Inzira y’inzitane ya Kaminuza y’u Rwanda yatangiye icibwa intege n’Ababiligi, abanyeshuri batayikoza

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 28 Nzeri 2018 saa 12:55
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Ku Cyumweru tariki ya 3 Ugushyingo 1963, abayobozi bakuru b’u Rwanda, aba Kiliziya Gatolika, abaturage n’abandi bari babukereye i Butare mu birori byo gutangiza Kaminuza ya mbere mu gihugu, Kaminuza nkuru y’u Rwanda (UNR).

Ni ibirori byatangijwe saa tatu na misa yasomwe na Musenyeri wa Kabgayi André Perraudin, higisha Musenyeri wa Butare Jean Baptiste Gahamanyi.

Ni umunsi wabaye intango y’urumuri mu by’ubwenge mu Rwanda n’icyerecyezo cyagombaga gutegura ahazaza hashingiye ku banyarwanda, ihabwa intero ‘y’Urumuri n’agakiza ka rubanda’.

Nubwo u Rwanda rwari rumaze umwaka rwigenze, Kaminuza yo yasaga n’ikigengwa yose uretse kuba yarigwagamo n’abanyarwanda benshi.

Yatangiye ifite abanyeshuri 52, abarimu 16 amashuri ari inyubako na n’ubu ikigaragara i Butare izwi nka Batiment Central ubusanzwe yigishirizwagamo abana b’abakoloni.

Kaminuza nshya yahawe umunya-Canada, Frère Georges-Henri Lévesque w’umudominikani ngo ayiyobore.

Kuwa 2 Ugushyingo 2018 nibwo Kaminuza y’u Rwanda izizihiza imyaka 55 ishize mu Rwanda hashinzwe Kaminuza ya mbere ya Leta, ishimirwa uruhare yagize mu iterambere ry’igihugu.

Igitangira mu 1963, Canada yasaga n’aho ariyo itanga ubufasha bwose haba mu mafaranga, abarimu n’ibikoresho.

Lésveque mu 1988 yagarutse ku mpamvu u Rwanda rwahisemo gukorana n’abanya-Canada mu gutangiza Kaminuza y’u Rwanda aho kuba Ababiligi barukolonije.

Yagize ati “Mpura bwa mbere na Perezida (Kayibanda) yambwiye ashize amanga ati ‘ndashaka gukomeza kuba umwizerwa w’umuco n’ururimi rw’abafaransa ariko ntidushaka kugarura ababiligi kuko babonye umwanya wo kuba bashinga Kaminuza ntibabikora. Twaje kumenya ko hari abantu i Quebec, bafite umuco w’abafaransa badufasha kandi batigeze baba abakoloni.”

Ubushake bwo kwiga ku banyeshuri na bwo bwari buke, kubera ko uwarangizaga amashuri yisumbuye yasangaga bamutegereje ngo bamuhe akazi, bitandukanye n’uyu munsi.

Icyo gihe babonaga kujya kwiga kaminuza nayo idashinga ari ukurushywa n’ubusa.

Dr Ntabomvura Vénant ni umukambwe w’imyaka isaga 90 utuye mu Kagari ka Ruturo, Umurenge wa Kibirizi mu Karere ka Gisagara.

Yataye akazi n’umugore yiyandikisha bwa mbere na Kaminuza Nkuru y’u Rwanda, ahabwa nimero ibimburira izindi zose, 001.

Dr Ntabomvura wanayoboye iyo Kaminuza mu 1981 ni we Lésveque yasabye kumufasha kwinginga abanyarwanda bakaza kwiga.

Yagize ati “Amahirwe yaradusekeye kuko habonetse abantu nubwo batari benshi ariko habonetse abumva ko kubaka u Rwanda mbere na mbere bitegurwa na ben’igihugu, abana b’u Rwanda akaba aribo ubwabo babyitegurira.”

Kaminuza yatangiye ifite amashami atatu arimo iry’ubuvuzi, ubumenyi rusange n’Inderabarezi.

Byari biteganyijwe ko abanyeshuri bamara imyaka itatu muri Kaminuza bakajya mu mirimo. Icyakora, Ntabomvura inzobere mu buvuzi bw’amatwi, amazuru no mu muhogo, avuga ko ubwo bari bamaze imyaka ibiri muri Kaminuza, ababiligi batifuzaga ko u Rwanda rugira Kaminuza babaciye intege.

Ati “Twaje kubona mu binyamakuru handitsemo ngo bariya b’abasaza bahoze ari abafasha b’abaganga bashobora gute kwiga ubuvuzi mu myaka itatu? Ngo ntibabishobora ibyiza ni ukubahagarika hakiri kare.”

Icyo gihe Leta yasabye abanyeshuri gutuza, yihanangiriza abarimu b’ababiligi ko nibongera kugumura abanyeshuri bazirukanwa.

Kubera ko abigaga ubuvuzi birirwaga basiragizwa babarura abaturage aho kwigishwa, byaje kuba ngombwa ko bamwe mu barimu basimbuzwa haza abandi n’imyaka abanyeshuri bagombaga kwiga irongerwa ngo bagaruze igihe bataye.

Mu mwaka wa 1966 aba mbere bari basohotse muri Kaminuza y’u Rwanda, naho Dr Ntabomvura n’abandi bigaga ubuvuzi barangiza mu 1968.

Ati “Icyo gihe birashimisha kubona umuganga w’umwirabura wa mbere afashe icyuma asatuye inda y’umurwayi, aramubaze arongera aradoda. Ni ibintu tutigeze dutekereza mbere.”

‘Nta bwigenge igihugu cyagira kitagira ubwonko’

Kugeza mu 1966 muri Kaminuza nkuru y’u Rwanda higaga abanyeshuri 130 barimo abanyarwanda 119.

Igitangira, umwarimu umwe muri 16 ni we wari umunyarwanda ariko yamaze imyaka icumi abarimu b’abanyarwanda ari 20 %.

Kuva yashingwa mu 1963 kugeza mu w’ 1993, UNR yari imaze gushyira ku isoko ry’umurimo abanyeshuri 1,962.

Lévesque (uwa kabiri iburyo) ashimirwa ubwo hizihizwaga imyaka 25 UNR yari imaze

Mu 1988 ubwo hizihizwaga imyaka 25 Kaminuza Nkuru y’u Rwanda yari imaze, Lévesque yavuze ko akigera mu Rwanda yaganiriye na Perezida Kayibanda bekemeranya ko igihugu kitakwigenga kitagira Kaminuza.

Yagize ati “Perezida yaravuze ati ‘turi igihugu gito, turacyakeneye abanyamahanga kugira ngo twigenge. Ikiganiro cya mbere nagiranye nawe, yarambwiye ati ‘mushaka mute ko igihugu kibaho cyigenga mu gihe nta bwonko bwacyo gifite? Ubwonko bw’igihugu rero ni Kaminuza yacyo.”

Kaminuza Nkuru y’u Rwanda yikoze mu nda

Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi muri Mata 1994 yashegeshe bikomeye Kaminuza Nkuru y’u Rwanda. Abasaga 500 bayiciwemo wongeyeho n’abandi biciwe hirya no hino mu gihugu bari barahize, itakaza abarimu bagera kuri 30.

Ni ipfunwe kandi kuri yo kuba bamwe mu bana bayo nka Dr Léon Mugesera wahize akanahigisha, Théodore Sindikubwabo wabaye muganga muri CHUB n’abandi, barabibye ingengabitekerezo yagejeje igihugu kuri Jenoside, abandi bakanayikora.

Nyuma y’ihagarikwa rya Jenoside, Kaminuza yamaze igihe ifunze yongera gufungura imiryango muri Gicurasi 1995.

Dr Gasibirege Rose ni umwe mu barimu bayigishijemo igifungura imiryango n’ubu akaba akiri umukozi wayo ushinzwe umuryango w’abahiga, abayizemo n’abakozi.

Yabwiye IGIHE ko bagitangira byose byasaga no guhera ku busa.

Ati “Icyo gihe Batiment Central ari nayo ntango ya Kaminuza y’u Rwanda twagombaga kwigishirizamo abanyeshuri 5000. Icyo gihe Kaminuza yasaga nk’u Rwanda nta mazi, nta matara, umwarimu ni we wazaga akishakira intebe, agakubura ahantu ibipapuro byari byuzuye, nta guhembwa.”

Nubwo iyi kaminuza igihura n’ibibazo, Dr Gasibirege asanga nta bihe yanyuramo bikomeye kurusha ibyo yaciemo icyo gihe.

Ati “Ukabona abanyeshuri baraza bariga basa neza kandi uzi ko nta mazi ahari, ukabona murataha bugacya mukagaruka ntawe usiba. Nta kindi kibazo cyakomera kurusha icyo. Nta gikuba mbona gishobora kugira uwo gitera ubwoba kubera ayo mateka.”

Imyaka 50 yasanze kaminuza yarahindutse

Mu mwaka wa 2013 Kaminuza Nkuru y’u Rwanda (UNR) ntiyabashije kwizihiza imyaka 50 kuri iryo zina kuko ryahinduwe, iba Kaminuza y’u Rwanda (UR) ihuza ayari amashuri makuru ya leta atandatu.

Intego yari ukubaka Kaminuza ikomeye haba mu bumenyi itanga n’ubushobozi bw’abo isohora ku isoko ry’umurimo.

Kuva mu 1963 kugeza ubu, abanyeshuri basaga ibihumbi 80 bamaze kurangiza muri Kaminuza y’u Rwanda (ubariyemo n’abasohowe n’amashuri makuru ya Leta atarahuzwa).

Kuva mu 2013 kugeza mu 2017, iyi kaminuza yari imaze gutangaza ubushakashatsi 1 257.

Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe n’ikigo mpuzamahanga "Clarivate Analytics" mu 2016 bwerekanye ko UR iri ku mwanya wa kabiri muri Afurika y’Iburasirazuba mu gukora ubushakashatsi bugira akamaro.

Ku rutonde ngarukamwaka rwa URAP (Ikigo cy’Ubushakashatsi cyo muri Turikiya) rugaragaza uko kaminuza zihagaze, urwa 2017-2018 rwerekanye ko UR ari iya 2287 muri 2500 zasuzumwe n’iya 96 mu zikomeye muri Afurika.

Dr Rose Gasibirege avuga ko imigambi ya UR ari myinshi ku buryo n’ibitaragerwaho icyizere gihari ko bizakorwa.

Ati “Ijuru niryo ryaduhagarika kuko dufite ubushobozi mu bantu benshi ku buryo dushobora kugira icyizere ko aho twifuza tuzahagera. Intego ni ugutanga uburezi bufite ireme mu bice bitandukanye nk’amasomo atangwa, aho atangirwa, ibikoresho n’ibindi.”

Gusa mu minsi ishize hari abatarashimishijwe n’uko hari imikorere yagiye ihindurwa, ariko nyuma igasubizwa uko yahoze, nko guhindagura aho amashami yigira cyane guhera mu 2013.

Niyomukiza Fréderick wiga mu mwaka wa gatatu mu ishami ry’ibaruramari yagize ati “Nkanjye natangiriye i Nyagatare mu 2015, mu mwaka ushize nibwo twumvise ngo batuzanye i Gikondo. Kumenyera ahantu hashya biratugora, amanota ugasanga ni make, byose ari bishya.”

“Ubu tugiye kujya i Huye. Bamwe bari baratangiye kubona ibiraka baniga none baravuze ngo twongere tugende.”

Muri rusange UR ifite abanyeshuri 28600, abakozi bakora mu bijyanye n’uburezi bagera ku 1329, barimo abarimu 283. Abafite Phd ni 41.

Abakaraza b'abanyarwanda basusurutsa ibirori mu muhango wo gutangiza UNR mu 1963
Inyubako z'ishuri St-Jean ryigwagamo n'abana b'abakoloni nizo Kaminuza yatangiriyemo (Georges-Henri Lévesque)

Amafoto ya vuba y’ahubatswe Kaminuza y’u Rwanda i Huye

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