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Idindira ry’ubwikorezi bw’ibicuruzwa mu nyanja rishobora kugira ingaruka zikomeye ku bukungu bw’u Rwanda

Yanditswe na Ndahayo Emmanuel
Kuya 4 Ukwakira 2021 saa 03:10
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Ku rwego mpuzamahanga hari ikibazo gikomeye cy’ubwato butwara kontineri zirimo ibicuruzwa hirya no hino ku Isi, bukaba ari bwo butwara nibura 90% by’ibicuruzwa byambukiranya imipaka mu gihe imodoka n’indege bitwara 10% by’ibicuruzwa bisigaye.

Ikibazo gihari kiri mu buryo bubiri; hari ikibazo cya kontineri nke zitwara ibicuruzwa, hakaba n’ikibazo cy’ubwato bwabaye buke muri iyi minsi bitewe n’impamvu zitandukanye.

Ubusanzwe, kontineri nyinshi zikorerwa mu Bushinwa, bukora izirenga 90% by’izikoreshwa ku Isi. Mu ntangiriro z’umwaka ushize, ubwo ubucuruzi butari bwifashe neza ku rwego mpuzamahanga bitewe n’icyorezo cya Covid-19, inganda nini zikora kontineri mu Bushinwa zagabanyije umubare w’izo zakoraga, kuko izigera kuri miliyoni 1,2 zari mu bubiko zitegereje abaguzi cyangwa gushyirwa abaziguze, mu gihe ku byambu byo mu Bushinwa hari izigera kuri miliyoni 3 zitarimo imitwaro, ibyatumaga imibare yerekana ko ikenerwa rya kontineri nshya ritari hafi aha.

Icyakora ibintu byahinduye isura ubwo Perezida Trump yasinyiraga ko Leta ye irekura miliyari ibihumbi 2$ yagombaga gufasha abaturage guhangana n’ingaruka za Covid-19, bigatuma Abanyamerika bongera kugira ubushobozi bwo kujya ku masoko hirya no hino.

Ubu bushobozi bw’Abanyamerika bwo guhaha, kongeraho itangwa ry’inkingo n’ifungurwa ry’ibikorwa by’ubucuruzi byari byaradindijwe n’icyorezo cya Covid-19, byatumye ubucuruzi hagati ya Amerika na Aziya bwiyongera ku kigero cya 27% mu mezi arindwi ya mbere y’uyu mwaka, ugereranyije n’amezi arindwi ya mbere y’umwaka wa 2019 icyorezo kitaraza.

Icyakora nubwo ubucuruzi bwiyongereye, ibigo bitwara ibicuruzwa mu bwato, byari byaragabanyije 11% by’ubwato bukoreshwa mu gutwara ibicuruzwa ku Isi, bitewe n’uko ubucuruzi mpuzamahanga bwari bwaragabanutse.

Mu gihe ubucuruzi bwongeraga kuzanzamuka muri Amerika mu buryo bwihuse, ibigo bitwara ibicuruzwa mu bwato ntabwo byari bifite ubwato buhagije bwo guhita butwara ibicuruzwa, kuko bwinshi muri ubwo bwato bwahagaritswe, bwari buparitse ku byambu bya kure kandi burimo ubusa, ku buryo kugira ngo bugaruke mu kazi, byasabaga ko bujyanwa ku byambu biriho ibicuruzwa, cyane cyane ibyo muri Aziya y’Iburasirazuba na Amerika, kugira ngo bushyirwemo ibicuruzwa kuko ari ho hari kontineri z’ibicuruzwa.

Uku kujyana ubwato bwinshi ku byambu bike bikorerwaho ubucuruzi bwinshi byagize ingaruka kuko byatumye ubwato buba bwinshi ku byambu, bituma havuka umubyigano w’ubu bwato, bumwe bukajya butegereza ubundi ko burangiza gupakira cyangwa gupakururwa kugira ngo bugerweho.

Nko mu gihembwe cya kabiri cy’uyu mwaka, ibyambu byo muri Amerika byakiriye inyongera ya 14% by’ubwato butwara ibicuruzwa, ugereranyije n’igihembwe cya kabiri cya 2019 mbere y’icyorezo.

Ku rundi ruhande, mu gihe ibyambu byariho umubyigano w’ubwato, kontineri nazo zaragabanutse kuko igihe zimara ku byambu, zaba ziri gupakirwa cyangwa gupakururwa, cyiyongereye kuko zihagerera rimwe ari nyinshi bityo zigategereza igihe kinini. Ibi byatumye ibigo by’ubwato butwara ibicuruzwa bijya ku isoko gukoresha izindi ariko izi na zo ntizahaza isoko kuko izikenewe ziruta kure ubwinshi bw’izikorwa.

Ibi byose byavuyemo ko ibiciro bya kontineri nshya byiyongereyeho arenga 50%, mu gihe ibiciro byo gutwara kontineri mu bwato na byo byikubye hafi kane. Nk’urugero, kuvana kontineri nini mu Bushinwa uyijyana muri Amerika mu 2019, byashobora gutwara ibihumbi 2,5$ ariko ubu biri gutwara arenga ibihumbi 10$. Iri zamuka ryabayeho n’ahandi henshi ku Isi.

Ubwato bwinshi bwafatiwe mu mubyigano uri ku byambu bitandukanye, ku buryo igihe bitwara ngo bube buhavuye cyiyongereye cyane

Ingaruka ku Rwanda

Ku rwego rw’Isi, u Rwanda ni kimwe mu bihugu biri kure y’inyanja rukuraho ibicuruzwa. 70% by’ibicuruzwa byinjira mu gihugu binyura ku cyambu cya Dar Es Salaam muri Tanzania kiri ku Nyanja y’u Buhinde, mu birometero 1416 uvuye mu Rwanda.

Ubusanzwe amafaranga agurwa igicuruzwa aba akubiyemo n’igiciro cy’ingendo zirimo n’izo mu nyanja ariko aya mafaranga akunze kuba ari make cyane ku buryo atagira ingaruka zikomeye ku giciro cya nyuma. Icyakora mu gihe hiyongereyeho itinda ry’ibicuruzwa mu nzira, igiciro cy’aya mafaranga gishobora kwiyongera, bikagira ingaruka ku muguzi wa nyuma ugomba kwishyura menshi kugira ngo abone igicuruzwa runaka.

Ibi nibyo biri kuba ku bacuruzi bavana ibicuruzwa mu mahanga babizana mu Rwanda. Mu kiganiro na Rwanda Today, Vichal Shah, Umuyobozi Mukuru wa Rwacom, ikigo gikora ibikoresho bya pulasitiki birimo n’amajerekani, yavuze ko iri dindira ry’ingendo z’ubwato butwara ibicuruzwa ryagize ingaruka ku bucuruzi bwabo, kuko bahombye amasoko bitewe n’uko ibicuruzwa byajyaga bibageraho mu gihe cy’ukwezi, bimaze amezi atatu bitarabageraho.

Yagize ati “Twatumije kontineri y’ibikoresho dukoramo ibicuruzwa byacu muri Kamena ariko n’ubu ntabwo turabona ibicuruzwa, ubusanzwe byatwaraga ukwezi kumwe, ariko ibijyanye n’igihe byatwaraga byarahindutse, kandi byagize ingaruka ku bucuruzi bwacu kuko twaguye mu bihombo.”

Uyu muyobozi yasobanuye ko ikibazo nyamukuru kiri guterwa n’uko “Nta bwato bwinshi buri kugera ku cyambu cya Dar Es Salaam kuko bwafashwe [bukerekezwa mu bindi byerekezo], ibigo bitwara ibicuruzwa mu bwato byari byagabanyije ubwato bikoresha, ari na byo byateye iki kibazo.”

Iri gabanuka yagarutseho ryatewe n’uko ubwo ubucuruzi hagati ya Amerika na Aziya y’Iburasirazuba bwasubukurwaga mbere y’ibindi bice by’Isi, ibigo bitwara ibicuruzwa mu bwato byahinduye inzira z’ubwato bwari busanzwe bwerekeza ibicuruzwa mu bindi bice, bwerekezwa muri Amerika. Ibi byagize ingaruka mu gihe ibindi bihugu byasubukuraga ibikorwa by’ubucuruzi, kuko byabuze ubwato bubagemurira ibicuruzwa, bitewe n’uko bwinshi bwaheze mu mibyiganiro iri ku byambu bikurwaho ibicuruzwa mu bihugu birimo u Bushinwa na Amerika.

Shah yavuze ko mu mezi ane gusa, bamaze guhomba ibihumbi 300$ kubera ibi bibazo, ati “Uku gutinda kwatumye bigorana kumenya igiciro cy’igicuruzwa ku isoko kuko mu gihe upakiye kontineri [kugira ngo ikuzanire ibicuruzwa], uba uri mu gihombo cy’indi ikiri mu nzira utazi igihe izakugereraho, hari ibintu byinshi byahindutse muri iki gihe.”

Uyu muyobozi kandi yavuze ko “Bamwe mu bakiliya basubiranye amafaranga yabo, ubu turi gufata inguzanyo kugira ngo twishyure kandi tugashyiraho n’inyungu.”

Uretse ubucuruzi bwa Shah, ubundi bucuruzi bwo mu Rwanda nabwo bwagizweho ingaruka n’iki kibazo mu buryo bufatika, kuko ibiciro by’ibicuruzwa bitumizwa hanze y’u Rwanda byazamutse cyane aho nka televiziyo yaguraga ibihumbi 350 Frw, ubu iri kugura ibihumbi 500 Frw.

Mu gihe ibicuruzwa byinshi byakomeza kuzamura ibiciro, nta kabuza ko byagira ingaruka zishobora guhungabanya ubukungu bw’u Rwanda. Kimwe mu bishobora kubaho ni ihungabana ry’agaciro k’ifaranga ry’u Rwanda, byitezwe ko rizata agaciro ku kigero cya kiri munsi ya 2,5%, nyuma y’uko ryari ryataye agaciro ku kigero cya 5,4% mu mwaka ushize.

Uretse itakazagaciro ku ifaranga ry’u Rwanda, ibiciro bihanitse bizagabanya ingano y’ibyo umuguzi afitiye ubushobozi bwo kugura, ibi na byo bigabanye ingano y’ibyo umucuruzi ashobora gucuruza, ari na ko bigira ingaruka ku misoro yinjira mu isanduku ya Leta, mu gihe ikinyuranyo cy’ibyo u Rwanda rwohereza hanze n’ibyo rukurayo, cyari kuri miliyari 1,54$ mu 2019, gishobora gukomeza kwiyongera.

Ku rundi ruhande, mu gihe iki kibazo cyamara igihe kirekire, birashoboka ko bimwe mu bicuruzwa bishobora gushira ku isoko burundu mu gihe ibikiri mu bubiko byarushaho kugabanuka, ibi na byo bikagira ingaruka zikomeye mu kuzamura igiciro cy’ibicuruzwa.

Iki kibazo kizarangira gute?

Mu burya busanzwe, kontineri n’ubwato butwara ibicuruzwa hirya no hino ku Isi birahagije, ikibazo ni uko inzira bunyuramo n’aho kontineri ziri ugereranyije n’aho zakabaye ziri byahindaguritse.

Ibi bitanga icyizere ku basanzwe bakurikirana iby’ingendo z’ibicuruzwa mu nyanja, bavuga ko iki kibazo, cyanatijwe umurindi n’impanuka y’ubwato bwa Ever Given buherutse guhagarika ingendo mu Bunigo bwa Suez, gishobora kutazamara igihe kirekire kuko ibikoresho by’ibanze bikenerwa bihari kandi ku bwinshi, igisigaye akaba ari uko bisubira mu nzira za nyazo nk’uko byahoze mbere.

Icyakora ku bandi barimo Peter Sand wo mu Ishyirahamwe ry’ibigo bitwara ibicuruzwa mu mato, bavuga ko iki kibazo gishobora kuzatwara igihe kirenga umwaka kugira ngo inzira zongere zikoreshwe nk’uko byahoze mbere ya Covid-19.

Iki gitekerezo agihuriyeho na Lars Jensen w’Ikigo cy’Ubujyanama cya Vespucci Maritime, wahaye The Economist urugero rw’imyigaragambyo y’abatwara ubwato muri Amerika yabaye mu 2015, ikagira ingaruka zirimo ubwiyongere bw’ubwato ku byambu.

‘Iki kibazo cyakemutse mu mezi atandatu,’ nk’uko Jensen abivuga, ’kandi cyari cyabereye mu gihe kimwe cy’Isi, ubwo ukibaza igihe bizatwara kugira ngo ikibazo cyabaye ku rwego rw’Isi yose gikemuke.

Muri rusange, mu gihe byasabaga ubwato urugendo rw’iminsi 41 kuva ku cyambu bwikoreye ibicuruzwa, bukagera ku kindi bukanagaruka ku cyambu cya mbere, ubu biri gutwara iminsi 70. Bikekwa ko 60% by’ibicuruzwa binyura mu nyanja, bishobora kongererwa ibiciro ku muguzi wa nyuma, bitewe n’iri dindira ry’ingendo zo mu nyanja.

Muri Nyakanga uyu mwaka, ingano y’ibicuruzwa Abanyamerika baguze yaragabanutse ugereranyije na Kamena, nubwo n’ubundi yari ikiri hejuru ku kigero cya 18% ugereranyije na Nyakanga ya 2019. Iri gabanuka riratanga icyizere ko ibigo bitwara ibicuruzwa mu nyanja bishobora gusubiza ubwato mu nzira zahozeho na cyane ko ibindi bice by’Isi na byo biri gusubukura ibikorwa by’ubucuruzi ku bwinshi.

Hagati aho, urwego rw’amato atwara ibicuruzwa mu nyanja ruhanganye n’ikindi kibazo cyo kugabanya umwuka wa CO2 woherezwa mu kirere n’ubwato bwose butwara ibicuruzwa mu nyanja, ukaba ungana na 2,7% by’umwuka wose woherezwa mu kirere uvuye ku Isi.

Byitezwe ko kuva mu 2023, hazatangira ingamba zikomeye zo guhindura ingufu zikoreshwa n’ubu bwato ariko ababikurikiranira hafi bavuga ko bitazagira ingaruka mu itinda ry’ibicuruzwa cyangwa mu bwiyongere bw’ibiciro byo gutwara kontineri, kuko izi mpinduka zitazagira ingaruka zikomeye ku byo ubwato bwakoreshaga mu rugendo.

Ibigo birimo Maersk biri ku gitutu cyo guhindura ingufu zikoreshwa n'ubwato bwabyo, kugira ngo hagabanywe umwuka wa CO2 woherezwa mu kirere

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