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Hari gukorwa iki ngo ibyigwa mu mashuri bihuzwe n’ibikenewe ku isoko ry’umurimo ?

Yanditswe na Akayezu Jean de Dieu
Kuya 30 Nyakanga 2021 saa 07:07
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Ku muntu wize akarangiza amashuri yisumbuye mu myaka 20, ibyinshi mu byo yigaga byarahindutse bitewe n’uko iterambere ry’ikoranabuhanga ryaba irikoreshwa muri serivisi abantu bakenera umunsi ku munsi ndetse n’irikoreshwa mu nganda rigenda rihinduka.

Abikorera by’umwihariko abafite ibigo bitanga akazi ku barangiza amashuri bahorana impungenge z’uko ubumenyi bazana mu kazi budahura n’ubwo baba bifuzwaho bigira ingaruka zikomeye ndetse bigatuma ikigero cy’ubushomeri gikomeza gutumbagira by’umwihariko mu rubyiruko cyane ko ari na rwo rurangiza amashuri ku bwinshi.

Ikigo cy’Igihugu cy’Ibarurishamibare mu 2020, cyagaragaje ko ibipimo by’ubushomeri byiyongereye mu rubyiruko aho bwari ku kigero cya 22.4% ugereranyije na 17.9% by’ubushomeri muri rusange ku rwego rw’igihugu.

Ibi kandi binajyana no kuba igipimo cy’ubushomeri ku bantu batize kiri hasi ugereranyije n’abize kuko ubushomeri ku bantu batize ari 15.1% mu gihe igipimo cy’ubushomeri ku bantu bize kiri kuri 25% ku barangije ayisumbuye na 15.7% ku barangije Kaminuza.

Mu kiganiro na IGIHE, Umuyobozi w’Urugaga rw’Abikorera mu Rwanda, PSF, Robert Bapfakurera yavuze ko ubusanzwe iki ari ikibazo gikomeye kandi gihangayikishije ariko ahanini giterwa no kuba ibyigishwa mu mashuri bitarahuzwa n’ibikenewe ku isoko ry’umurimo.

Ati “Hakwiriye kugira igikorwa, kimwe ni amasomo agendanye n’ibikenewe ku isoko ry’umurimo, icya kabiri ni uguherekeza abarangiza amashuri cyangwa gufatanya n’abikorera gushyiraho uburyo abarangiza amashuri bajya batozwa imirimo ndetse bakanamenyekana ku isoko.”

Bapfakurera avuga kandi ko akenshi uwikorera we iyo akeneye gutanga akazi ashaka wa muntu ubizi kandi ubifitiye ubushobozi, bityo bigakomeza kuba imbogamizi kuri ba banyeshuri baba barangije amashuri bataragira ubwo bunararibonye bukenewe.

Ati “Uwikorera iyo ashaka serivisi cyangwa gutanga akazi agerageza gushaka umuntu ubizi, ba bandi bashobora kuba batanga akazi muri ziriya nzego abarangije amashuri babarizwamo, hari ubwo abarangiza amashuri baba badafite ubwo bushobozi cyangwa ubumenyi bwifuzwa n’uwikorera.”

Bapfakurera asaba abikorera by’umwihariko abafite inganda gufatanya na Leta mu gufasha abarangiza amashuri kwimenyereza imyuga kugira ngo bazavemo abakora akazi k’Abanyarwanda cyangwa abahanga inganda zabo.

Avuga kandi ko no ku mashuri yigisha imyuga, hakenewe gukomeza kuganira haba ku ruhande rw’abikorera ndetse na Leta kugira ngo abayigamo bajye bafashwa bahabwe ubwo bumenyi abikorera bakeneye.

Ati “Ibiganiro hagati y’amashuri n’abikorera birakenewe n’abikorera kandi bashishikarizwa gufasha abanyeshuri cyangwa abarangiza amashuri kubatoza imirimo kugira ngo mu myaka iri imbere tuzabe dufite abanyeshuri bacu bafite ubumenyi bukenewe ku isoko ry’umurimo kandi bakore iyo mirimo y’Abanyarwanda aho kujya kuzana abanyamahanga.”

Abagize Inteko Ishinga Amategeko, Imitwe yombi baherutse kubaza Minisitiri w’Intebe, Dr Ngirente Edouard, ingamba guverinoma ifite mu gukemura iki kibazo gihangayikishije igihugu.

Senateri Mureshyankwano Marie Rose yagize ati “Hari inama ya Sena yari yafashe umwanzuro wo kwihutisha inyigo ku isesengura ry’imirimo ikenewe mu gihugu mu gihe giciriritse ndetse n’igihe kirambye hagamije gushyira imbaraga mu guhuza ibyigishwa mu mashuri n’ibikenewe ku isoko ry’umurimo.”

Minisitiri w’Intebe, Dr Ngirente Edouard yamusubije ko “Iki cyararangiye. Uyu mushinga wararangiye, ni inyigo twari twayise ‘skills gap’ kumenya ngo mu Rwanda dukeneye abantu bangana iki bize iki muri buri kintu? Iyo nyigo yararangiye ubu tuzi ngo mu Rwanda dukeneye abantu bize gukora amashanyarazi bangana gutya, abize ibyo gukora amazi bangana gutya.”

Yakomeje agira ati “Dushobora no kuvuga ngo dukeneye abagoronome bize iby’icyayi bangahe, abize kuhira bangahe? Ikibazo dufite ubu ni ugushyira gahunda zisobanutse mu kugenda dusubiza icyo cyuho, tukavuga ngo niba dusanze mu baganga aho dukeneye abantu benshi ni aha n’aha turohereza abantu kwiga ari benshi aho hantu dufitemo abantu bake babyize.”

Ku rundi ruhande ariko Guverinoma irateganya gushyiraho amabwiriza agenga gahunda ya Igira ku Murimo (Workplace Learning), aho ateganya uburyo bw’imikorere n’imikoranire hagati y’abagira uruhare muri gahunda z’imenyerezamwuga kugira ngo imbogamizi zagaragaye ziveho.

Imirimo ihangwa ni agatonyanga mu nyanja

Raporo iheruka ya Minisiteri y’Abakozi ba Leta n’Umurimo, Mifotra igaragaza ko nibura buri mwaka Abanyarwanda binjira ku isoko ry’umurimo [ni ukuvuga ababa barangije amashuri mu byiciro bitandukanye] ari 225.000.

Ku rundi ruhande ariko, Mifotra igaragaza ko ku mwaka hahangwa imirimo 214000. Ni ukuvuga ko abinjira ku isoko ry’umurimo baruta cyane imirimo iteganywa guhangwa, irimo iya leta n’iy’abikorera.

Ibibazo bikomeye bikibangamiye iyi gahunda yo guhanga imirimo myinshi birimo kuba ubumenyi butangwa mu mashuri usanga akenshi budahura n’ibiba bikenewe ku isoko ry’umurimo, ba rwiyemezamirimo b’urubyiruko ugasanga bagifite ibibazitira byinshi birimo amananiza mu bisabwa bijyanye n’inguzanyo z’ibigo by’imari n’ibindi.

Bapfakurera avuga ko ahanini iki kibazo cyo kuba abarangiza amashuri bakeneye akazi baba ari benshi kurusha imirimo ihari, ahanini biterwa no kuba badafite ubumenyi cyangwa se n’ababufite ntibabashe guhura na babandi batanga akazi.

Aati “Ugiye kureba abatanga serivisi mu Rwanda mu buryo butandukanye usanga bakiri bake kandi abasohoka mu mashuri ari benshi, hari ugusohoka ari benshi badafite ubumenyi, ikindi cya kabiri ni ukutagira uburyo bubahuza n’abatanga akazi.”

Yakomeje agira ati “Ikindi ariko iyi mirimo usanga imyinshi ahandi itangwa n’abafite inganda, kandi burya gushinga uruganda biragora, bisaba ubushobozi bw’amafaranga niyo mpamvu dushishikariza abikorera bashaka gushora imari, kwihuriza hamwe kugira ngo bahuze imbaraga babashe gushinga za nganda zizatanga ibisubizo ku kibazo cy’imirimo mike.”

Minisitiri w’Intebe, Dr Ngirente abihuza n’ubwiyongere bw’abaturage akavuga ko kuba abaturage b’u Rwanda biyongera ku kigero cya 2.7%, hakenewe ko n’inganda zihangwa ziyongera ku muvuduko uri hejuru cyane.

Ati “Ni ikibazo cy’uko mu rwego rw’inganda ari naho abantu bakwiye kujya gukora ari benshi ,inganda zitiyongera ngo zizamuke nk’uko abaturage biyongera, ubu uko abaturage bacu biyongera ni 2.7% buri mwaka.”

Yakomeje agira ati “Abo biyongeraho buri mwaka ni ko baba binjira mu ishuri buri mwaka, bakiga bakarangiza bagasohoka bajya ku isoko ry’umurimo.”

Minisitiri w’Intebe Dr Ngirente yavuze ko nka guverinoma ikomeje gushyira imbaraga mu korohereza abashoramari baba ab’imbere mu gihugu n’abo hanze kugira ngo bashinge inganda nyinshi zishobora mu gufasha mu guhanga imirimo myinshi.

Ati “Hakenewe rero uwo muvuduko mu guhanga imirimo, kugira ngo imirimo ihangwe mu buryo bwinshi ni uko dushyiraho inganda nyinshi, ni yo gahunda ihari dufite nka guverinoma yo guhanga inganda nyinshi zishoboka mu Rwanda kandi turabona igenda itanga ibisubizo.”

Kuva mu 2017, ubwo hatangiraga ishyirwa mu bikorwa rya gahunda yo kwihutisha iterambere ry’ubukungu n’imibereho myiza, NST1, kugeza uyu munsi hamaze guhangwa imirimo mishya 778,136.

Muri iyo mirimo harimo iy’urubyiruko ingana na 658,630 bingana na 84.6%.

Gahunda ya Guverinoma y’imyaka irindwi (2017-2024) iteganya ko nibura mu gihugu hazahangwa imirimo mishya idashingiye ku buhinzi igera kuri miliyoni 1.5.

Guverinoma yamaze kunoza umushinga uzafasha abarangiza amashuri kuba bafite ubumenyi bukenewe ku isoko ry'umurimo
Minisitiri w'Intebe, Dr Ngirente Edouard avuga ko Guverinoma iri kuvugutira umuti ikibazo cy'amasomo yigishwa mu mashuri adahura n'ibikenewe ku isoko ry'umurimo
Umuyobozi wa PSF, Robert Bapfakurera yavuze ko hakenewe ubufatanye hagati ya Leta n'Abikorera mu guhuza ibyigishwa mu mashuri n'ibikenewe ku isoko ry'umurimo

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