U Rwanda rwinjiye mu bucuruzi bw’urumogi; Isoko ryarwo mpuzamahanga ryifashe rite?

Yanditswe na Muhonzire Sylvine
Kuya 29 Mutarama 2021 saa 10:14
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Amateka agaragaza ko mu myaka ya 1950 - 1960 abasigajwe inyuma n’amateka [bitwaga Abatwa icyo gihe] aribo ba mbere batumuraga ku ko ku mugongo w’ingoma ubundi bakabumba inkono bashishikaye.

Nyuma y’ihirikwa ry’ingoma ya cyami yaje gusimburwa na Repubulika mu 1962, kunywa cyangwa gukoresha urumogi byaje kuba sakirirego mu Rwanda, icyo gihe amategeko ahana urutumuye yongerewa ubukana. Ni nako byakomeje kugera magingo aya ndetse mu myaka ya 2010 ubwo igitekerezo cyo kuruhinga mu buryo bwemewe cyatangwaga mu nteko, Abadepite bagikurikije imijugujugu.

Hari andi makuru ajya yumvikanisha ko ku ngoma ya Habyarimana Juvenal urumogi rwahingwaga muri Nyungwe ndetse rugacuruzwa rwihishwa na bamwe mu bari inkoramutima ze. Ibi byo ariko biragoye kubibonera gihamya.

Mu mpera z’umwaka ushize hari benshi baguye mu kantu babonye ibyemezo by’Inama y’Abaminisitiri, birimo ko urumogi rugiye guhingwa mu Rwanda.

Hari amakuru agera kuri IGIHE ko mu myaka ya 2017, igihugu cyashatse kugerageza kureba uburyo urumogi rwahingwa, maze abantu bumva babifitiye ubushobozi bakandika basaba gutangiza ubwo bushabitsi mu Rwanda.

Icyo gihe ntabwo byahise bikorwa ahubwo uwo mugambi wahise usubikwa kugira ngo bibanze binozwe, ku buryo ruzahingwa mu nzira zinyuze mu mucyo kandi zateguwe neza, zitarimo akavuyo cyangwa se abantu batabifitiye ubushobozi.

Bamwe baketse ko kuri ubu kunywa ako ku mugongo w’ingona mu rwa Gasabo byemewe, ariko si ko biri kuko bikiri mu bitabo bihana ibyaha mu gihe waba urufatanywe. Muri macye, icyemejwe ni ukuruhinga, ariko rukoherezwa mu mahanga aho rukorwamo imiti.

Uwavuga ko u Rwanda rwari rwaracikanwe n’ubucuruzi bw’urumogi ntabwo yaba abeshye kuko rwo n’ubutaka bwacu usanga ari mahwi. Ahanini igituma u Rwanda rwari rwaracikanwe muri ubu bucuruzi ni inyungu irubonekamo kuko magingo aya isoko mpuzamahanga ry’urumogi ribarirwa mu kayabo ka miliyari 340 z’amadolari.

Ibihugu bigera kuri 45 byo hirya no hino ku Isi byahise byinjira mu buhinzi n’ubucuruzi bw’urumogi, muri byo harimo 6 byo muri Afurika aribyo Afurika y’Epfo, Ghana, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe na Lesotho.

Usibye kurunywa, urumogi rukoreshwa cyane kwa muganga

Gukoresha urumogi nk’umuti rero si ibya vuba aha, kuko mu myaka 5000 ishize, Abashinwa barukoreshaga, aho bivugwa ko ari bo ba mbere baruhinze ndetse bakanarukoresha bavura abantu, ahagana mu mwaka wa 2737 mbere ya Yesu, ku ngoma y’umwami w’abami Shen Nung.

Icyo gihe barukoreshaga bavura indwara zirimo Malaria cyangwa bakarukoresha bavura abantu mu ngingo, ibintu n’ubu bigikoreshwa ariko mu buryo bugezweho.

Magingo aya rero urumogi rukorwamo imiti myinshi yifashishwa kwa mu muganga cyane ko rwifitemo ikinyabutabire cyitwa cannabinoids, cyifashishwa mu gukora imiti ivura indwara zitandukanye zirimo kubabara mu ngingo igihe umuntu arwaye cyangwa se rugakoreshwa mu kurwanya iseseme cyangwa kuruka ku murwayi wa Cancer.

Muri iyo miti hari uwitwa Sativex, ukoreshwa bapuriza mu kanwa, ndetse ukavura ububabare n’ubumuga bw’ingingo, ndetse uyu muti unakoreshwa mu kugabanyiriza ububabare abantu bakuru bazahajwe n’indwara ya cancer.

Hari kandi umuti witwa Dronabinol / Marinol ukoreshwa mu kuvura iseseme no kuruka ku murwayi uvurwa Cancer ndetse ukanongera ubushake bwo kurya ku murwayi wa SIDA, uyu muti unakoreshwa ugabanya uburibwe bwo mu ngingo.

Uwitwa Rebecca Sewell ubwo yari afite imyaka icumi yakomerekejwe n’umwana biganaga ku kabumbambari bimuviramo indwara ikomeye ituma agira uburibwe bukabije mu kuguru kugeza ubwo yifashisha imbago kugira ngo abashe kugenda.

Hakoreshejwe imiti itandukanye irimo n’uwitwa Morphine ituruka mu kimera kizwi nka Opium, ariko ntibyagira icyo bitanga. Ariko abaganga batangiye kumuvurisha imiti ituruka mu rumogi uburibwe bwaragabanutse, ndetse ubu abasha kugenda nta mbago yitwaje.

Hari n’indi miti ikorwa hifashishijwe urumogi, ivura indwara zo mu mutwe harimo n’ubwonko, twavuga uwitwa Dexanabinol uhabwa umuntu wabazwe ubwonko kugira ngo uburinde kwangirika, ndetse ukanakoreshwa mu kugarura ibitekerezo ku muntu wakomerekejwe abagwa ubwonko.

Urumogi kandi ruvamo amavuta bivugwa ko avura cyane indwara y’igicuri, aho hari inkuru yamenyekanye cyane y’umwana wavuwe n’ayo mavuta witwa Charlotte Figi, wafashwe n’indwara y’igicuri afite imyaka itatu gusa, ariko uko akura ikagenda yiyongera kugeza ubwo ku myaka itanu gusa ubukana bw’iyi ndwara bwiyongeraga buri cyumweru.

Ababyeyi be byarabashobeye batangira kujya bamuha imiti imushyira muri coma by’igihe gito kugira ngo abashe kuruhukaho. Byafashe indi ntera ababyeyi be batangira kumuha amavuta akozwe mu rumogi, nyuma y’icyumweru kimwe gusa babigerageje, Charlotte ntiyigeze afatwa n’igicuri kugeza ubwo umushinga w’abavandimwe bazwi nka ‘Stanley Brothers’ wamufashije kubona ayo mavuta wahinduye izina, ukamwitirirwa kugeza n’ubu witwa ‘Charlotte’s web’.

Urumogi kandi rukorwamo umuti witwa CT-3 (ajulemic acid), ukoreshwa mu kuvura uburibwe bukabije bwo mu ngingo ku barwayi bafite ubumuga bw’ingingo no kugabanya ububabare ku barwayi ba goute.

Uwitwa Cannabinor wo ukoreshwa mu kuvura abantu bababara mu ngingo ndetse no gufasha mu mikorere y’uruhago.

Indi miti ikoreshwamo urumogi ni iyitwa Nabilone, HU 308, HU 331, Rimonabant / Acomplia, Taranabant / MK-0364.

Urumogi rurakoreshwa cyane mu gukora imiti myinshi ari nayo mpamvu ibihugu biruhinga ndetse hari n’ibyo usanga ubukungu bwabyo bushingiye ku rumogi, aho ibizwi cyane ari Lesotho na Jamaica.

Mu Rwanda rero impaka zabaye ndende ku ikoreshwa ryarwo mu buvuzi mu myaka 10 ishize, ubwo uwari Minisitiri w’Ubuzima mu 2010, Dr. Richard Sezibera, yatangaga igitekerezo mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko cyo kuruhinga ku butaka bw’u Rwanda, abantu bakagira ngo ni igikuba gicitse.

Abahinzi b’urumogi bavuga ko iyo rwabashije kubona urumuri ruhagije mu gihe cy’amasaha 14 ku munsi, kandi rukabona intungagihingwa zihagije, rutangira kuraba mu byumweru bitatu gusa.

Ubwo Minisitiri w’Ubuzima, Dr. Daniel Ngamije, yavugaga ku buhinzi bw’urumogi mu Rwanda, yavuze ko ruzahingwa ahantu hizewe, rukoherezwa mu bihugu bifite inganda zishobora kurutunganya, zikarukuramo imiti ivura uburibwe ndetse n’abafite ibibazo byo mu mutwe.

Umuyobozi w’Urwego Rushinzwe Iterambere (RDB), Clare Akamanzi, yasobanuye ko urumogi ari imari ikomeye cyane ku buryo rushobora kwinjiza miliyoni 10$ (arenga miliyari 8 Frw) kuri hegitari imwe.

Akayabo kava mu icuruzwa ry’ urumogi ku isoko mpuzamahanga

Muri Afurika hari ibihugu byamenye ibanga riri mu buhinzi bw’urumogi mbere, ndetse bikaba biri gukuramo akayabo. Ibyo ni nka Lesotho yatangaje bwa mbere ko igiye kwinjira mu buhinzi bw’urumogi mu 2017, ikaba ari cyo gihugu cya mbere ku mugabane cyatangirijwemo ubwo buhinzi ku mugaragaro.

Ibindi bihugu bya Afurika byateye ikirenge mu cya Lesotho, birimo Zimbabwe, Zambia, Afurika y’Epfo, Malawi, Uganda ndetse n’u Rwanda byemeje mu mategeko ihingwa ry’urumogi.

Uretse ibi bihugu byemeye guhinga urumogi muri Afurika, hari ibindi bikura akayabo muri buhinzi nka Maroc na Nigeria, n’ubwo biterura ngo byemere ubucuruzi bwarwo ku mugaragaro.

Agaciro k’urumogi rwoherezwa mu mahanga na Zimbabwe muri uyu mwaka byitezwe ko kazaba gakuba inshuro eshatu ak’itabi nk’igihingwa cyari ku isonga mu byinjiriza igihugu amafaranga menshi.

Uyu mwaka byitezwe ko ruzinjiriza igihugu agera kuri miliyari 1,25 $. Itabi nicyo gihingwa cyinjirizaga amafaranga menshi Zimbabwe, aho uyu mwaka ryinjije amadolari miliyoni 444$.

Biteganyijwe ko ibihugu bya Afurika nibiramuka byemeye guhinga urumogi byemewe n’amategeko mu 2023 izajya yunguka arenga Miliyari 7,1 $ buri mwaka, ariko avuye mu isoko ry’imiti.

Nigeria izasaruramo angana na miliyari 3,7 $, mu gihe Maroc yo izarukuramo miliyoni 900$, Afurika y’Epfo yo irateganya kuzinjiza angana na miliyari 1,7 $, naho Lesotho igakuramo miliyoni 90$ ndetse na Zimbabwe izinjiza miliyoni 80$.

Usibye Afurika iri kwinjira muri ubu bucuruzi mu bihe bya vuba, indi migabane nk’u Burayi imaze igihe isarura akayabo muri ubu bucuruzi.

Nko mu 2019, isoko ry’urumogi mu bijyanye n’imiti ryinjirije uyu mugabane akayabo ka miliyari 42,9$, aho u Bufaransa buza imbere mu kwinjiza agatubutse, aho bwinjije miliyari 10$, bugakurikirwa n’u Butaliyani bwinjije miiyari 9,7 $, u Budage buza ku mwanya wa gatatu na miliyari 9,5$, u Bwongereza miliyari 4,6$, ndetse na Espagne yinjije miliyari 4,3$.

Muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, ahafatwa nk’igicumbi cy’ubu buhinzi ku rwego rw’Isi, urumogi rufite isoko rikomeye aho mu 2019 rwinjije miliyari 13,6$ mu gihe Canada yo yinjije agera kuri miliyari 7,2$ avanywe mu rumogi.

Muri raporo yashyizwe hanze na ‘New Frontier Data’ yerekanye ko muri rusange [yaba mu buvuzi no mu buryo bwo kwishimisha] urumogi rwinjije miliyari 344$ ku Isi hose, aho amafaranga menshi ava mu barunywa bishimisha.

Umugabane wa Aziya ukaba waje ku isonga mu kwinjiza akayabo, aho winjije miliyari 133$, ugakurikirwa na Amerika y’Amajyaruguru yinjije miliyari 86$.

U Burayi bwaje ku mwanya wa gatatu na miliyari 68$, Afurika iza ku mwanya wa kane na miliyari 37$, mu gihe ku mwanya wa gatanu haje Amerika y’Epfo, aho yinjije miliyari 10$.

Muri rusange ibihugu bya Afurika biracyari hasi ugereranyije n’ibyo ku yindi migabane, ariko akenshi bigaterwa na bimwe bitemera guhinga urumogi byemewe n’amategeko.

Dronabinol Marinol, ni umuti ukoreshwa mu kuvura iseseme no kuruka ku bantu bavurwa Cancer
Sativex, ni umuti ukorwa mu rumogi

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