Ni gute inganda nto n’iziciriritse zageza ibitekerezo byazo ku isoko?

Yanditswe na Kayibanda Richard
Kuya 26 Mata 2021 saa 09:12
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Buri wa 26 Mata, ni umunsi ngarukamwaka isi yahariye kuzirikana ku Mutungo bwite mu by’ubwenge (IP day); mu kurushaho kumenyekanisha uruhare umutungo bwite mu by’ubwenge ufite mu buzima bwa buri munsi, cyane cyane ishikariza abantu kuvumbura no guhanga udushya.

Uyu mwaka, insanganyamatsiko y’umunsi, yibanze ku gukoresha umutungo bwite mu by’ubwenge mu kuzahura ubukungu, hitabwa ku nganda nto n’iziciriritse (SMEs). Ikibazo cy’ingutu ni ukumenya uburyo inganda nto n’iziciriritse zageza ibitekerezo(imishinga) byazo ku isoko.

Icyorezo cya COVID 19 cyahinduye imikorere isanzwe. Urujya n’uruza rw’ibicuruzwa n’abantu rwabangamiwe cyane n’amabwiriza agamije gukumira no kurinda ikwirakwira ry’icyorezo cya coronavirus; ibi bikaba byaragize ingaruka zikomeye cyane k’ubukungu bw’isi yose.

Ibigo bito n’ibiciriritse byumwihariko, ari nabyo ubukungu bwubakiyeho, byarahungabanye cyane. Mu Rwanda ibigo bito n’ibiciriritse bigize 98% by’ubucuruzi na 41% by’imirimo y’abikorera ku giti cyabo; nyamara ubushakashatsi bwerekanye ko 57.5% by’ibigo bito n’ibiciriritse mu nzego zitandukanye byahagaritse ibikorwa mu mwaka wa 2020.

Gushyira ibitekerezo ku isoko birasaba mbere na mbere gushyira imbaraga mu kwandikisha umutungo bwite mu by’ubwenge wahimbwe cyangwa wahanzwe n’inganda nto n’iziciriritse. Kwandikisha umutungo bwite mu by’ubwenge bifasha kandi inganda nto n’iziciriritse, guhesha agaciro umutungo wazo utagaragara; bikanashyiraho uburyo butandukanye bwihutisha kuzahura no kuzamura ubukungu bw’ibigo bito n’ibiciriritse.

Hari ubwoko butandukanye bw’umutungo bwite mu by’ubwenge bushobora kurengerwa; ubuvumbuzi(patents), ubuvumbuzi buciriritse cyangwa bw’inyongera (utility models), ibirango by’ubucuruzi(Trademarks), ibishushanyo n’ibyitegererezo bikoreshwa mu nganda (Industrial Designs) ndetse n’ibihangano n’ubugeni bishobora kurengerwa n’uburenganzira bw’umuhanzi. Mu myaka mike ishize kuva hatangiwe kwandika umutungo bwite mu by’ubwenge mu buryo bugezweho, hagaragara inyongera igereranije ya 15% buri mwaka; hacyenewe gukomeza kwandikisha kuko inganda nto n’iziciriritse zikomeza kuvumbura no guhanga.

Icya kabiri; mu ngamba rusange z’ubucuruzi, inganda nto n’iciriritse zikwiye kongeramo umutungo bwite mu by’ubwenge (ibi bikaba bikiri ikibazo mu Rwanda). Ibi by’umwihariko n’ingenzi cyane mukuzahura inganda nto n’iziciriritse nyuma ya covid 19; mu gihe afrika ikomeje gushaka koroshya urujya n’uruza rw’ubucuruzi, bizasaba inganda nto n’iziciriritse zohereza ibintu mu mahanga kwandikisha imitungo yazo mu by’ubwenge.

Gushyira mu ngamba z’ubucuruzi umutungo bwite mu bwenge ntibifasha gusa mu gucunga no gukurikirana ibiwukomokaho; ahubwo bizifasha no guhitamo ubwoko bw’umutungo bwite mu by’ubwenge zikeneye ugereranyije n’ibyo abandi bakora, kugira ngo zimenye neza aho zikwiye kongera imbaraga mu ishoramari ryazo.

Icya gatatu; iki n’igihe inganda nto n’iziciriritse zikwiye gutsura ubufatanye mu gukoresha umutungo bwite mu by’ubwenge, kugirango bongere imbaraga kubyo bifuza kugeraho. Inganda nto n’iziriritse zikwiye gusubira mu ngamba zabo kugirango zige uburyo zabyaza umutungo wazo mu by’ubwenge umusaruro, haba kuwutangaho uburenganzira cyangwa kuwegurira abandi.

Inganda nto nto n’iziciriritse zikora ibikorwa bimwe by’ubucuruzi zikwiye gushyiraho amahuriro y’umutungo bwite mu by’ubwenge hagamijwe kuzamura umusaruro rusange gushakira hamwe ibisubizo ku bibazo rusange; ndetse no kwihagararaho mu ruhando mpuzamahanga; zigaragaza ikoranabuhanga rikenewe, zishyiraho amahuriro yabakora ubucuruzi busa, amasezerano ku ikoreshwa ry’ikoranabuhanga risangiwe, icungwa ry’ibishingwe bikomoka ku ikoranabuhanga n’ikoranabuhanga ryose rifite aho rihuriye n’ubuzima.

Kuri ibi hakongerwaho ko ku isoko ryagutse riteganywa n’amasezerano mpuzamahanga atandukanye, kumenyekanisha ibirango ni bimwe mu by’ingenzi byitabwaho n’abayagirana. U Rwanda rwashyize umukono ku masezerano menshi atandukanye; twavuga nk’amaserano y’akarere ka Afurika mu korohereza urujya n’uruza rw’ubucuruzi ku mugabane (AfCFTA); inganda nto n’ziciriritse zo mu Rwanda zikaba zitarigeze zishyira imbaraga mukumenyekanisha ibirango byazo.

Inganda nto n’iziciriritse zo mu Rwanda zishobora gukoresha ibirango bihuriweho ku bakora ubucuruzi busa, kugira ngo bubake izina mu ruhando rw’ubucuruzi rw’akarere ka Afrika mu korohereza urujya n’uruza ku mugabane (AfCFTA), zishobora no gukoresha ibirango ndangahantu; ibi bizatuma zimenyekana ndetse bihinduke igikoresho cyiza cyo kubonera hamwe isoko ku bafite ibyatunganyijwe bisa.

Inganda nto n’iziciritse zikwiye gukoresha amahirwe zifite, aboneka mu mategeko zikihutisha kuzahura ibikorwa byazo. Urugero nk’itegeko rirengera umutungo bwite mu by’ubwenge hamwe n’itegeko ryerekeye ubugwate ku mutungo wimukanwa; ateganya ko umutungo bwite mu by’ubwenge ari umutungo nk’indi mitungo, ukaba ushobora gutangwaho ingwate mu kwaka inguzanyo.

Ni muri urwo rwego inganda nto n’iziciriritse zikwiye gukoresha imitungo yazo mu by’ubwenge mu kugera ku mari yazifasha kuzahuka. Ibigo by’imari nabyo bikwiye kurushaho kwakira ingwate zo mu buryo bw’umutungo bwite mu by’ubwenge mu gihe zitanga inguzanyo.

Mu gusoza inganda nto n’iziciriritse zigomba gufata iya mbere muguharanira iyubahirizwa ry’uburenganzira ku mutungo bwite mu by’ubwenge. Mu Rwanda itegeko rirengera umutungo bwite mu by’ubwenge ryashyizeho uburyo bwo guhangana n’ababangamira ubwo burenganzira; harimo ubwo mu rwego rw’ubutegetsi, mpanabyaha na mbonezamubano; mu buryo bukoreshwa hari ubuhuza, inkiko, ingamba kuri gasutamo n’ibihano mpanabyaha.

Ku rundi ruhande indishyi zikomoka mu makimbirane ku mutungo bwite mu by’ubwenge nazo n’inkomoko y’umutungo yakifashishwa n’izo nganda nto n’iziciriritse. Kubahiriza uburenganzira ku mutungo bwite bifasha ba nyirawo kurengera imigabane ku isoko. Nubwo hari intambwe imaze guterwa mu kubahiriza uburenganzira ku mutungo bwite mu by’ubwenge, byracyakenewe gushyirwamo imbaraga nyinshi cyane.

Inganda nto n’iziciriritse zigomba gukoresha amategeko ariho kandi azirengera mu kurengera umutungo wazo mu by’ubwenge; zigomba kandi gushyira imbaraga mu kwandikisha umutungo bwite mu by’ubwenge, akaba ari uburyo bwazifasha mu gucunga no kugenzura niba utabangamirwa.


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