kubera “Amateka y’icyo gihugu yatumye ayo mategeko atorwa”, nyamara byagera ku Rwanda, narwo rwashyizeho ayo mategeko bishingiye ku mateka y’igihugu, HRW ikabitesha agaciro.

Ibi kandi bigaragarira mu buryo HRW ikunze kwitiranya ibirego bizanwa mu nkiko z’u Rwanda, aho isa nk’ifite umurongo ukurikizwa ku byaha yita ko bibangamiye uburenganzira bwa muntu, ikagaragaza ko ibyaha byo guhakana Jenoside, kuyishyigikira no kuyitesha agaciro ari ibyaha bya politiki byo kutavuga rumwe na Leta, bityo bitagakwiye kwitwa ibyaha mu Rwanda ry’uyu munsi.

Urugero rw’aho uku kwitiranya ibintu kubaho ni kuri Aimable Karasira, aho mu nyandiko ya Mudge, yagarutse ku mvugo ze z’uko “Abasirikare ba FPR bishe abantu benshi bo mu muryango we nyuma ya Jenoside”, nyamara ibyo Karasira yavugaga ntaho bihuriye n’ibyo ari kuregwa, [hakibazwa impamvu aho gusuzuma imiterere y’ibirego bya Karasira, hagarukwa ku magambo yavuze adafite aho ahuriye n’ibyo aregwa]

Ku birego nk’ibi kandi, niho Mudge ahera agaruka kuri ‘Mapping Report’ indi ngingo ikunze kugarukwaho cyane na HRW. Uyu Muryango usobanura iyi raporo nk’ikwiriye kwizerwa kuko ifite amakuru ahagije ku ‘ruhare ibihugu n’amashyaka mvamahanga byagize’ mu mateka yiganjemo intambara muri Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo.

Leta y’u Rwanda yagaragaje ko iyi raporo idakwiye kwizerwa kuko itagaragaza uburyo ayo makuru yabonetse n’abayatanze, ntisobanure abakoze ubushakashatsi abo ari bo, mu gihe ivuga ko hari abagizweho ingaruka n’ibyo bikorwa by’intambara ariko ntigaragaze abo ari bo, ku buryo iyo uyitegereje neza, ubona ko kuyihuza n’u Rwanda ari umugambi wo guharabika FPR.

Mu gusobanura uruhande rw’u Rwanda, Mudge avuga ko kuba u Rwanda rutemeranya n’iyi raporo bigaragaza ’ubushake bucye mu gufatanya n’umuryango mpuzamahanga mu gutanga ubutabera ku byaha byabereye muri Congo’, akirengagiza ko u Rwanda rwasabye ko hashyirwaho ’Urwego rwihariye rwazagaragaza uruhare rw’impande zose mu mateka yabereye muri Congo’.

Ibi nibyo Johnson aheraho anenga HRW yakomeje gusaba ko hashyirwaho uburyo bwo kuburanisha ibyaha byabereye muri Congo, mu gihe n’abashinjwa bataramenyekana, nyamara igahindukira ikarwanya ko abagize uruhare muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu buryo buzwi, bagezwa imbere y’ubutabera.

Nk’ubu turebye mu myaka irenga 20 ishize, nta na rimwe HRW yigeze yifatanya n’imiryango itegamiye kuri Leta yo mu Bufaransa ndetse n’Umuryango w’Abarokotse Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994 mu Rwanda, kugira ngo hagaragazwe uruhare rwagizwe n’abayobozi b’u Bufaransa muri Jenoside, kandi nabyo ari kimwe mu bigize ubutabera ku barokotse Jenoside.

Uyu Muryango kandi wakunze gusaba ko abayobozi b’u Rwanda ushinja uruhare muri Jenoside, bagezwa imbere y’ubutabera, nyamara inshuro nyinshi wakomeje kwirengagiza kugaruka ku bayobozi b’u Bufaransa, nyamara bizwi neza ko bateye inkunga Leta yashyize mu bikorwa Jenoside.

Kuba HRW ikomeza kugaruka cyane kuri ’Mapping Report’ itaremejwe n’Akanama k’Umutekano mu Muryango w’Abibumbye, ni ibishimangira ko uyu Muryango unarajwe ishinga no kwangiza umubano mwiza uri hagati y’u Rwanda na Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo, binyuze mu gukomeza kugaragaza ‘Mapping Report’ nk’ikibazo gikomereye umubano w’ibihugu byombi.

Ni kimwe kandi n’uko uyu Muryango utigeze utunga urutoki Leta ya Vatikani kandi bizwi ko uru rwego rwahishiriye abagize uruhare muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994.

HRW kandi yanashyize imbaraga mu bikorwa bigamije gukumira ko abagize uruhare muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi bakihishahisha mu mahanga boherezwa imbere y’ubutabera mu Rwanda, barimo batanu bakidegembya mu Bwongereza, kubera ubuvugizi bukomeye bakorewe na HRW.

Ibi byose bishimangira ibitekerezo bya Richard Johnson wavuze ko uburyo ‘HRW isobanura u Rwanda ari imbogamizi ku gihugu ndetse no ku mahoro n’umutekano muri Afurika yo Hagati…uburyo HRW yigaragaza nk’Umuryango ufitiye Isi akamaro bituma abantu badatekereza ku migambi n’ibikorwa byawo, ndetse n’uburyo ugenzurwa ntabwo bisobanutse. Uku kugira imbaraga zidasanzwe bishobora kugira ingaruka mbi, ari nako byagenze ku Rwanda [aho uwo Muryango wakoresheje imbaraga zawo, no kuba utagenzurwa mu buryo bunoze, ugaharabika u Rwanda kandi ntibigire inkurikizi].”

Ibi Johnson yabivuze mbere y’uko Umuyobozi wa HRW, Kenneth Roth, afatirwa mu bikorwa byo ruswa kugira ngo akingire ikibaba umwe mu bacuruzi bo muri Arabie Saoudite, wamusabaga ko ibyaha byo kubangamira uburenganzira bwa muntu yashinjwaga biburizwemo. Igikwiye kwibazwa na buri wese ni igihe ibi binyoma bya HRW bizamara bitaratahurwa na benshi.


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