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Impungenge ku mugambi wari ugamije kongera abanywi b’itabi mu bihugu birimo u Rwanda

Yanditswe na Ndahayo Emmanuel
Kuya 15 Nzeri 2021 saa 08:25
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Ku rwego mpuzamahanga, itabi ni igicuruzwa kiri guta agaciro cyane mu bihugu byateye imbere, aho imibare yerekana ko ibyinshi birimo Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, umubare w’abanywa itabi wavuye ku kigero cya 50% by’abaturage mu 1990, kikaba kigeze kuri 13%.

Iri gabanuka ariko ntabwo ryakomye mu nkokora ubucuruzi bwaryo ku rwego rw’Isi, kuko kuva mu 2012, ubu bucuruzi bwazamutse ku kigero cya 2,5% ndetse bukazakomeza kuzamuka kuri iki kigero kugera mu 2025, aho buzaba bubarirwa agaciro ka miliyari 888$.

Kugira ngo ubucuruzi bw’itabi bukomeze butere imbere, nyamara amasoko y’u Burayi na Amerika atagifite inyota yo kugura no gukoresha itabi, byasabye ibigo n’inganda zikora itabi guhindura umuvuno, zerekeza amaso ku bindi bihugu byiganjemo Afurika, Amerika y’Epfo na Aziya.

Mu gihe umubare w’abakoresha itabi ugabanuka mu bihugu biteye imbere, mu bihugu biri mu nzira y’amajyambere byo muri Afurika na Aziya, ho biyongereyeho 11,8% kuva mu 2005. Ibi bituma abarenga 70% muri miliyari 1,1 z’abanywi b’itabi ku Isi, baherereye muri ibyo bice.

Kimwe mu bigo byateye intambwe ikomeye mu kwiyegereza isoko rya Afurika, ni ikizwi nka British American Tobacco Plc (BAT), cyihariye 12,2% by’ubucuruzi bw’itabi ku Isi. Iki kigo cyatangiye mu 1902, gifite amashami mu bihugu birenga 170 ku rwego rw’Isi, birimo n’u Rwanda aho gifite ikigo cya BAT Rwanda.

Kuva ahagana mu 1990, ubwo umubare w’abakoresha itabi watangira kugabanuka mu bihugu byateye imbere, iki kigo cyatangiye gushyira imbaraga mu kwinjira ku isoko rya Afurika, nk’ahantu hari amahirwe y’iterambere ku hazaza h’iki kigo.

Iby’umugambi wo kwinjira ku isoko rya Afurika byagarutsweho na Barry Bramley wahoze ari Umuyobozi Mukuru wa BAT, wigeze kuvuga ko “Isoko rya Afurika ryitezweho kuzakomeza kuzamuka […] BAT ikwiye gufatirana ayo mahirwe y’iyaguka ry’isoko rya Afurika.”

Ishusho y’ubucuruzi bw’itabi mu Rwanda

Mu Rwanda, imibare y’Ikigo gitanga amakuru ku bijyanye n’itabi, Tobacco Atlas yo mu 2015 igaragaza ko nibura abantu barenga ibihumbi 300 biganjemo abagabo banywa itabi buri munsi.

Iki kigo kigaragaza ko mu bantu b’igitsina gabo bafite imyaka 15 gusubiza hejuru abanywa itabi baba bari ku kigero cya 12,4%.

Igaragaza kandi ko mu 2014 u Rwanda rwari rufite umusaruro w’itabi ubarirwa muri toni eshanu ndetse ko 0,24% by’ubutaka bwo guhingwaho bwari buhinzeho itabi.

Imibare y’Ikigo cy’Igihugu cy’Ibarurishamibare igaragaza ko mu gihembwe cya mbere cy’umwaka wa 2019, u Rwanda rwatumije mu mahanga ibicuruzwa bifite agaciro ka miliyoni 708,67$, byarimo n’ibinyobwa n’itabi bifite agaciro ka miliyoni 6,42$.

Iyi mibare kandi igaragaza ko mu 2016 u Rwanda rwatumije mu mahanga itabi rifite agaciro ka miliyari 3.138 Frw.

Mu bihugu u Rwanda rukuramo itabi ryinshi harimo Kenya, Zimbabwe, Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo, Uganda na Tanzania.

Mu 2017, u Rwanda rwatumije mu bihugu nka Kenya, Zimbabwe na Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo itabi rifite agaciro ka miliyari 2.985 Frw. Mu 2018 aya mafaranga yariyongereye yikuba hafi kabiri agera kuri miliyari 4.048Frw.

Mu 2019 agaciro k’itabi u Rwanda rutumiza mu mahanga kageze kuri miliyari 3.578 Frw, mu 2020 kagera kuri miliyari 3.578 Frw.

Uretse kuba itabi riri mu bintu byinjizwa cyane mu gihugu, riri no mu byinjiriza u Rwanda amafaranga menshi yaba ari avuye mu ryo rwohereza mu mahanga cyangwa iryo rukura mu mahanga narwo rukarigurisha ibindi bihugu.

Mu 2019, rwohereje mu mahanga itabi n’ibinyobwa bifite agaciro k’ibihumbi 480$, mu gihe rwinjije miliyoni 5,16$ avuye mu itabi n’ibinyobwa rwagurishije mu mahanga ariko narwo rwabikuye mu bindi bihugu.

Mu bihembwe bitatu by’umwaka wa 2020, ubucuruzi nk’ubu bw’itabi n’ibinyobwa bwinjirije igihugu miliyoni 2.66$.

Ubucuruzi bw’itabi mu Rwanda ahanini bukorwa n’Ikigo Mpuzamahanga cy’Abongereza, British American Tobacco (BAT), gikora ubwoko butandukanye bw’itabi ririmo irizwi cyane mu Rwanda nk’Intore, Dunhill, Impala na SM.

Nubwo itabi ari igihingwa kibyara amafaranga ku bagihinga n’abagicuruza ariko rigira ingaruka ku buzima bw’abantu barinywa cyangwa uwegereye aho barinywera.

Ni muri urwo rwego hashyizweho itegeko rigamije ahanini kurengera ubuzima bw’abatarinywa, kumenyekanisha ububi bwaryo n’ibirikomokaho, gushishikariza abarinywa kurireka, gushyiraho uburyo abarinywa n’abaricuruza bagomba kwitwara bitabangamiye ubuzima rusange bw’abaturage n’ibindi. Mu Rwanda birabujijwe ko rinyobwa n’umwana uri munsi y’imyaka 18.

Amategeko y’u Rwanda ateganya ko amasegereti acuruzwa ku isoko ry’imbere mu gihugu adashobora kugira ibipimo birenze ibi bikurikira: mg 15 ya “goudron” ku isegereti; mg 1,5 ya “nicotine ” ku isegereti na mg 15 ya “monoxide de carbone” ku isegereti.

Uburyo BAT yigaruriye amasoko arimo n’iry’u Rwanda

Kugira ngo iki kigo kibashe kwigarurira isoko ry’itabi ku Mugabane wa Afurika, byasabye gikora ibirenze ibyo cyemererwa n’amategeko.

Raporo y’Umuryango STOP ukurikirana ubucuruzi bw’itabi ku rwego rw’Isi, yatangaje ko BAT yagize imyitwarire idasanzwe mu bihe bitandukanye, irimo gutanga ruswa, kubangamira ibindi bigo bicuruza itabi mu buryo bunyuranyije n’amategeko, kurenga ku mabwiriza y’ubuzima agenga imikoresheze y’itabi n’ibindi bitandukanye.

Iyi raporo yerekana ko iki kigo cyakoresheje uburyo bunyuranye mu bihugu 13, kugira ngo gikomeze kiyobore isoko ry’itabi muri Afurika. Nko mu Rwanda, ubwo Leta yari mu mugambi wo gushyiraho amabwiriza mashya agenga ikoreshwa ry’itabi, BAT yishyuye umuntu utatangajwe ibihumbi 20$ kugira ngo ayifashe kubona amakuru ari mu nyandiko y’ayo mabwiriza itari yagashyirwa hanze.

Amakuru avuga ko uwo muyobozi yemeye ayo mafaranga, ariko agahakana ko ayo mafaranga yari afitanye isano n’itabi. BAT Rwanda isanzwe ari cyo kigo cyihariye igice kinini cy’isoko ry’itabi mu Rwanda, aho bikekwa ko abarenga 12% by’abaturage banywa itabi mu buryo buhoraho.

Muri rusange, imibare y’abakoresha itabi mu Rwanda iri hasi ugereranyije n’impuzandengo y’ibindi bihugu biri muri Afurika. Muri rusange abantu barenga ibihumbi 500 bakoresha itabi buri munsi mu Rwanda, mu gihe abagera ku 2100 bicwa n’ingaruka zaryo buri mwaka.

U Rwanda ruhomba miliyari 4,3 Frw mu buvuzi bw’ingaruka z’itabi ndetse n’igihombo giterwa n’uko abarinywa badatanga umusaruro bagakwiye kuba batanga, dore ko ubushakashatsi bwerekanye ko kunywa itabi bigabanya imyaka 10 ku gihe gisanzwe umuntu yari kuzamara ku Isi.

Uretse gucuruza itabi, BAT ikoresha u Rwanda mu bucuruzi bw’itabi mu bindi bihugu biri hafi yarwo, birimo u Burundi, ibyo bikaba imwe mu mpamvu iki kigo gishora akayabo mu kumenya icyo Leta itekereza ku ikoreshwa ry’itabi mu Rwanda.

Muri rusange, ibikorwa binyuranyije n’amategeko byakozwe na BAT byakorewe mu bihugu birimo u Burundi, Ibirwa bya Comores, Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo, Kenya, Malawi, Sudani, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Afurika y’Epfo n’u Rwanda. Amafaranga yakoreshejwe arenga ibihumbi 601$, mu bikorwa bigera kuri 236.

Afurika ikwiye guhaguruka

Bamwe mu basanzwe bakurikirana ubucuruzi bw’itabi ku rwego mpuzamahanga, batangaje ko Umugabane wa Afurika wahawe imbaraga n’ibigo bicuruza itabi kubera uburyo ufite abantu bato, bafite amahirwe yo kuzaba abakiliya b’itabi b’ejo hazaza.

Ubushakashatsi bugaragaza ko nibura ku bantu bashya bahinduka abanywi b’itabi, 89% baba baratangiye kurinywa bari munsi y’imyaka 25, bishimangira ko iyo umuntu atangiye kurinywa akiri muto, ari nako yongera ibyago byo guhinduka umunywi waryo burundu.

Uyu mugabane kandi uracyarangwamo ruswa ku rwego rw’ubuyobozi no ku rwego rw’umuntu ku giti cye, ibituma ibigo bicuruza itabi byoroherwa no gutanga ruswa, nabyo bigahabwa uburenganzira bwo gushyira mu bikorwa ibyifuzo byabo bijyanye no kwigarurira isoko rya Afurika.

Hari kandi n’amakuru yakunze kugaragaza ko itabi rikorerwa muri Afurika n’iryoherezwayo, riba rifite ikinyabutabire cya nicotine gituma abarikoresha babatwa naryo mu buryo bworoshye, byose biri mu mugambi wo kurushaho kwigarurira Abanyafurika.

Umuyobozi w’Ihurira Nyafurika rigamije kugabanya ikoreshwa ry’Itabi (ATCA), Akinbode Oluwafemi, yavuze ko “Bikwiriye kwigira hamwe uburyo bwo kuburizamo abakora itabi guhindura Afurika indiri y’ibikorwa byabo, tukirinda abashobora gukora ibitemewe n’amategeko mu rwego rwo kwikubira isoko rya Afurika.”

BAT n’ibindi bigo bicuruza itabi bishinjwa gukora ibikorwa birimo kwamamaza itabi ku mashuri no kwamamaza mu buryo butemewe n’amategeko, cyane cyane mu bihugu bya Afurika.

Nk’ubu abaturage bo mu bihugu bya Afurika babona ubutumwa bwamamaza itabi inshuro 81 zirenze iz’abaturage bo mu bihugu biteye imbere.

Umushakashatsi mu Kigo gikora ubushakashatsi ku ikoreshwa ry’itabi muri Kaminuza ya Bath, yavuze ko “Leta z’ibihugu bya Afurika zikwiye gushyira imbaraga mu kugenzura uburyo bwo kwamamaza itabi, hakitabwa ku bikorwa bigendera ku mategeko mpuzamahanga.”

Ku rwego rw’Isi, hacuruzwa amatabi angana na miliyari ibihumbi 6,5 ku mwaka, bivuze ko amatabi miliyari 18 acuruzwa ku munsi.

Leta za Afurika zasabwe gushyiraho ingamba zizatuma uyu mugabane udahinduka indiri y'icuruzwa ry'itabi mu myaka iri imbere

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