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Ni gute u Rwanda ruzabona miliyari 11$ akenewe mu guhangana n’ingaruka z’imihindagurikire y’ikirere?

Yanditswe na Ndahayo Emmanuel
Kuya 8 Ugushyingo 2021 saa 06:47
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Kugera mu 2030, ubwo u Rwanda ruzaba rumaze kugabanya 38% by’umwuka wangiza ikirere rwoherezayo, rukeneye miliyari 11$ azakoreshwa muri ibyo bikorwa, amafaranga aruta umusaruro mbumbe w’igihugu ku mwaka. Miliyari 5,3$ azakoreshwa mu guhangana n’ingaruka ziterwa n’iyangirika ry’ikirere zamaze kubaho, mu gihe andi miliyari 5,7$ azakoreshwa mu gushyiraho ingamba zishobora gukumira iyangirika ry’ikirere.

Biragoye kwemeza ko aya mafaranga yose azaturuka mu ngengo y’imari y’igihugu, wenda ngo abe ari imisoro cyangwa ibindi bikorwa byinjiriza igihugu amadevize.

Ibi nibyo byatumye nyuma y’uko Leta itangaje uyu mugambi ukomeye, bamwe bibajije uburyo aya mafaranga yose azaboneka mu gihe cy’imyaka 10 iri imbere, ndetse ntibabura kuvuga ko ibyo u Rwanda rurimo ntaho bitaniye no kwikirigita ugaseka na cyane ko ari cyo gihugu cya mbere muri Afurika cyatangaje umugambi mugari nk’uwo ku rwego rw’Isi.

Leta y’u Rwanda igaragaza ko aya mafaranga azaturuka mu bikorwa bitandukanye, birimo inkunga z’amahanga ndetse n’ibikorwa by’ishoramari rishyirwa mu kurengera ibidukikije.

Iyi niyo mpamvu Leta yashyizeho Ikigega cya Fonerwa, kimaze kwakira miliyoni 217$, yashowe mu mishinga 44.

Mu Rwanda hatangiye kugera imodoka zikoresha amashanyarazi

Uburyo u Rwanda ruri kwitegura kwakira ishoramari ryo guhangana n’ihindagurika ry’ikirere

Ku rwego mpuzamahanga, ibihugu byose biri gushaka uburyo byakemura ikibazo cy’iyangirika ry’ikirere, ibihugu bikize, ari nabyo nyirabayazana w’iki kibazo, bigasabwa kugira uruhare runini muri uru rugendo, kuko nubwo ari byo byangiza ikirere kurusha ibindi, ibihugu biri mu nzira y’amajyambere nibyo bigerwaho n’ingaruka zikomeye z’iki kibazo.

Ni muri urwo rwego hari kurebwa uburyo butandukanye, bushobora gutuma ibihugu biri mu nzira y’amajyambere bibona uburyo bihanganamo n’iyangirika ry’ikirere.

Bumwe muri ubwo buryo bumaze gutekerezwaho, harimo ubuzwi nka ‘carbon offset.’ Ubu buryo buteganya ko ibihugu, cyangwa ibigo bikize biri mu bihugu byateye imbere, bishobora gukora imishinga ifasha mu guhangana n’ingaruka z’ihindagurika ry’ikirere mu bihugu biri mu nzira y’amajyambere, ibyo bikaba umusanzu wabyo muri uru rugendo.

Buri gihugu ku Isi gifite intego cyihaye mu kugabanya umwuka wangiza ikirere. Kugira ngo iyi ntego igerweho, igihugu gishyiraho ingamba zacyo ku bigo by’ubucuruzi bigira uruhare runini mu kohereza umwuka mwinshi wangiza ikirere (ukunze kuba ari CO2).

Izo ngamba ziba zigizwe n’umwuka ntarengwa ikigo kiba kitagomba kurenza ku mwaka, ubarwa hagendewe ku ntego igihugu cyihaye.

Mu gihe rero igihugu, cyangwa se ikigo cy’ubucuruzi, kitageze ku ntego cyihaye, cyangwa cyahawe, kizajya kigira amahirwe ya kabiri yo kugera ku ntego zacyo, aho kizajya gikorana n’ibihugu biri mu nzira y’amajyambere mu gushyiraho igikorwa runaka by’ishoramari, bishobora kugabanya umwuka wangiza ikirere ungana nk’uwo ikigo cy’ubucuruzi cyarengeje kuwo cyemerewe.

Ibyo bikorwa bishobora kuba gutera amashyamba cyangwa se gufasha igihugu kubaka gukoresha amashanyarazi ashingiye ku zuba, aho kuba peteroli n’ibindi.

Ingaruka nziza z’umushinga w’igihugu cyangwa ikigo cy’ubucuruzi cyateye inkunga, zizajya zibarwa nk’aho ari uruhare rwacyo mu kugera ku ntego cyihaye zo kurengera ibidukikije, nubwo mu by’ukuri umwuka wangiza cyohereza mu kirere utagabanutse mu buryo bufatika. Icyakora ibi ntibivuze ko ibihugu n’ibigo bikize bitazakomeza kugabanya umwuka wangiza ikirere byoherezayo.

Kugira ngo ubu buryo bushoboke neza, ntabwo ari ibintu byoroshye kuko bisaba ko imishinga yemejwe ikorerwa amagenzura afatika igapimwa neza, hakarebwa niba koko igikorwa kigiye gukora kizagira ingaruka zateganyijwe.

Nk’urugero, niba ikigo runaka cyarengeje toni miliyoni 10 ku ngano y’umwuka wangiza ikirere kitagomba kurenza, umushinga kizatera inkunga muri gahunda ya ‘carbon offset’ ugomba kuzagira ubushobozi bwo kugabanya za toni miliyoni 10 mu kirere, cyangwa se gutuma igihugu cyakiriye uwo mushinga kizigabanya ubwacyo.

Uko byagenda kose ariko, ingano y’igabanuka ry’izo toni z’umwuka wangiza ikirere zizajya zibarwa ku gihugu, cyangwa ikigo cy’ubucuruzi cyateye inkunga, mu gihe igihugu cyakiriye nacyo kizagira inyungu z’uko uwo mushinga uzagifasha mu guhangana n’ingaruka z’iyangirika ry’ikirere, abaturage bacyo bakabona akazi n’ibindi.

Bitewe n’uko iyi mishinga izajya igenzurwa cyane, ibihugu byinshi bya Afurika ntabwo biragirirwa icyizere cyo gukorerwamo ibyo bikorwa, ari nayo mahirwe u Rwanda ruri kugerageza gufatirana, kugira ngo rwigaragaze nk’ahantu hashobora gukorerwa iyo mishinga kandi ikagira ingaruka zitezwe, yewe bikagaragazwa mu bipimo.

Ibi biri mu mpamvu Ikigega cya Fonerwa cyashyizweho, ndetse inzego zirimo RDB, REMA, Minisiteri y’Ibidukikije n’izindi, zirajwe ishinga no kugira ngo u Rwanda rwizerwe nk’ahantu ibigo n’ibindi bihugu bishobora gushyira imishinga ifasha mu guhangana n’ihindagurika ry’ikirere,, kandi iyo mishinga ikazatanga umusaruro wemeranyijweho, ukagaragarira no mu bipimo mpuzamahanga.

Ku Rwanda, ibi ni ingenzi cyane kuko iri shoramari rizagira uruhare mu gufasha igihugu kugera ku ntego zacyo zo kugabanya umwuka wangiza ikirere rwoherezayo, no guhangana n’ingaruka z’iyangirika ry’ikirere.

Mu nama ya COP26 ikomeje kubera muri Ecosse, u Rwanda rwagaragaje amahirwe y’ishoramari rufite mu bijyanye no kurengera ibidukikije, ndetse Kampeta Sayinzoga, Umuyobozi Mukuru wa BRD iri gufatanya na Fonerwa mu gushyiraho amabwiriza azorohereza abashoramari muri uru rwego, yavuze ko u Rwanda rwamaze kwitegura.

Yaragize ati “U Rwanda rwakoze umukoro warwo, dufite inzego, dufite uburyo ndetse n’inzira [zanyuzwamo ishoramari rigamije guhangana n’ingaruka z’ihindagurika ry’ikirere] zirateguye. U Rwanda ruriteguye, ni igihe cyo gushorwamo imari.”

Icyakora nubwo ‘carbon ‘offset’ ari umushinga utanga icyizere cyane cyane ku bihugu biri mu nzira y’amajyambere, hari benshi, barimo n’impirimbanyi yo kurengera ibidukikije, Greta Thunberg, banenga iki gitekerezo, bavuga ko gishobora kuzatuma ibihugu n’ibigo byangiza ikirere kurusha ibindi byirara, ntibishyire imbaraga mu kugabanya ingano y’umwuka wangiza ikirere byohereza.

Minisitiri w’Ibidukikije mu Rwanda, Dr. Mujawamariya Jeanne d’Arc, yabwiye Politico ko izi mpungenge zidakwiye kubaho, na cyane ko Isi nta bundi buryo ifite bwo gukemura iki kibazo mu gihe gito.

Yagize ati “[Abanenga uburyo bwa carbon offset] bafite ubundi buryo [bwabusimbura]?...amababi y’ibiti azakemura ikibazo cya carbon, siyansi irabyemeza.”

Uyu muyobozi kandi yaciye amarenga avuga ko ubu buryo butanga icyizere ku bihugu bya Afurika n’ibindi biri mu nzira y’amajyambere, yo kugera ku ntego byiyemeje mu bijyanye no guhangana n’ingaruka z’ihindagurika ry’ikirere.

U Rwanda rwatangiye gukurura ishoramari ry'imishinga ishobora kurengera ibidukikije

Ubukungu bw’Isi bushobora gushingira ku mategeko yo kurengera ibidukikije

Uretse uburyo bwa carbon offset busa nk’ubukiri kwigwaho, hari ibindi bisubizo biri gutekerezwaho bishobora gufasha ibihugu kugera ku ntego yo kugabanya umwuka wangiza ikirere byoherezayo.

Ubumaze kumenyekana, ndetse bwanatangiye gukoreshwa ku Mugabane w’u Burayi, ni ubuzwi nka ‘carbon market.’

Ubu buryo bumeze nk’isoko risanzwe, aho Leta zitanga impushya (permits) ku bigo by’ubucuruzi bigira uruhare mu kohereza umwuka wangiza ikirere. Impushya ikigo cyahawe, zizajya ziba zingana n’ingano y’umwuka kitagomba kurenza, cyakenera kuwurenza, kikagura izindi mpushya ku bindi bigo by’ubucuruzi, ariko byo bizaba bifite impushya zirenze ibyo zikeneye bitewe n’uko byohereza umwuka wangiza ikirere mucye ugereranyije n’uwo byemerewe.

Ubu buryo bwitezweho kuzatuma ibigo byose bigira ishyaka ryo gushyiraho ingamba zirengera ibidukikije, kugira ngo zigabanye umwuka wangiza ikirere byohereza, noneho zibone uko zicuruza impushya nyinshi, bityo zibone inyungu ivuye mu kurengera ibidukikije, yiyongera ku yindi yavuye mu bucuruzi busanzwe. Mu gihe ubu buryo bwashyirwa mu bikorwa mu buryo bwuzuye, bwagabanya umwuka wangiza ikirere woherezwaho ku kigero kiri hagati ya 60% na 80% mu 2050.

Ubu buryo bwigeze gukoreshwa muri Amerika mu mpera za 1980 ubwo ikirere cy’iki gihugu cyari cyuzuyemo umwuka wa Sulfur dioxide (SO2) waterwaga n’inganda zitanga ingufu. Uburyo bwo kwishyuza inganda zagiraga uruhare runini muri iki kibazo bwatumye zihutira gushyiraho ikoranabuhanga ryatumye zigabanya SO2 zohereza mu kirere, ku buryo mu myaka umunani gusa, hagabanyijwe 20% byawo.

Icyakora hari impungenge ko ibigo by’ubucuruzi birimo nk’inganda zohereza umwuka wangiza ikirere mwinshi, zishobora kwimuka zikava mu bihugu zihatirwa kwishyura amafaranga y’uko zangije ikirere, zikajya mu bihugu bidafite ayo mategeko, ku buryo ibi bishobora guhindura imiterere y’ubukungu bw’Isi. Uku kwimuka kw’inganda zihunga amategeko azibuza kohereza mu kirere umwuka ucyangiza, kwitwa ‘carbon leakage.’

Kuri iyi ngingo, ibihugu byasabwe ko mu gihe inganda zatangira kwitwara gutyo, ibicuruzwa byazo byazamurirwa umusoro ku rwego rwo hejuru, ku buryo nta mahitamo zisigarana uretse kubahiriza amabwiriza.

Agaciro ka carbon market kari kamaze kugera kuri miliyari 194$ mu 2019, izamuka rya 34% ugereranyije n’umwaka wari wabanje, ndetse byitezwe ko kazakomeza kuzamuka cyane mu myaka iri imbere. Icyakora abayobozi barasabwa gushaka uburyo bwo guhangana n’ibibazo birimo ubujura no kubeshya bishobora kuba muri ubu buryo.

U Rwanda kandi rwashyizwe mu itsinda ry’ibihugu biri kwifuza ko hashyirwaho uburyo bwo gutera inkunga imishinga yo guhangana n’ingaruka z’iyangirika ry’ikirere, bitanyuze mu nzira nka ‘carbon offset’ zigoranye, ahubwo ibihugu bikerekana umushinga, ugashakirwa amafaranga ugahita ushyirwa mu bikorwa. U Rwanda ruri kumwe na Bangladesh, Fuji n’ibindi bihugu bitandukanye biri kugeragerezwamo uyu mushinga.

Kugeza ubu, Isi ifite ubushyuhe buri kuri dogere Celcius 1,1C, intego akaba ari ukutarenza dogere Celsius 1,5C kuko biramutse bigenze gutyo, imibereho y’abatuye Isi, yaba mu bihugu bikize n’ibiri mu nzira y’amajyambere, yahinduka ku buryo bukomeye cyane.

U Rwanda rufite imishinga irimo ubwikorezi bw'abantu buzajya bukorwa n'utumodoka duto, dukoresha amashanyarazi

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