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Ikoreshwa rya “Pegasus” ryongeye kurikoroza hinjizwamo n’u Rwanda; Ivumburamatsiko ku butasi n’imikorere yabwo

Yanditswe na Philbert Girinema
Kuya 20 Nyakanga 2021 saa 12:41
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Mu itangazamakuru mpuzamahanga uhereye muri Le Soir yo mu Bubiligi, Washington Post yo muri Amerika kugeza no mu Rwanda, inkuru iri kuvugwa kurusha izindi ni ijyanye n’ikoreshwa rya Porogaramu ya mudasobwa yitwa “Pegasus” yifashishwa mu butasi.

Iyi nkuru iciye ibintu nyuma y’iminsi mike bivuzwe ko Amerika yumvirije Angela Merkel uyobora u Budage mu gihe cy’imyaka ibiri uhereye mu 2012 kugera mu 2014. Byatumye mu mpera za Gicurasi 2021, we na Perezida w’u Bufaransa, Emmanuel Macron, basaba Guverinoma ya Biden ibisobanuro ku bw’ibyo bikorwa.

Byaje hashize igihe havugwa uburyo ubutasi bwa Amerika bwajagajaze telefoni z’abakuru b’ibihugu bo mu mpande zitandukanye z’Isi mu myaka myinshi ishize.

Ubutasi n’ibikorwa byose byerekeranye na bwo ni byo tugiye kugarukaho muri iyi nkuru mu buryo bwimbitse, guhera ku byo muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, mu Burayi, kugeza n’ino aha iwacu mu Rwanda.

Ubutasi bwabayeho kuva kera nubwo byatangiye gukaza umurego cyane mu kinyejana cya kane ariko iyo usubije amaso inyuma usanga na mbere y’ivuka rya Yesu, ubutasi bwarakorwaga.

Ufunguye Bibiliya mu gitabo cya Yosuwa 2:1-24 hari aho igira iti “Yosuwa mwene Nuni yohereza abagabo babiri rwihishwa ngo bajye gutata. Arababwira ati ‘Nimugende mwitegereze igihugu, cyane cyane i Yeriko.” N’uko baragenda binjira mu nzu ya maraya witwaga Rahabu bararamo.’

Magingo aya, uko Isi iteye birasa n’aho hari bamwe bemerewe gukora ubutasi n’abandi batabwemerewe. Washington Post yatangaje inkuru ndende ivuga ku ikoranabuhanga ryo muri Israel ryifashishwa na za leta mu bikorwa by’ubutasi, inavuga ko hari nimero ibihumbi 50 z’abantu barimo n’abo mu Rwanda za leta zabo ziba zishobora kumviriza.

Si ubwa mbere ibintu nk’ibi bivuzwe kuko no mu 2019 mu mpera byaravuzwe. Icyo gihe Sosiyete yo muri Israel ikora ’software’ yitwa Pegasus yavuzweho ko ishobora kwinjizwa muri telefoni z’abantu batabizi igaha amakuru ubutasi.​ ​Byavuzwe ko u Rwanda ari kimwe mu bihugu byayiyobotse, gusa rwaje kubyamagana.

Bene izi mvugo ni iturufu ikomeye ibihugu nka Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika byiyemeje kwifashisha mu guhonda ibindi cyane ibikiri mu nzira y’amajyambere ndetse n’ibindi ifata nk’abakeba birimo u Bushinwa, u Burusiya n’ibindi, ku buryo hari abareba macuri bakibwira ko yo ari shyashya nta nenge.

Urebye nko mu myaka 20, umubare w’abantu bamaze guhitanwa n’intambara Amerika yashoje ku Isi ntugira ingano, gusa bimeze nk’ibibitse mu kabati kuko bitavugwa. Abakorerwa iyicarubozo muri gereza zayo nka Guantanamo na bo ni uko.

Byonyine ku ngoma ya Barack Obama, mu mwaka we wa nyuma wa 2016, Leta yari ayoboye yamishe ibisasu binini 26,000 ku bihugu birindwi. Aha turi kuvuga igihe kingana n’umwaka umwe gusa, utongeyeho abaturage b’inzirakarengane byahitanye ndetse n’ibyangijwe. Gusa amakuru nk’aya n’asa na yo ntabwo uyumva avugwa, agirwa ubwiru.

Iyo bigeze ku butasi ho biba ibindi bindi. Amerika ifite urwego rumwe rw’ubutasi, NSA (National Security Agency) rubumbatiye izindi 16 zikora ubutasi uhereye mu rukora ubutasi mu bya gisirikare, mu gucukumbura ibyaha, mu bukungu, mu ikoranabuhanga n’ibindi.

Ubwo butasi bwakozwe hirya no hino kugeza no mu Rwanda, ndetse inshuro nyinshi abagiye bashyira amabanga yabwo hanze barabizize. Urugero ni nka Chelsea Manning wahoze mu gisirikare cya Amerika washinjwe guha amabanga y’ubutasi Wikileaks.

N’ubu Amerika iracyahigisha uruhindu Edward Snowden washyize hanze amabanga ya NSA nubwo u Burusiya bwamuhaye ubuhungiro cyo kimwe na Julian Assange washinze WikiLeaks uba muri Gereza mu Bwongereza, aho mu gihe yaba yoherejwe muri Amerika, uyu mugabo w’imyaka 50 afite ibyago byo kuba yakatirwa igifungo cy’imyaka 175 yose.

Wikileaks yashinze ni yo yashyize hanze amabanga y’ubutasi arimo n’ubwo leta ya Amerika ikora ku Rwanda. Imwe mu nyandiko za Wikileaks, igaruka ku makuru yakusanyijwe na Ambasade ya Amerika mu Rwanda, igaragaza ubwoko bwa buri umwe mu bagize Guverinoma.

Ni inyandiko iri mu zitwa ko ari iz’ubutasi mu bya politiki yagiye hanze mu 2008. Iyi yashyizwe hanze mu gihe kimwe n’indi yavugaga ku mirongo ya telefoni abayobozi bakuru b’u Rwanda bakoresha, uhereye kuri Perezida wa Repubulika yaba mu biro, mu kazi, mu rugo n’ahandi cyo kimwe n’abazitaba iyo we atitabye.

Ubwo inkuru ivuga ko u Rwanda rukoresha ’software’ ya Pegasus yajyaga hanze mu 2019, Perezida Kagame yanenze abavuga ko rwinjira muri telefoni z’abantu, avuga ko ari ikoranabuhanga rudakeneye dore ko rinahenze.

Ati "Ariko iyaba nanjye ahubwo nari mfite iryo koranabuhanga ariko nanumvise ko rihenze cyane uko nabisomye […] Ntabwo nakoresha ayo mafaranga yose ku muntu uri iyo udafite icyo antwaye, umuntu undwanyiriza mu Bwongereza? Oya, ahubwo mpangayikishijwe na bariya binjirira mu Kinigi bakica abantu."

Gusa yavuze ko kuba u Rwanda rwamenya amakuru ku banzi barwo, ari ibintu biri mu burenganzira bwarwo kandi bikorwa n’ahandi.

Ati “Kuri twe kumenya abanzi bacu ibyo bakora aho bari hose, ni ikintu twakomeje kugerageza gukora kuko biri mu burenganzira bwacu kimwe n’ibindi bihugu byose ku Isi."

Ubutasi ni intwaro yifashishwa ku Isi yose mu gutahura ibyaha, bukaba ingenzi cyane kuko bufasha ibihugu bubibera intabaza

Nta gihugu ku Isi kidakora ubutasi

Ibihugu byose ku Isi na Vatican itagira igisirikare [urwego rwayo rw’ubutasi rwitwa ‘Santa Alleanza’], bifite inzego z’ubutasi zikora mu ibanga rikomeye kandi zitangwaho amafaranga menshi atagira ingano.

Ibikize bineka kurusha ibindi, kandi byifashisha ikoranabuhanga rihambaye n’ingengo y’imari itari nto. Nka Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika mu 2019 zari zagennye miliyari 60,2 z’amadolari agenewe ibikorwa by’ubutasi, mu 2020 agera kuri miliyari 62,8 z’amadolari.

Uko igihugu kineka ni na ko na cyo kiba kinekwa ku rundi ruhande. Chris Simmons wahoze ari Umuyobozi ushinzwe kurwanya ibikorwa by’Ubutasi mu Rwego rw’Ubutasi rw’Igisirikare cya Amerika [Counterintelligence], mu 2017 yatangaje nibura ko icyo gihe hari intasi zirenga ibihumbi 100 zikorera ibihugu biri hagati ya 60 na 80 zose zineka Amerika.

Kate wakoreye MI6, rumwe mu nzego eshatu (MI5, GCHQ na MI6) z’ubutasi z’u Bwongereza aherutse gutangaza ati “muzatubona hose, muri za gari ya moshi n’ahandi nk’aho”.

Usibye kohereza mu gihugu abantu bashinzwe ubutasi, hari n’ubundi buryo bwifashishwa mu gutata binyuze muri za Ambasade. Umuyobozi muri Kaminuza ya Buckingham mu kigo cyigisha ibijyanye n’amasomo y’ubutasi, Prof Anthony Glees, yavuze ko “buri Ambasade ku Isi igira intasi”.

Kuba buri gihugu gikora ubutasi, Glees asobanura ko “hari nk’amahame atanditse” ko guverinoma ziba ziteguye gusa “nk’izirengagiza” ibibera muri za Ambasade. Gusa ayo mahame hari ubwo arengwaho iyo ikintu kinyuranyije n’amategeko kibereye muri Ambasade.

Urugero ni intasi 23 u Bwongereza buherutse kwirukana ku butaka bwabwo zakoreraga u Burusiya nyuma y’uko Sergei Skripal na we wahoze ari intasi arozwe.

Kuba ibihugu bizi neza ko hari intasi zibyihishemo, ngo byirinda kuzirukana kuko biba bikeka ko na byo izabyo ziza kwirukanwa. John Blaxland, Umwarimu mu ishuri ryigisha umutekano mpuzamahanga n’amasomo y’ubutasi muri Australia, yagize ati “Buri wese arabikora. Ntushobora kwirukana intasi z’ikindi gihugu kuko uba udashaka ko izawe zirukanwa.”

Gukora ubutasi nta muntu uba wica, nta n’ikintu uba wangiza, uba wumva amakuru akureba, yaba ay’abacura imigambi yo kukurwanya rwihishwa ndetse hari n’aho intasi zijya kuneka igihugu runaka zikisanga ziri kugiha amakuru ku migambi y’abagizi ba nabi.

John ukora muri MI6, yigeze kubwira BBC ati “Turi hano kugira ngo dukore ubutasi, tubukora tugamije icyiza, tugamije gutuma igihugu cyacu gikomeza gutekana kandi kigakomeza gutera imbere.”

Mugenzi we Kate yunzemo ati “Icyo tureba twe ni amabanga, ni bwo bucuruzi bwacu, ni ibyo dukora.”

Nta gihugu kijya cyemera ko hari abantu bagikoreramo baneka nubwo biba bizwi neza ko bikorwa, iyo hagize ufatwa arafungwa kabone nubwo ibihugu byaba bifitanye ubushuti bungana iki. Urugero ni Jonathan Jay Pollard wafunzwe imyaka myinshi na Amerika nyuma yo kuvumburwa ko ari intasi ya Israel.

Amayeri n’amagambo akoreshwa mu butasi

Amayeri akoreshwa mu butasi ni menshi kandi ahora ari ibanga ku gihugu, akanatandukana bitewe n’ikiri kunekwa. Gusa hari amagambo amenyerewe cyane muri iyi ngeri ku buryo abakora ubutasi baba bayaziranyeho. Arimo nk’ijambo ‘HUMINT’ [Human Intelligence] risobanuye ubutasi bwifashisha abantu mu gihe COMINT [Communications Intelligence] ari ubutasi bwifashisha ikoranabuhanga nko kugenzura ubutumwa buturuka hanze y’igihugu n’ibindi.

‘IMINT’ [Imagery Intelligence] bwo ni ubwifashisha amashusho ya Satellite, mu gihe ubuzwi nka ‘OSINT [Open Source Intelligence]’ bwo buba bushingiye ku kugenzura inyandiko.

Kuneka aho ukeka umwanzi ntibifatwa nko kurenga ku mategeko

Christopher J. Murphy, Umwarimu muri Kaminuza ya Salford yo mu Bwongereza asobanura ko usibye no kuneka ahari umwanzi, nta kibi kiri mu kuneka inshuti yawe kuko na yo iba ibikora.

Avuga ko inzego z’ubutasi zubakiye ku mahame y’uko inyungu z’igihugu ari zo ziza imbere. Gusa, iryo hame rishobora guhinduka umunsi ku wundi, aho ibyo igihugu kibonamo inyungu uyu munsi bitaba ari byo kizabonamo inyungu ejo.

Yavugaga ko kuba u Bwongereza na Amerika ari ibihugu by’inshuti bitabujije kuba byanekana, atanga urugero rw’uburyo intasi zavumbuye ko u Bwongereza bwari bufitanye imikoranire na Libya mu gihe cy’intambara ya Iraq.

Akenshi ibikorwa by’ubutasi muri rubanda bifatwa nk’ibidakurikije amategeko, ariko usanga ibihugu bizi impamvu bibikora, kuko ibyo bikiza biruta kure ibyo byica.

Nka Amerika usanga itohereza Abanyamerika mu bihugu bitandukanye ngo bajye kuyinekera, ahubwo hari aho yifashisha abenegihugu bakajya bayiha amakuru ku bintu bitandukanye bitari n’umutekano.

Hari nk’abagenzura iterambere ry’inganda cyangwa se ikoranabuhanga ku buryo baha amakuru ibigo by’ikoranabuhanga muri Amerika.

Nko mu Bufaransa, CIA ihafite icyicaro mu Mujyi wa Paris. Mu 1993, yanetse byimazeyo ku bijyanye n’ibiganiro byari biri kuba mu gihugu bijyanye n’ibiciro ku masoko.

CIA kandi yashatse abakozi benshi bakora mu nganda zo mu Budage bigeza n’aho iha akazi umuntu wari usanzwe ari intasi. Byageze n’aho telefoni ya Angela Merkel yumvirizwa bikozwe n’ishami rya CIA riba mu Mujyi wa Berlin.

Five Eyes, ihuriro ry’ibihugu mu butasi

Hari ibihugu byinshi byateye imbere mu butasi ari nako bishyiraho ubufatanye mu guhanahana amakuru ku buryo intasi z’igihugu kimwe zishobora no kureba inyungu z’ikindi.

Ibi nibyo byatumye Australie, Canada, Nouvelle-Zélande, u Bwongereza na Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika byishyira hamwe bikora ihuriro ryishwe Five Eyes aho rihuriyemo inzego z’ubutasi mu by’umutekano za buri gihugu.

Intasi ntizigira impuzankano. Ushobora kuzisanga mu ruvunganzoka rw'abantu kandi nazo ziri gukora imirimo isanzwe

Ibihugu byihagazeho mu butasi n’uko bikora

Ibihugu birimo Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, u Bufaransa, u Bubiligi n’u Bwongereza ni bimwe mu byihagazeho mu butasi ndetse byifashishwa n’ibindi mu gutanga amahugurwa mu butasi.

Buri gihugu usanga gifite ibintu ubutasi bwacyo bushyiramo imbaraga, ahanini bitewe n’imiterere, cyangwa kikaba cyarashyizeho izindi nzego zita ku kintu runaka.

Dufashe urugero k’u Burusiya. Ni kimwe mu bihugu bifite ubutasi buteye imbere, bwibanda cyane ku bikorwa byo kurwanya iterabwoba no kurengera inyungu z’ubucuruzi z’u Burusiya hanze.

Kuva aho Vladmir Putin agiriye ku butegetsi, urwego rw’ubutasi cyane ubwo hanze y’igihugu ruzwi nka ‘SVR’ cyangwa ‘Sluzhba Vneshney Razvedk’ rwakajije umurego.

Ubu intasi z’u Burusiya ziri hose ku Isi, zirirwa zihanganye na CIA ya Amerika ari na ko uwo zaciye iryera ibye biba bitangiye kudogera, urugero ni uwahoze ari umwe muri zo, Alexander Litvinenko, uherutse kwicirwa mu Bwongereza.

Putin avuga ko SVR ari rumwe mu nzego z’ubutasi zikora kinyamwuga, ndetse abenshi bahamya ko ari rwo rwego rutumye u Burusiya ari igihugu cyubashywe ubu.

‘MSS’ y’u Bushinwa, ishamikiye kuri Minisiteri y’Umutekano aho yita cyane mu butasi mu by’ubucuruzi n’umutekano w’imbere mu gihugu.

Hanze y’igihugu intasi z’u Bushinwa ngo biragoye ko umuntu yazivumbura kuko mu gihe ibindi bihugu usanga bijya gushaka amabanga, zo ngo zigenda zibaririza imibare runaka ku buryo ziyihuriza hamwe zigakuramo icyo zikeneye.

U Buhinde na bwo bufite urwego rukomeye rwitwa “RAW” rwashinzwe mu 1968 aho rureba cyane abantu bashobora guhungabanya umutekano w’igihugu, abakozi barwo biganje muri Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal na Bangladesh.

‘MI6’ narwo ni urundi rwego rw’ubutasi rukomeye rw’u Bwongereza ariko rwo rushinzwe gusa kugenzura ibikorwa by’iterabwoba bishobora kugabwa kuri iki gihugu. MI6 iba ineka mu bindi bihugu mu gihe mu gihugu rwagati ho SIS (Secret Intelligence Service) iba iryamiye amajanja.

Ntiwavuga inzego zikomeye z’ubutasi ngo wibagirwe BND y’u Budage, DGSE y’u Bufaransa, CSIS ya Canada, ASIS ya Australie n’abandi. Ntiwakwigarwa kandi Mossad y’Abanya-Israel.

Mossad ifatwa nk’urwego rukataje mu butasi ku Isi mu kurwanya iterabwoba dore ko Israel ikikijwe n’ibihugu bitayicira akari urutega.

Peter Earnest wabaye Umuyobozi Mukuru mu nzu ndangamateka mu by’ubutasi iri i Washington, yigeze kuvuga ati “Twese turi abana ba Mossad”. Kuva yashingwa mu 1951, iza ku isonga mu nzego z’ubutasi zishimwa mu bijyanye n’ubuhanga buhanitse abakozi bayo bafite, ndetse no kugira ibanga.

Magingo aya, ikoranabuhanga yaba irya telefoni na mudasobwa risigaye ryifashishwa mu butasi mu kugenzura amajwi n'amashusho

Hari gucura iki iyo u Rwanda rudashyira ingufu mu butasi?

Ibyago byagwiriye Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika mu 2001, cyangwa se kuba wakumva nk’u Bushinwa bwasubiye inyuma mu bihugu bikize ku Isi, ni bimwe mu byaba mu gihe nta butasi buriho mu gihugu icyo ari cyo cyose.

Kuba nka Perezida wa Haiti Jovenel Moise yarishwe n’abakomando biganjemo abacanshuro mu minsi ishize, iyo Haiti iza kuba yari ifite inzego z’ubutasi zinoze kiriya gikorwa cyari kuburizwamo.

Ubusanzwe ubutasi ni umurimo ukorwa n’abantu baba basanzwe bafite ibindi bakora, ku buryo nk’umunyamakuru yakora akazi ke gasanzwe ariko akora ubutasi. Ntabwo ari umurimo ukorwa n’abantu bambaye impuzankano runaka ku buryo aho bari bunyure buri wese ahita abamenya.

Biragoye kubatahura kuko intasi ishobora nko kuba ari umumotari, utwara moto umunsi ku wundi ariko mu muhanda yirirwa akatamo hari amakuru runaka ari gushaka.

Ibigo byinshi bigira intasi, ariko iyo bigeze ku bishinzwe umutekano byo biba mu nshingano zabyo z’ingenzi. Nka Sosiyete zicunga umutekano nka za ISCO na GardaWorld zo mu Rwanda, ahandi usanga zikora no mu bundi buryo akazi ko gutata.

Uburyo inzego z’ubutegetsi zubatse mu Rwanda, byaguha ishusho nyayo y’uko ubutasi muri iki gihe bukorwa. Niba hari ikibazo kibaye mu Isibo, mutwarasibo ahita atanga amakuru mu kanya nk’ako guhumbya, Minaloc iba yabimenye ikamenyesha inzego zirebwa. Ayo makuru atanzwe na Mutwarasibo ashobora kwifashishwa mu bikorwa by’ubutasi.

U Rwanda rufite inzego z’ubutasi ziyubaka umunsi ku wundi. Hari nk’Urwego rushinzwe iperereza n’Umutekano (NISS); Urwego rw’Ubutasi bwa Gisirikare, J2 (benshi bita DMI – Directorate of Military Intelligence), Urwego rushinzwe Ubutasi mu by’Imari, FIC (Financial Intelligence Centre) n’izindi zibarizwa muri buri rwego rw’umutekano.

Ni byinshi byari kuba iyo u Rwanda rudashyira imbaraga mu butasi, ngo rukurikirane intambwe ku yindi y’abashaka kurugirira nabi.

Mu 2010, Polisi y’u Rwanda yatahuye ko hari intwaro zari ziganjemo za gerenade muri Ambasade ya Libya mu Rwanda zashoboraga kwifashishwa mu bikorwa bimwe na bimwe byo gutera amagerenade mu Mujyi wa Kigali.

Umwe mu bakozi b’iyi Ambasade niwe watanze aya makuru, hanyuma Polisi ikoze iperereza izitahura muri iyo nyubako. Intwaro kandi za Libya zanafashwe no mu bindi bihugu nka Ethiopia. Iyo hatabaho ubutasi, izi ntwaro ziba zarishe inzirakarengane nyinshi.

Tekereza kandi uko biba byifashe muri Nyungwe ukurikije aho ibintu byari bigeze, iyo u Rwanda rudakurikirana Nsabimana Callixte ‘Sankara’ ngo rumukure muri za Comores.

Reba ba Laforge Bazeye na Abega bari abayobozi muri FDLR, iyo ubutasi budatahura imigambi bari bari gucurira muri Uganda bagafatwa bageze ku mipaka, ubu birashoboka ko bari kuba bageze kure ishyirwa mu bikorwa ryayo.

Tutagiye kure kandi, Mudathiru wari uyoboye abarwanyi ba P5 iyo hatabaho ubutasi ngo butahure ko bimuye ibirindiro bagiye kubishyira hafi y’u Rwanda na Uganda; dushobora kuba twari turi kwandika izindi nkuru aho kuvuga iby’iterambere mu Rwanda.

Ubutasi nibwo bwagejeje Paul Rusesabagina i Kigali, mu gihe yumvaga ko nta muntu wamushyigura ngo amubuze imigambi ye yo kugirira nabi u Rwanda.

Iyo hatabaho kandi ubutasi ngo busakume buri wese wari mu mugambi w’ibitero bya gerenade muri Kigali mu 2010, nta kabuza umutekano turirimba uyu munsi bamwe tuba tuwubarirwa; n’izi za KCT, amasoko akomeye n’ibindi bikorwaremezo bigezweho, tuba tubisoma mu bitabo by’imishinga gusa.

Nta gihugu gifite inzego z’ubuyobozi zubatse bikwiye gishobora kubasha kubaho kidafite inzego z’ubutasi. Gukora ubutasi kw’ibihugu si icyaha, nk’uko ibihugu nka Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika, u Bufaransa, u Bwongereza, Canada n’ibindi bibikora, ni nako u Rwanda na rwo rwemerewe kubikora.

Kuba hari gusakuzwa cyane ko haba hakoreshwa porogaramu izwi nka Pegasus mu gukora ubutasi kw’ibihugu birimo Maroc, u Rwanda n’bindi, ntabwo bitangaje na mba kuko niba inzego z’ubutasi hirya no hino ku isi ziba zikora byeruye gusa zikarangwa no gukorera mu ibanga rikomeye, nta kuntu zakora zitifashishije porogaramu za mudasobwa runaka nka bimwe mu bikoresho nkenerwa mu kuzuza izo nshingano, nta kintu kirimo gitangaje.

Ibyiza by’ubutasi ni byinshi, bufasha mu gutanga amakuru y’ingenzi ku buryo nk’igihugu cyitegura hakiri kare ikintu runaka gishobora kubaho mu rwego rwa politiki cyangwa umutekano, kigafata ingamba za nyazo. Ubutasi bwifashishwa nk’umuburo nyawo mu bintu byose.


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