Hahishuwe inyandiko simusiga ku bufasha bwa Leta y’u Bufaransa mu mugambi wo gucikisha abajenosideri

Yanditswe na Musangwa Arthur
Kuya 16 Gashyantare 2021 saa 01:33
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Imyaka isaga 27 irashize Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994, yahitanye ubuzima bw’inzirakarengane zirenga miliyoni ibaye. Kuva icyo gihe haracyari igihu ku ruhare u Bufaransa bwayigizemo.

U Bufaransa bwagize ijambo rikomeye cyane mu Rwanda ku butegetsi bwa Habyarimana Juvénal. Muri icyo gihe bwatanze inkunga ikomeye haba mu by’ubukungu n’ibya gisirikare.

Guhera mu 1990 ubwo FPR Inkotanyi yatangiza urugamba rwo kwibohora, icyo gihugu cyakomeje gutanga inkunga ya gisirikare n’imyitozo ku Ngabo z’u Rwanda n’umutwe w’Interahamwe, byagize ruhare rukomeye muri Jenoside.

U Bufaransa bushinjwa gutera inkunga Leta yateguye Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi ikanayishyira mu bikorwa gusa iki gihugu nta na rimwe cyemeye uruhare rwayo.

Nyuma y’igihe kirekire, ikinyamakuru Mediapart cyabonye inyandiko zishimangira ko ingabo z’u Bufaransa zari mu Rwanda nyuma ya Jenoside zafashije abajenosideri gutoroka bahungira mu mashyamba ya Zaïre, ubu ni muri Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo.

Ku wa 22 Kamena mu 1994, ni bwo Loni ibisabwe n’u Bufaransa yafashe umwanzuro No 929 ubwemerera kohereza ingabo zabwo mu Rwanda mu cyiswe “Opération Turquoise”, yafatwaga nk’igamije ibikorwa by’ubutabazi ku bari mu kaga.

Izi ngabo zagiye muri “Zone Turquoise” yari igice kigizwe n’ahahoze Perefegitura za Cyangugu, Gikongoro na Kibuye ari naho hiciwe Abatutsi benshi nyuma yo gutabwa n’ingabo z’Abafaransa mu maboko y’Interahamwe.

Abafaransa bageze mu Rwanda bitwaje intwaro zikomeye bisa n’aho biteguye kurwana inkundura. Bari bitwaje indege z’intambara zirenga 30 abasirikare 2500, kandi byari bizwi ko icyo gihugu cyari gifitanye umubano mwiza na leta yari iriho yaba iy’abatazi n’iyari yarayibanjirije zarimo zica Abatutsi umunsi ku wundi.

Aho gutabara abari mu kaga, ingabo zoherejwe muri ‘Opération Turquoise’, zo zari zifite gahunda yo kugaba ibitero ku ngabo za APR zari zafashe Kigali, zinaharura inzira yo guhungisha ingabo zari zimaze gukora Jenoside.

Inyandiko nshya ku ruhare rw’u Bufaransa mu gihe cya Jenoside yerekana ko itegeko ryo guhungisha abajenosideri kabombo ryatanzwe n’abayobozi b’iki gihugu, mu gihe byashobokaga ko batabwa muri yombi bakaryozwa ibyo bakoze.

Iyo nyandiko yabonywe n’Umushakashatsi w’Umufaransa, François Graner [wanditse igitabo yise ‘Le Sabre de la Machette’, kivuga ku ruhare rw’u Bufaransa muri Jenoside akaba anabarizwa mu Muryango Survie uharanira ubutabera kuri Jenoside], uheruka kwemererwa kwinjira mu nyandiko zo ku butegetsi bwa François Mitterrand.

Mediapart yatangaje ko iyo nyandiko yavuye mu Biro bya Minisitiri w’Ububanyi n’Amahanga w’u Bufaransa w’icyo gihe, Alain Juppé, ishimangira ko iki gihugu cyaretse abajenosideri barigendera ndetse yanasinyweho n’Umuyobozi w’Urwego rushinzwe Iperereza ryo hanze y’Igihugu, DGSE.

U Bufaransa bwageze mu Rwanda mu mutaka wo kurinda abaturage birangira bwifatanyije n'abicaga Abatutsi

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Iyo nyandiko y’ibanga yo ku wa 15 Nyakanga 1994 ya Minisiteri y’Ububanyi n’Amahanga, yayoborwaga na Alain Juppé yohererejwe uwari Ambasaderi w’u Bufaransa mu Rwanda, Yannick Gérard.

Ambasaderi Gérard yari yamaze kwandikira Guverinoma y’u Bufaransa asaba amabwiriza agomba kubahirizwa kugira ngo hatabwe muri yombi abayobozi yanditse muri télégramme agaragaza ko ‘bagize uruhare rukomeye muri Jenoside.’

Abayobozi benshi bo muri Leta yakoze Jenoside barimo Perezida Théodore Sindikubwabo, bari mu gace kagenzurwaga n’Ingabo z’u Bufaransa hafi y’Umupaka w’icyari Zaïre. Yaje guhungira muri icyo gihugu muri Nyakanga 1994, afashijwe n’Ingabo z’u Bufaransa. Yapfuye mu 1998 ndetse yari atarabazwa ku byaha yakoze.

Umwe mu bayobozi bakuru wabonye abo bajenosideri, yagize ati “Nta yandi mahitamo twari dufite, twirengagije ibibazo byari bihari usibye kubata muri yombi mu gihe hategerejwe ko inkiko mpuzamahanga zibyemerewe zibigaho.’’

Igisubizo cya Guverinoma y’u Bufaransa cyari gitandukanye n’ubusabe bwa Ambasaderi Gérard.

Muri télégramme yo ku wa 15 Nyakanga, yanditswe saa 18h22 igenerwa “Yannick Gérard” wenyine, Ibiro bya Minisitiri Juppé byategetse ko abajenosideri binyuze ‘mu bushake bwacu bava’ mu gace kagenzurwa n’Ingabo z’u Bufaransa.

Ubwo butumwa bwasaga n’ububurira Ambasaderi Gérard kutivanga we ubwe mu bibazo by’abajenosideri.Iyo télégramme yari ifite umutwe usaba uwabugenewe ‘gutanga ubutumwa bwacu ariko mu buryo buziguye’.

Igira iti “Ku rundi ruhande, ushobora gukoresha inzira zose zishoboka ukananyura mu Banyafurika muziranye, kugira ngo udahita wivamo.’’

“Uzashimangire ko umuryango mpuzamahanga ndetse by’umwihariko Loni izagena mu gihe cya vuba, ikigomba gukurikiraho ku birebana n’aba bayobozi.’’

Nguko uko abajenosideri bafashijwe gutorokera muri RDC, mu buryo bwari bwateguwe neza mu kuyobya uburari ku ruhare rw’u Bufaransa muri icyo gikorwa.

Iyo nyandiko kandi yasinyweho n’Umuyobozi wa DGSE, Bernard Émié, wari Umujyanama wa Alain Juppé mbere yo kwinjira mu Ngoro y’Umukuru w’Igihugu, Élysée, ku butegetsi bwa Jacques Chirac.

Mediapart yagerageje kuvugana na Alain Juppé na Bernard Émié ariko nta n’umwe wifuje kugira icyo abitangazaho.

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Hari inyandiko zerekana ko hari ibiganiro byabayeho muri Gicurasi 1994, hagati ya Sindikubwabo Théodore na Christian Quesnot wabaye Umugaba w’ingabo wihariye wa Perezida Mitterand kuva mu 1991 kugeza mu 1995.

Inyandiko yo ku wa 6 Gicurasi yanditswe bizwi na François Mitterrand, nyuma y’ibiganiro yagiranye na Perezida mushya wa Guverinoma y’abajenosideri, ivuga ko ubwicanyi bwatangiye mu kwezi gushize, ndetse ‘bamushimira’ byose ‘yakoreye u Rwanda.’

Mu butumwa bwe asoza inyandiko, Général Quesnot, yemera ko bafashije no mu buryo buziguye abayobozi b’u Rwanda mu rugamba rwo guhangana na FPR Inkotanyi.

Général Quesnot yavuze ko batinyaga igitekerezo cyo gushyiraho igihugu cy’Abatutsi gusa cyiswe “Tutsiland’’ ibyo yavuze ko biteye inkeke; iyo nyandiko yananyuze mu biganza bya Hubert Védrine wabaye Umuyobozi Mukuru mu Biro bya Perezida w’u Bufaransa hagati ya 1991 na 1995.

Icyo gihe ariko dipolomasi na serivisi z’iperereza z’u Bufaransa zakomeje gukusanya ibimenyetso ku ruhare rwa Guverinoma y’inzibacyuho muri Jenoside.

Inyandiko ya dipolomasi yo ku wa 10 Nyakanga 1994 ya Ambasaderi Gérard, yabonywe n’umushakashatsi François Graner, igaragaza ko hari “ubuhamya bushimangira uruhare ruhuriweho n’urwihariye rw’abayobozi b’i Gisenyi [bari muri Guverinoma yakoze Jenoside] mu bwicanyi.’’

Uyu mudipolomate yongeyeho ko hashingiwe ku bundi buhamya, Perezida Sindikubwabo ubwe inshuro nyinshi ‘yategetse iyicwa ry’Abatutsi’, ndetse umwe mu baminisitiri yashishikarije ko habaho ubwicanyi bw’abagore n’abana.

Nyuma y’iminsi itanu ni bwo Ambasaderi Gérard yasabye amabwiriza yo guta muri yombi abo bayobozi bakoze Jenoside ariko nta cyakozwe kuko abayobozi bakuru muri Guverinoma y’u Bufaransa batabyumvikanyeho.

Inyandiko ziri mu bubiko bwa Élysée, zatangajwe na Reuters mu gitondo cyo ku wa 15 Nyakanga zari zifitwe umutwe ugaragaza ko “Paris yiteguye guta muri yombi abagize Guverinoma y’Inzibacyuho mu Rwanda’’, ikomeza iti “Bazafatwa nibagera mu maboko y’abasirikare b’Abafaransa bari mu bikorwa byo gutanga ubutabazi mu bikorwa bya Opération Turquoise.’’

Nyuma y’imyaka ine, Jenoside ibaye mu 1998, ni bwo byatangajwe ko Mitterrand nta kibazo yari afite cyo ‘guta muri yombi abakoze Jenoside.’

Yongeyeho ko “nticyari ikibazo cyanjye cyo kubareka bakajya mu buhungiro muri Zaïre.

Ibi ni byo byabaye bitanzweho itegeko na Minisitiri we, Alain Juppé mu gihe mu Rwanda ibyo bikorwa [byo gucikisha abajenosideri] byari biyobowe na Lieutenant-Colonel Jacques Hogard, wayoboraga ingabo zari muri Turquoise i Cyangugu.

Lieutenant-colonel Hogard yabihamije inshuro nyinshi mu biganiro yigeze kugirana n’umunyamakuru David Servenay n’umwanditsi Gabriel Périès, wanditse igitabo Une guerre noire (La Découverte).

Muri iki gitabo, uyu musirikare abara inkuru ko yagiye kureba mugenzi we wo muri Zaïre ngo baganire ku bajenosideri yari yiteguye kurekura bakagenda.

Ati “Ntimufunge imipaka, mubareke bagende, sinshaka ko mubuza aba bantu kugenda. Zaïre ni nini, bagomba kugenda.’’

Kuva ku wa 16 Nyakanga, nyuma y’umunsi umwe, Ibiro bya Juppé byohereje télégramme, Lieutenant- Colonel Hogard yahuye na Perezida ngo amumenyesha ko we n’inkoramutima ze bagomba kugenda mu masaha 24.

Nguko uko u Bufaransa bwaherekeje abayobozi bakuru bagize uruhare muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, bubageza ku Mupaka wa Zaïre.

Nyuma y’igihe kirekire kandi Guillaume Ancel wahoze ari Umusirikare Mukuru w’u Bufaransa wari mu Rwanda mu gihe cya Jenoside na we yabyanditse mu gitabo yise ‘Rwanda, la fin du silence, éditions Belles Lettres) avuga ko yabonye Lieutenant-Colonel Hogard inshuro nyinshi.

Mu buhamya bwe yagize ati “Arabizi neza ko atari inshingano zacu gutanga ubutabera ariko guherekezanya ubwuzu abagize uruhare mu byemezo bidakwiye byaganishije ku bwicanyi, amaraso akaba abari ku gahanga biramurya. Yashoboraga kubahagarika, yashoboraga kuburizamo umugambi wabo ariko amabwiriza ye nta mahitamo yamuhaye.’’

Inyandiko ya Minisiteri y’Ingabo mu Bufaransa yemeje ko abajenosideri bambutse umupaka w’u Rwanda na Zaïre ku wa 17 Nyakanga 1994. Icyo gihe banafashije ingabo za FAR kugumana intwaro ku buryo zazifashisha mu kwisuganyiriza kongera gutera igihugu.

Ingabo z'u Bufaransa zishyirwa mu majwi mu bikorwa byo guha imyitozo intagondwa z'Abahutu zatije umurindi Jenosideyakorewe Abatutsi
Hasohotse inyandiko nshya ishimangira uruhare rw’u Bufaransa mu gutorokesha abajenosideri berekeza mu mashyamba ya Zaïre, ubu ni muri Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo
Perezida François Mitterrand yari yariyemeje gushyigikira Habyarimana Juvénal muri byose kuko bari inshuti magara

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