Ibango ry’ uwa 5 Nyakanga ubwo Habyarimana yahirikaga ubutegetsi bw’umunywanyi we Kayibanda

Yanditswe na David Eugène Marshall, Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 5 Nyakanga 2018 saa 09:29
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Mu myaka 45 ishize mu ijoro rishyira ku wa 5 Nyakanga 1973, abasirikare 11 barimo Gen. Maj. Habyarimana Juvénal wari Minisitiri w’Ingabo, bahiritse ku butegetsi uwari Perezida wa Repubulika, Kayibanda Grégoire, bamushinja kuba imbohe y’ibitekerezo by’abanzi b’amahoro bisenya ubumwe bw’igihugu. Uwo munsi u Rwanda rwavuye mu icuraburindi rugana mu rindi.

Uwo munsi w’itariki 5 Nyakanga Kigali yari yiriwe inukamo urunturuntu, urwikekwe ari rwose. Ijoro ryagiye gutandukana imodoka nini z’intambara zashyizwe ahantu hakomeye mu murwa higanjemo inzu z’ubutegetsi, ingo z’abayobozi bakuru zishyirwaho uburinzi budasanzwe, umuhanda uva mu mujyi rwagati ugana i Nyamirambo ahari hatuye abakozi ba Leta batari bake, wujujwemo bariyeri.

Ni nyuma y’icyemezo gikomeye cyari cyafashwe n’itsinda ryiyise ‘Les Camarades du 5 Juillet,” abasirikare bakuru 11, basinye itangazo ryasomwe kuri Radio Rwanda na Commandant Théoneste Lizinde, atangaza ko guverinoma yose isheshwe, ko batakwemera ko ‘igihugu gicikamo ibice’.

Iryo tsinda ryarimo Gen. Maj. Habyarimana wari Minisitiri w’Ingabo na Polisi akaba n’Umugaba Mukuru w’Ingabo, Lt. Col. Kanyarengwe Alexis wayoboraga iseminari nto yo ku Nyundo, Maj. Nsekalije Aloys, Maj. Benda Sabin wayoboraga ikigo cya Camp Kigali, Maj. Ruhashya Epimaque, Maj. Gahimano Fabien wayoboraga ishuri ry’abofisiye i Kigali, Maj. Jean Nepomuscène Munyandekwe, Maj. Serubuga Laurent, Maj. Buregeya Bonaventure, Maj. Ntibitura Bonaventure na Maj. Simba Aloys.

Bamwe mu bari bagize itsinda 'Les Camarades du 5 Juillet': Amakuru avuga ko abakiriho basigaye ari batatu gusa aribo Ntibitura Bonaventure uba mu Butaliyani, Serubuga Laurent uba mu Bufaransa na Colonel Aloys Simba ufungiye muri Benin, wahamijwe ibyaha bya Jenoside

Bahise batangaza ko ibikorwa bya politiki bibujijwe, ba burugumesitiri basabwa gukomeza inshingano zabo mu mahoro kimwe n’abanyamabanga nshingwabikorwa muri za Minisiteri, guverinoma isimbuzwa ‘Komite y’ubumwe n’amahoro’ yari iyobowe na Habyarimana ubwe.

Kayibanda yashinjwe byinshi

Kayibanda Grégoire niwe Minisitiri w’Intebe wa mbere u Rwanda rwagize, yanayoboye igihugu igihe cyabonaga ubwigenge.

Agera ku butegetsi mu mpera za 1960, kimwe mu by’ibanze byamuranze ni irondakarere nubwo bitagarukiye aho. Akimara gushyikira ubutegetsi, yahihibikaniye gushyiraho abayobozi mu nzego nkuru z’igihugu hafi ya bose bavaga mu yahoze ari Perefegitura ya Gitarama, mbarwa muri bo bakomoka muri Butare, Gikongoro, Kibuye na Kibungo.

Ubuyobozi bukuru bw’ingabo icyo gihe bwasaga n’ubwihariwe n’abakomokaga mu yahoze ari Ruhengeri na Gisenyi barimo Habyarimana, Col. Aloys Nsekarije, Col. Alex Kanyarengwe n’abandi. Uku guharira ubuyobozi bukuru bwa gisirikare abakomoka mu majyaruguru, Kayibanda yaje kubikuramo imbwa yiruka.

Hagati ya 1968-1969, ishyaka MDR Parmehutu rya Kayibanda ryacitsemo ibice: Kayibanda yatangiye gufata abasore bakirangiza Kaminuza, akajya abaha imyanya mu buyobozi akabasimbuza bamwe mu bakuze bamufashije kujya ku butegetsi, bituma bamwe batangira kumwigumuraho.

Umwuka warushijeho kuba mubi tariki 18 Gicurasi 1973 ubwo Kayibanda yasinyaga ibwiriza rihindura Itegeko Nshinga, aho mu ngingo zari zahinduwe hagaragayemo ikuramo umubare ntarengwa wa manda, imyaka igize manda ivanwa kuri ine iba itanu ndetse n’ingingo y’uko nta muntu urengeje imyaka 60 wakwiyamamariza kuyobora igihugu nayo yakuwemo.

Icyo gihe byari bivuze ko bamwe bumvaga bazamusimbura mu myaka yari bukurikireho bagombaga gusubiza amerwe mu isaho, cyangwa bagaca undi muvuno.

Benshi mu ba ofisiye bakuru mu gisirikare baturukaga mu Majyaruguru nabo batangiye kubona ingufu nke z’ubutegetsi bwa Kayibanda. Batangiye no kumushinja irondakarere, by’umwihariko abahutu bo mu Majyaruguru bari bafite inyota y’ubutegetsi bavuze ko yabwujujemo bene wabo baturuka mu Majyepfo by’umwihariko i Gitarama, hitwaga mu Nduga.

Ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside n’intege nke za Kayibanda

Ku ngoma ye, mu 1972 nibwo abanyeshuri n’abakozi b’Abatutsi batangiye kwirukanwa mu mashuri no mu kazi babikorewe na bagenzi babo. Icyo gihe bamwe barishwe, abandi inzu zabo ziratwikwa. Mbere gato mu 1959 ubwo Abatutsi bamwe bameneshwaga mu gihugu, abasigaye mu gihugu nibo babiryozwaga.

Mu gitabo ‘Toute ma vie pour vous mes frères’ cyanditswe n’umubiligi Baudouin Peternostre de la Mairieu wabaye Umujyanama wa Kayibanda mu by’ububanyi n’amahanga, avuga ko mu ntangiriro za 1973 mu gihugu byagaragaraga ko hashobora kuba impinduka mu butegetsi isaha iyo ari yo yose.

Perezida Kayibanda yari inshuti magara ya Habyarimana, aha basangiraga akabyeri

Icyo gihe mu Rwanda hari akaduruvayo kenshi ku buryo byagaragazaga intege nke z’ubutegetsi bwa Kayibanda. Uyu mugabo icyo gihe wari ufite imyaka 48, yarangwaga no kurwaragurika ku buryo bwageze aho butangira gutera inkeke ibyegera bye, naho abamurwanya bo batangira kubyuririraho. Baudouin Peternostre avuga ko bamwe mu basirikare bakuru bo mu Majyaruguru bashobora kuba baragize uruhare mu guteza akaduruvayo kugira ngo berekane ko ananiwe.

Urunturuntu n’akaduruvayo byatumye urwikekwe kuri Kayibanda rwiyongera ku buryo byageze aho atangira gukura bamwe mu basirikare bari bakomeye mu myanya barimo mu ngabo abashyira mu myanya isanzwe, nka Lt. Col. Kanyarengwe wagizwe umuyobozi wa Seminari Nto ku Nyundo n’abandi.

Tariki 1 Nyakanga 1973 ku munsi w’Ubwigenge, ibimenyetso byo guhirikwa Kayibanda yabiboneye kuri Stade Regional Nyamirambo aho umunsi mukuru wabereye.

Maj. Augustin Gatarayiha wari umu-ofisiye mu ngabo z’u Rwanda waganiriye na IGIHE kuri bimwe yibuka Kayibanda yaba yaravugiye muri ibyo birori, avuga ko yeruriye abashakaga kumuhirika.

Gatarayiha yagize ati “Kayibanda yaravuze ati ‘ndabizi ko mushaka kumpirika, nimubikore se turebe, mubikore aka kanya.’ Muri icyo gihe, uwitwa Alphonse Libanje wari kuri Radio Rwanda ngo akupa amajwi abanje kumubwira ngo ‘Vaho turaguhaze’.

Muri ako kanya Col. Nsekarije yahise asohoka muri stade, abari aho batangazwa no kubona Gen. Maj. Habyarimana nta cyo bimubwiye. Kubona Umugaba w’Ikirenga w’Ingabo Kayibanda asuzuguwe mu ruhame Habyarimana wayoboraga ingabo arebera, byari amarenga y’ibihe bya nyuma bya Kayibanda.

Iryavuzwe ryaratashye

Bivugwa ko Kayibanda yizeraga cyane Habyarimana ku buryo ngo hari n’abajyaga bamubwira ko ashobora kumuhirika akabita abasazi, ndetse bari inshuti ku buryo yari yaranamubyariye umwana muri batisimu.

Umunsi yahiritsweho tariki 5 Nyakanga 1973 ni bwo hagombaga kuba kongere y’Ishyaka MDR Parmehutu, hakemezwa uzarihagararira mu matora yagombaga kuba muri Nzeri uwo mwaka nk’uko Kayibanda yabyifuzaga ahindura Itegeko Nshinga.

Mu ijoro rishyira uwa 5 Nyakanga, Kayibanda yavanwe ku butegetsi mu buryo bwasaga n’ubwanogejwe bifatika by’icyo gihe. Abasirikare baramugose baramushimuta, avanwa i Kigali bajya kumufungira i Rwerere muri Komini Cyeru, Perefegitura ya Ruhengeri mu Ishuri ryigishaga ibijyanye n’ubuhinzi. Yari acunzwe n’abasirikare 15 ndetse nta burenganzira yari afite bwo gusurwa nk’izindi mfungwa zose.

Nyuma y’ibyumweru bike abari ibyegera bye n’abayobozi muri Leta batawe muri yombi barafungwa, baza no gukatirwa urwo gupfa, abandi bagenda bapfa uruhongohongo mu buryo budasobanutse.

Mu mpera za 1973, Habyarimana yohereje i Rwerere Umuyobozi Mukuru w’inama y’Abaminisitiri, Col Elie Sagatwa, ngo abwire Kayibanda kutiyumva nk’imfungwa, ko kandi igihe kizagera bakaganira.

Icyakora tariki 4 Gashyantare 1974, Kayibanda yagejejwe imbere y’urukiko, ku wa 26 Kamena akatirwa igihano cyo kwicwa we na bagenzi be batandatu. Gusa cyaje guhindurwamo igifungo cya burundu akomeza gufungirwa i Rwerere, ahakurwa ku wa 11 Nzeli 1974 ajyanwa mu rugo rwe ruri i Kavumu mu Murenge wa Nyamabuye, Akarere ka Muhanga hafi y’icyicaro cya Diyosezi ya Kabgayi.

Nyuma y’amezi abiri, umugore we witwa Verediane yitabye Imana. Nyuma y’imyaka ibiri, ahagana saa kumi za mu gitondo ku itariki ya 15 Ukuboza 1976, nibwo Kayibanda yashizemo umwuka ari kumwe n’umwana we w’imfura witwa Kayibanda Pie. Bivugwa ko yapfuye nyuma yo kwicishwa inzara.

Amakuru y’urupfu rwe yabanje kugirwa ibanga rikomeye kuko Abanyarwanda batahise bayamenyeshwa. Yamenywe bwa mbere n’abihaye Imana b’i Kabgayi, bayahererekanya hagati yabo mu ibanga rikomeye.

Habyarimana na we nta muti yazanye

Ku butegetsi bwa Habyarimana, ivanguramoko ryakomeje guhabwa intebe ndetse riva mu moko risingira uturere, mbere ibyo yitaga gucamo igihugu ibice nawe arabyimakaza, arema icyo bise Akazu, politiki y’iringaniza igamije gupyinagaza Abatutsi ihabwa intebe.

Maj. Gatarayiha wabaye mu Gisirikare cya Habyarimana kuva mu 1972-1993, yabwiye IGIHE ko hiyongereyeho n’uburyo abahutu b’abanye-Nduga bamwijunditse ko uretse kuba yarahiritse mwene wabo, yanishe urw’agashinyaguro abategetsi batandukanye.

Hari ubwo mu 1992-1993 bisutse mu mihanda mu nkundura y’amashyaka menshi, bamusaba kurekura ubutegetsi n’umujinya n’inzika ikomeye bari bamufitiye kubera ibyo yabakoreye.

Maj. Gatarayiha avuga ko ubwo imyigaragambyo yari irimbanije, Habyarimana yamutumije muri Village Urugwiro kabiri yikurikiranya ngo amubaze icyo gukora n’uko yakwigobotora imyigaragambyo n’amashyaka yamurwanyaga, anamubaza uwamuhitishamo kujya mu ishyaka, ari irihe yahitamo.

Yagize ati “Namubwiye ko nta shyaka na rimwe najyamo ndetse ko na MRND ntayijyamo, kandi mwerurira ko urugamba rw’amashyaka rutoroshye nk’uwari ushinzwe umutekano mu Mujyi wa Kigali. Yubika umutwe nk’iminota itanu, awubuye ambaza icyo yamfasha kubera yakundaga guha abasirikare amafaranga nk’iturufu yo kubikundishaho, mubwira ko njye ntacyo nkeneye, arumirwa”.

Ubwo Perezida Kayibanda yabaga ari mu gikorwa gikomeye, Habyarimana wari na Minisitiri w'Ingabo yabaga ari hafi aho

Maj. Gatarayiha wanayoboye Ikigo cya Gisirikare cya Gitarama kuva 1982-1990, anavuga ko mu ishyingurwa rya Kayibanda, nta wundi munyacyubahiro mu bariho wahakandagiye uretse abantu bacye cyane bo mu muryango wa Kayibanda bamushyinguye.

Akebo kajya iwa Mugarura

Uko iminsi yagendaga ihita, ni ko Habyarimana yatangiye kwamaganwa n’abaturage be bari baramuririmbye nyuma yo guhirika inshuti ye magara.

Kimwe mu bintu Maj. Gatarayiha yibuka byaciye amarenga y’iherezo rya Habyarimana, ni aho ngo muri imwe mu mbwirwaruhame yavuze, yeruriye bamwe mu basirikare ko n’ubwo birirwa bamukomera mu mashyi azi neza ko ari uburyarya.

Ibyo ngo byaje kudobywa n’igihe mu 1993 yasezereraga abasirikare bakomeye mu kazi barimo n’abo bafatanye ubutegetsi, urunturuntu rutangira ubwo maze bamwe barya karungu, bitangira guca amarenga yo kumucurira imigambi mibisha.

Undi wakoze kuri Habyarimana ni Zigiranyirazo Protais wari muramu we, waje gusa n’uwigaruriye ubutegetsi aciye muri mushiki we wari umugore wa Habyarimana, Kanziga Agatha. Guverinoma ngo yabaga igiye guhinduka abashaka ubutegetsi bakajya gucinya inkoro kwa Zigiranyirazo ngo azabahe imyanya.

Urwango, ubugome no kutareba kure byaranze ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana, byagize ingaruka mbi ku gihugu cyose n’abagituye, birushaho kuba bibi ubwo indege ye yaraswaga mu ijoro ryo ku wa 6 Mata 1994.

Byanahuriranye n’uko abahezanguni b’Abahutu bari bamaze igihe baramize ivanguramoko ndetse baritoza n’abandi, bari baracuze umugambi wo kurimbura Abatutsi maze babona icyuho batangira kuwushyira mu bikorwa.

Gusa ibyo byashyizweho akadomo n’ingabo zari iza FPR Inkotanyi nubwo Jenoside yari imaze guhitana abasaga miliyoni imwe, zirayihagarika, zitanga icyerekezo gishya ku gihugu, himakazwa ubwiyunge iby’ari amoko n’uturere bisimbuzwa Ubunyarwanda.

Ingoma ya Kayibanda yaranzwe no kwimakaza urwango, irondakoko n’akarere, urwango rukaze ku batutsi ndetse no kubamenesha n’ibindi bisa n’ibi. Ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana bwaje bukomeza umurongo usa n’uw’ubwa Kayibanda, gusa ibyari irondakarere ryari ryarashyize ku ibere abanyenduga birangira ribacukije, ibere ritamikwa abakiga n’abagoyi.

Ibyari urwango no kumenesha abatutsi byaje gufata intera ikaze ku ngoma ya Habyarimana, rurangiza iba Jenoside yabakorewe ku buryo ubwo u Rwanda rwavaga mu maboko ya Kayibanda rukajya mu maboko ya Habyarimana, rwavuye mu bihe by’icuraburindi rigana mu rindi curaburindi ariko noneho ry’inkazi.

Harabaye ntihakabe...

Juvenal Habyarimana yahemukiye munywanyi we ntibyamuhira

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