Imikorere y’imbuga nkoranyambaga mu Rwanda mu mboni za Mbungiramihigo Peacemaker

Yanditswe na Karirima A. Ngarambe
Kuya 9 Gashyantare 2021 saa 11:31
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Itangazamakuru iyo rikoreshejwe neza rihinduka umuyoboro w’iterambere rihamye kuko rituma abaturage bamenya ibibera hirya no hino mu gihugu n’ahari inyungu babyaza umusaruro.

Muri iki gihe, itangazamakuru ryahinduye imikorere ahanini bijyanye n’iterambere ry’imbuga nkoranyambaga aho usanga buri wese ashobora gutangaza amakuru ndetse rubanda rukayemera nk’impamo.

Mbungiramihigo Peacemaker umaze imyaka 27 mu itangazamakuru, yahaye IGIHE ikiganiro ku ishusho y’itangazamakuru muri iki gihe.

IGIHE: Ubona ute ikoreshwa ry’imbuga nkoranyambaga mu itangazamakuru ry’u Rwanda?

Mbungiramihigo: Mu gusubiza iki kibazo, ndagaruka ku gisobanuro cy’itangazamakuru nk’uko itegeko ririgenga mu Rwanda ryasohotse mu igazeti ya leta No 10 yo 11 Werurwe 2013 ribigarukaho. Ni uburyo bukoresheje inyandiko, amashusho, amajwi cyangwa amajwi n’amashusho amarenga cyangwa internet bugakwirakwiza kandi bukamenyekanisha muri rubanda ibyabaye ibyo umuntu yemera n’ibindi bitekerezo bishyizwe ahagaragara hagamijwe Kumenyesha amakuru, Kwigisha, guhugura no guteza imbere imyidagaduro cyangwa kuruhura abantu.

Itangazamakuru mu Rwanda rikoresha cyane imbuga nkoranyambaga by’umwihariko YouTube, Facebook, Twitter na Instagram. Izo mbuga ni uburyo bwiza bwo gufasha ba nyir’ibitangazamakuru kurushaho kugera ku bakurikira ibiganiro byabo cyangwa inyandiko zabo.

Ni umuyoboro udahenze ushobora gushingirwaho nk’isoko y’amakuru, aho ukora inkuru ashobora kuhamenyera ibyabaye, bikamufasha gusesengura byimbitse ibizivugwaho. Cyakora bamwe mu bakora itangazamakuru babona amakuru batavunitse nta gishoro gikomeye bakoze ugereranyije n’uko mbere byari bimeze ikoranabuhanga ritaratera imbere.

Usibye ba nyir’ibitangazamakuru, n’abanyamakuru ubwabo bifahisha iz’imbuga nkoranyambuga, abatari abanyamakuru nabo batangaza akari ku mutima, nta rutangira urebye. Izo mbuga ziha abakurikira itangazamakuru bari kuri izi mbuga umwanya wo gutanga ibitekerezo cyangwa inyunganizi ku nkuru iba yatangajwe kuri izi mbuga.

Hari Ibitangazamakuru bikoresha izo mbuga mu buryo bukwiye bwa kinyamwuga kandi bwubahiriza amahame agenga itangazamakuru, ibindi bikazikoresha nabi bigamije kwinjiza amafaranga zitanga.

Urugero natanga ni YouTube iha abayikoresha amafaranga hashingiwe ku mubare w’abasura urwo rubuga. Muri rusange umuntu yavuga ko nubwo izi mbuga zigira uruhare rukomeye mu kumenyekanisha amakuru mu buryo bwihuse hari imbogamizi ziterwa n’uko akenshi ibizitangazwaho byose biba bitasuzumwe ngo harebwe ibikwiye gutangazwa n’ibidakwiye kumenyekanishwa hashingiwe ku mahame agenga umwuga w’itangazamakuru n’ itegeko rigenga uwo mwuga.

Mu ngingo yaryo ya 8 n’ya 9, iri tegeko ritanga ubwisanzure ku banyamakuru bwo gushaka no kumenya amakuru ariko ubwo bwisanzure bukaba butagomba kubangamira ituze rusange rya rubanda n’imyitwarire iboneye.

IGIHE: Ubona ute mu buryo bwihariye ibiganiro bikorerwa kuri YouTube?

Mbungiramihigo: Ibiganiro bikorerwa kuri YouTube mbibona ku buryo butandukanye bitewe n’umurongo nyir’ukubitangaza yabihaye. Icya mbere kuri YouTube umuntu ahasanga ibiganiro byubaka n’ibigamije gusenya.

Kuri urwo rubuga nkoranyambaga hatangazwa ibiganiro bicukumbura bikoze kinyamwuga bitangaza amakuru ku byabaye, kwigisha n’ibindi bifitanye isano no kwidagadura ndetse tuhasanga n’ibindi bivuga ku nzego zitandukanye z’ubuzima n’iterambere. Ibyo ni byo biganiro navugaga byubaka.

Nk’uko imbuga nkoranyambaga ari umuyoboro murandasi itanga wo gutanga ibitekerezo mu bwisanzure, hari abakoresha YouTube bakarenga imbibi ziteganywa n’amategeko bagatangaza ibiganiro bisenya n’ibiyobya ababikurikira.

Imikoreshereze y’izo mbuga ikeneye ko habaho ubugenzuzi ku bitangazwa bitubahirije amategeko agenga igihugu kugira ngo habeho kubungabunga ubusugire bw’igihugu n’uburenganzira bw’Abanyarwanda buba butubahirijwe.

Akenshi usanga abakoresha izo mbuga nk’uko nabigarutseho baba bakeneye umubare munini w’abazisura zirimo YouTube kuko bibinjiriza amafaranga menshi. Usanga umubare munini wiganjemo abashaka indonke kurusha gutangaza amakuru yujuje ubunyamwuga. Inda mbi yasumbye umutima.

IGIHE: Ni iki wavuga ku itangazo rya CNLG ririmo ubutumwa bw’abakoresha imbuga nkoranyambaga mu gupfobya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994?

Mbungiramihigo: Gukoresha YouTube nk’umuyoboro wo gutangaza ibirenga ku mategeko y’igihugu ntibitanga ubudahangarwa bwo kudakurikiranwa mu mategeko. Niyo mpamvu abakoresha imbuga nkoranyambaga bakwiye kwitwararika, ibiganiro banyuzaho ntibibe ibiba amacakubiri cyangwa se ibiba urwango, guhembera ingengabitekerezo no gupfobya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994.

Bamwe YouTube yababereye icyuho cyangwa icyanzu cyo gutangaza ibyo itangazamakuru ry’umwuga ridashobora gukora. Bamwe ntibatinya guca ukubiri n’ indangagaciro ziranga imfura, ziranga Abanyarwanda (Gukunda igihugu, Ubutwari, Urukundo, Ubumuntu n’izindi). Kuri bamwe YouTube yabaye inzira ngufi yo kurenga kuri za kirazira.

Abakurikira ibiganiro kuri izi mbuga by’umwihariko YouTube nabo bakwiye gushishoza, bagasesengura ibizivugirwaho kuko hari abagwa mu mutego w’ibinyoma bitangazwa.

IGIHE: Ubona ute itangazamakuru ry’u Rwanda nyuma ya Jenoside? Ese umunyamakuru afite uburyo bwiza bwo gukoreramo?

Mbungiramihigo: Ni byo abanyamakuru mu Rwanda bafite agaciro, ni ubwo inzira ikiri ndende mu bushobozi bw’imari, ibikoresho n’ubumenyi, ariko iyo urebye aho tuvuye, nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, aho itangazamakuru nkuko wabivuze ryagize uruhare rukomeye cyane mu kubiba amacakubiri no kuba igikoresho cya Politiki mbi yarebereye ubwicanyi muri 1994, usanga aho itangazamakuru n’abanyamakuru bageze hashimishije n’ubwo urugendo rukiri rurerure twifuza gutera imbere mu buryo bwihuse kugira ngo habeho impinduka nziza.

Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe n’Urwego rw’Igihugu rw’Imiyoborere (RGB) mu 2018 bugaragaza ko iterambere ry’itangazamakuru rigeze ku gipimo cya 72.4 %. Ubwisanzure bw’itangazamakuru bwari kuri 81,3 % mu gihe mu 2013 bwari kuri 71,5%.

Mbungiramihigo yavuze ko kubaka ubushobozi bw’itangazamakuru bijyana n’ubunyamwuga bwaryo bigeze ku kigero cya 68,4% mu gihe mu 2013 bwari hasi ku gipimo cya 51,9%.

Uyu mugabo ni impuguke mu itangazamakuru, yabaye umunyamakuru, umwarimu muri Kaminuza, umushakashatsi akorana n’amashyirahamwe y’itangazamakuru ndetse yabaye Umunyamabanga Nshingwabikorwa w’Inama Nkuru y’Itangazamakuru mu myaka irindwi. Afite Imyamyabumenyi y’Icyiciro cya Gatatu cya Kaminuza mu Itangazamakuru yavanye muri Kaminuza Gatolika yo muri Côte d’Ivoire.

Mbungiramihigo Peacemaker aganira na Karirima Aimable uhagarariye IGIHE i Burayi

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