Habuze iki ngo ireme ry’uburezi mu mashuri Makuru na za Kaminuza rigerweho mu Rwanda?

Yanditswe na Emma-Marie Umurerwa
Kuya 6 Gicurasi 2018 saa 08:38
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Ikibazo cy’ireme ry’uburezi mu byiciro byose by’amashuri mu Rwanda, ni kimwe mu bigarukwaho na benshi byagera mu mashuri Makuru na za Kaminuza bakahaca akarongo, kuko bimwe mu bipimo byifashishwa mu kuripima bigaragaza ko ryazahaye ndetse hatagize igikorwa bishobora kuzagira ingaruka ku hazaza h’igihugu.

Nubwo ireme ry’uburezi risobanuye byinshi, iyo ufashe igipimo kimwe cy’ibizamini by’akazi n’ibyo kwinjira mu ngaga z’imyuga itandukanye ku barangije amashuri Makuru na za Kaminuza, ntutinda kubona ko ricumbagira.

Urugero rwa hafi ni aho mu bizamini biherutse gutangwa n’urugaga rw’abaforomo, abaforomokazi n’ababyaza, abagera kuri 927 mu barenga gato 2000 babitsinzwe bigatuma batabona uburenganzira bwo kwinjira mu kazi nk’abanyamwuga.

Si aho gusa kuko no mu rugaga rw’Abavoka usanga ikizamini baha abashaka kurwinjiramo gitsinda bake kuko mu bantu nka 180 baherutse kugikora, abagera kuri 80 aribo bemerewe gukora icy’ikiganiro (interview).

Ni ikibazo cy’urusobe inzego zifite aho zihuriye n’uburezi zivuga ko gishobora kuba gifite aho gihuriye no kuba abarimu badahagije n’abahari ntibashyire mu bikorwa integanyanyigisho ndetse n’abanyeshuri bakiga badafite intego.

Mu kiganiro Urubuga rw’Itangazamakuru giherutse gutambuka kuri Televiziyo Isango, Umuyobozi Mukuru w’Inama Nkuru y’amashuri Makuru na za Kaminuza (HEC), Dr Emmanuel Muvunyi, yemeje ko nubwo hari byinshi bimaze kugerwaho, mu Rwanda hakiri ikibazo cy’ireme ry’uburezi.

Yagize ati “Ubu hari ikibazo kijyanye n’ireme ry’uburezi […] abanyeshuri benshi babonye amahirwe yo kujya mu mashuri, abanza, ayisumbuye na za kaminuza ntabwo byajyanye n’uburyo twifuza ireme ry’uburezi rikenewe, ari naho imbaraga zirimo zishyirwa ubu.”

Akomeza avuga ko mu birimo gukorwa kugira ngo ireme ry’uburezi rigerweho ari uguhuza ibyo abanyeshuri biga n’isoko ry’umurimo kandi abarimu bakaba ishingiro ryabyo.

Dr Muvunyi avuga kandi ko kudashyira mu bikorwa integanyanyigisho uko bikwiye nabyo bikomeza kuba inzitizi ku ireme ry’uburezi, kuko usanga iyo Kaminuza yemererwa gutangira gukorera mu Rwanda yerekanye integanyanyigisho ariko kuyikurikiza kikaba ikibazo.

Ati “Imfashanyigisho uburyo yubatse n’uburyo yigishwa ugiye kuyisoma neza iba inagaragaza uburyo umwarimu azayigisha n’ubumenyi umunyeshuri wiga ayo masomo azarangiza afite, ariko ikibazo gihari ni uburyo bishyirwa mu bikorwa. Hakenewe kongerwa imbaraga mu guhuza imfashanyanyigisho zitegurwa n’ibikenewe ku isoko ry’umurimo.”

Hari abanyeshuri barangiza muri Kaminuza muri iki gihe, bakagorwa no gutsinda ibizamini bibemerera akazi runaka

Abarimu badahagije

Hitabakuze Claudien ushinzwe ishami rishinzwe imicungire n’iterambere ry’abarimu mu kigo cy’igihugu gishinzwe uburezi, REB, yavuze ko mu mashami arimo iry’ubuvuzi [Medecine] hamwe n’ishami rya ‘Engineering’ hakiri ikibazo cy’abarimu b’inzobere, ibi nabyo bikagira ingaruka ku ireme ry’uburezi.

Yagize ati “Mu nzego zose ntabwo dufite abarimu bahagije, gusa hari icyizere ko mu gihe cya vuba abarimu bageze ku rwego twifuza byanze bikunze tuzaba tubafite […] mu biga uburezi twavuga ko dufitemo abarimu bahagije, ariko wagera mu rwego rw’ubuvuzi ‘engineering’ niho usanga abarimu bakiri bacye cyangwa se ababyize bakiri bake.”

Asobanura ko ibi byatewe nuko igihugu kitigeze kigira ubushobozi mu myaka ishize bwo kuba kwigisha abarimu bageze ku rwego rwo kugira impamyabumenyi y’ikirenga ‘PhD’ bikaba ngombwa ko bajya kwiga hanze.

Abanyeshuri biga nta shyaka bafite

Maniriho Emmy Arisonval, umwarimu muri Kaminuza ya Gikiristu, ushinzwe ishami ry’itangazamakuru, avuga kuri ubu hari abanyeshuri basigaye biga badafite ishyaka, bigatuma ireme ry’uburezi ryifuzwa ritagerwaho.

Yagize ati “Abanyeshuri biga ibintu bitabarimo kandi nta shyaka bafite, indangagaciro zituma umunyeshuri agira guhanga usanga harimo ikibazo.”

Kwimenyereza umwuga ‘stage’ biracyarimo ikibazo

Nk’uko Maniriho yakomeje abivuga ngo abanyeshuri bajya kwimenyereza umwuga mu bigo bitandukanye ntibahabwa amahirwe.

Yagize ati “Muri iki gihugu cyacu dufite ikibazo kijyanye no kwimenyereza umwuga ‘stage’, abanyeshuri tubohereza mu nzego zitandukanye ugasanga umuntu baramwakiriye bamuhaye aho yicara gusa ntibamukurikirane.”

Asaba ko Leta yashyiraho amabwiriza ku buryo ibigo bya Leta n’ibyigenga byaba bifite inshingano zo kwakira no gufasha abimenyereza umwuga buri mwaka.

Ikibazo cyo kwimenyereza umwuga cyanagarutsweho na Dr Muvunyi, wavuze ko barimo kuganira na za Kaminuza ngo bareba uko byashyirwamo imbaraga.

Yagize ati “Ubundi dusaba kaminuza ko bashyiraho amasezerano n’abantu bikorera, umunyeshuri icyo yize cyose aba agomba kujya kwimenyereza umwuga kandi agakurikiranwa. Hari kaminuza n’amashuri makuru dukorera igenzura tugasanga gukurikirana abanyeshuri bajya kwimenyereza umwuga bidakorwa neza, aho umunyeshuri agenda bakazongera kumubona agarutse.”

Nubwo hari byinshi bigaragaza ko ireme ry’uburezi rikijegajega mu Rwanda, Dr Muvunyi yemeza ko uru rwego hari aho rwavuye n’aho rugeze, aho abanyarwanda bafite amahirwe angana yo kwiga, Leta ndete n’abantu ku giti cyabo bakaba barashyize imbaraga mu kubaka amashuri mu bice bitandukanye by’igihugu guhera ku y’incuke, abanza, ayisumbuye ndetse na za kaminuza.

Mbere ya 1994 mu Rwanda hari kaminuza imwe n’amashuri makuru atatu, ubu hari agera kuri 31.

Ni iki cyakorwa

REB ndetse na HEC basanga abayobozi b’amashuri makuru ndetse na za Kaminuza, bakwiye kubahiriza ibikubiye mu nteganyanyigisho baba bafite kandi bakigisha abanyeshuri hagamijwe kubaha ubumenyi bw’ibyo bazajyana mu ipiganwa ku isoko ry’umurimo.

Abanyeshuri nabo barasabwa kwiga bafite ishyaka ryo kumenya no gutsinda, bakirinda kwiga byo kurangiza umuhango gusa.

Hari uko abanyeshuri babibona

Umwe mu banyeshuri biga muri kaminuza yabwiye IGIHE ko atemeranya n’abavuga ko hari abiga badafite ishyaka. Ati “Nibashaka kureba aho ireme ry’uburezi ripfira bazarebe mu buryo abanyeshuri bigishwa. Nawe se usanga mu masaha arindwi, harimo amasaha abiri gusa yo gushyira mu ngiro ibyo bize [pratique] andi yose ari amagambo gusa, ubwo urumva umuntu yarangiza azi iki kitari inyuguti?”

Yakomeje ati “Ireme ry’uburezi rizabazwe abategura integanyanyigisho hamwe n’abarimu kuko nibo baryishe nabi.”

Uwanyirigira Odette, umunyeshuri muri Kaminuza y’u Rwanda mu ishami ry’ubukungu ashimangira ko abanyeshuri biga badafite ishyaka ari ababa batazi icyabajyanye. Ati “Sinahakana cyangwa ngo nemeze ko hari abiga badafite ishyaka, ariko abameze batyo ni ba bandi baba batazi icyabajyanye. Ireme ry’uburezi rero kugira ngo rigerweho ni uko abarimu bareka kwigisha amagambo gusa, ahubwo bagaha umwanya munini ibikorwa.”

Inyigo yakozwe n’Ihuriro ry’imiryango iharanira guteza imbere uburezi bwa bose (Rwanda Education for all Coalition) ‘REFAC’ mu mwaka wa 2015 yagaragaje inzitizi zituma ireme ry’uburezi mu Rwanda ritagerwaho uko byifuzwa.

Mu byo bagaragaje harimo; ubumenyi buke bw’ababyeyi, umushahara wa mwarimu utajyanye n’ibiciro byo ku isoko, hamwe n’ihindagurika rya hato na hato ry’integanyanyigisho.

Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ryita ku burezi, ubumenyi n’umuco mu Rwanda (UNESCO), ryagaragaje ko mu Rwanda kimwe no mu bindi bihugu bikennye ku Isi ireme ry’uburezi rikomeje kudindizwa n’ubucucike mu mashuri, aho nibura mwarimu yakagombye kwigisha abana hagati ya 30 na 35 mu gihe barenga 50.

Minisitiri w’Intebe Dr Ngirente, aherutse gutangaza ko mu Rwanda abagera kuri 39% ugereranyije n’abari mu kazi, badafite ubumenyi bujyanye n’isoko ry’umurimo.

muyobozi Mukuru w’Inama Nkuru y’amashuri Makuru na za Kaminuza (HEC), Dr Emmanuel Muvunyi, yemeje ko nubwo hari byinshi bimaze kugerwaho, mu Rwanda hakiri ikibazo cy’ireme ry’uburezi

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