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Gaz methane n’indi myuka iri mu Kivu; Igisasu cyahinduwe umusemburo w’iterambere

Yanditswe na Ndahayo Emmanuel
Kuya 30 Kanama 2021 saa 08:03
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Ujya wibaza uko byari kuba bimeze iyo Imana iha u Rwanda ibindi rufite byose ariko ikarwima ikiyaga cya Kivu? Ntibyakunze yaragitanze. Iki kiyaga kiri mu binini muri Afurika y’Iburasirazuba, kiri ku buso bwa kilometero zisaga 90 z’uburebure n’izindi 50 z’ubugari, gifite byinshi gisobanuye k’u Rwanda na Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo.

Ku muntu ukirebeye hejuru, nko muri hoteli zigikikije, biroroshye kubona ubwiza bwacyo, kuko gifite amazi asa neza, kikagira ibirwa byinshi bitamirije amashyamba ndetse kikaba gituje kidakunze kugira imihengeri.

Igipimo cy’ubushyuhe mu Kiyaga cya Kivu ni indi ngingo ikunze gukurura abantu, kuko gikunze kuba kuri dogere 24 Celsius, aho amazi ataba akonje cyane cyangwa ngo ashyuhe cyane, bikorohereza abifuza kuyakoreramo imikino nko koga.

Byongeye kandi, bitewe n’uko iki Kiyaga gikikijwe n’amashyamba ari ku misozi ikizengurutse, bituma kiba n’igicumbi cy’ubwoko butandukanye bw’inyoni, mu gihe amazi yacyo atabamo inyamaswa nk’ingona n’imvubu zishobora gukumira abifuza gusura iki Kiyaga.

Ubwiza bw'Ikiyaga cya Kivu ntibushidikanywaho, kuko kigizwe n'ibirwa byinshi bitamirije amashyamba atuma bigaragara neza

Zahabu icunzwe neza, igisasu kirimbuzi gicokojwe

Nubwo Ikiyaga cya Kivu gifite ibyiza byinshi ku muntu ukirebeye inyuma, imbere mu ndiba yacyo ntabwo ibintu ari shyashya. Gifite ubujyakuzimu bwa metero 480 aho kiri ku mwanya wa cyenda mu biyaga bifite ubujyakuzimu burebure ku Isi.

Nubwo bimeze gutya ariko, Ikiyaga cya Kivu, ni intaho y’ubwoko 28 bw’amafi, umubare muto ugereranyije n’ingano yacyo, cyangwa ibindi biyaga bituranye na cyo birimo nk’icya Tanganyika gifite ubwoko bw’amafi burenga 400.

Imwe mu mpamvu nyamukuru zituma Kivu itaba ubuturo bwishimirwa n’amafi, ni uko ubuzima mu ndiba y’iki Kiyaga budashoboka, kuko hataba umwuka wa Oxygène usanzwe ari moteri y’ubuzima. Uyu mwuka ugarukira muri metero 60 gusa ujya mu bujyakuzimu bw’i Kivu, ubundi munsi yaho hakiganza umwuka nka Dioxyde de carbone (CO2), Gaz methane ndetse n’indi myuka itandukanye.

Bitekerezwa ko Ikiyaga cya Kivu kimaze imyaka irenga miliyoni eshanu, aho kimaze gukusanya Gaz methane ingana na metero kibe miliyari 65 ndetse na metero kibe miliyari 300 z’umwuka wa CO2.

Iyi myuka yombi n’indi itandukanye irimo sulfure d’hydrogène (H2S), ituma Ikiyaga cya Kivu kiza muri bitatu ku Isi bifite ubushobozi bwo guteza ibyago bishobora guhitana ubuzima bw’abantu, mu gihe habaho impamvu yatuma iyo myuka yivumbagatanya, ikaba yava munsi y’ikiyaga ikazamuka.

Nk’umwuka wa CO2 watuma abantu badahumeka, mu gihe Gaz methane ishobora guteza inkongi zikomeye z’umuriro.

Ibi si inkuru mbarirano kuko ibi byago byabaye mu 1984, ubwo abaturage 37 baturiye Ikiyaga cya Manoun kiri hafi y’uruhererekane rw’ibirunga bine ruzwi nka Oku muri Cameroun, bitabaga Imana mu buryo ‘bwasobanuwe na bamwe muri ibyo bihe nk’ibitero by’iterabwoba.’

Nyuma y’imyaka ibiri, abandi baturage barenga 1700 bari batuye mu birometero 25 uvuye ku Kiyaga cya Nyos kiri muri rwa ruhererekane rw’ibirunga muri Cameroun, nabo bitabye Imana, bapfa urupfu rujya gusa nk’urw’abapfiriye hafi y’Ikiyaga cya Monoun, dore ko byombi binaturanye.

Ibi byahagurukije abashakashatsi batandukanye ku rwego rw’Isi, babanje gukeka ko izi mpanuka ziri guterwa n’iruka ry’ibirunga bikikije ibyo biyaga riri kubera munsi y’ubutaka, uretse ko amakuru yavanywe mu bushakashatsi yavuguruje ibyo bitekerezo.

Nyuma byaje gutangazwa ko intandaro y’izi mpanuka zombi ari ukwivumbagatanya k’umwuka wa CO2 wari munsi y’ibiyaga byombi, aho wakomeje kwiyongera mu gihe cy’imyaka myinshi, kugeza ubwo ugize ikiwukoma, gishobora kuba inkangu, umutingito, imvura nyinshi n’ibindi bitandukanye, bigatuma uzamuka.

Nko ku mpanuka y’Ikiyaga cya Nyos, uyu mwuka wa CO2 usanzwe uhumanye, wageze mu birometero 25 uvuye ku Kiyaga, maze kuko ufite uburemere buruta ubwa Oxygene dusanzwe duhumeka, ukomeza kuba munsi yayo mu gihe gito, mu kirere kiri hafi y’abantu bituma bawuhumeka, ari na cyo cyaje kubahitana.

Imiterere y’Ikiyaga cya Kivu na yo imeze neza nk’ibiyaga bya Nyos na Manoun byo muri Cameroun, kuko iki Kiyaga na cyo kibitse umwuka mwinshi wa CO2, ujya kungana na 2% by’ingano ya CO2 yoherezwa mu kirere iturutse ku Isi buri mwaka.

Ubusanzwe CO2 igera mu ndiba y’ikiyaga binyuze mu buryo burimo amazi aturuka mu nda y’Isi akaba yakwinjira munsi y’ikiyaga, kandi aya mazi akaba akunze kuba arimo ingano nyinshi ya CO2 ndetse yifitemo umunyu mwinshi, ari na yo impamvu aguma mu ndiba y’ikiyaga aho kuzamuka.

Hari kandi kuba ibikoma by’ikirunga bishobora kuva mu Kirunga bikajya mu ndiba y’ikiyaga, noneho bikahamara imyaka myinshi, maze uruhurirane rwabyo ndetse no kubora kw’ibindi bintu biri mu ndiba y’ikiyaga, byose bikazabyara gaz methane nyuma y’imyaka myinshi. Imiterere y’ubukonje iba munsi y’ibiyaga, ituma kwivanga kw’amazi ndetse n’iyo myuka byoroha.

Igiteye impungenge ni uko ingano ya CO2 na Gaz methane igenda yiyongera mu Kivu, kuko hari ubushakashatsi bwagaragaje ko ingano yayo yiyongereyeho 30% mu myaka 30 ishize. Ni mu gihe kandi hari ubushakashatsi bwerekanye ko ubuzima bwigeze kuzimira hafi y’Ikiyaga cya Kivu, bigakekwa ko icyo gihe bishobora kuba byaratewe n’ubwiyongere bukabije bwa CO2 mu kirere nyuma y’uko yari imaze kuzamuka iva mu Kiyaga cya Kivu.

Ku rundi ruhande, abahanga mu bijyanye n’ubutabire bagaragaje ko nubwo nta mitingito n’ibindi byatuma CO2 iva mu Kiyaga cya Kivu mu buryo butunguranye, iba igomba n’ubundi kuzavamo mu gihe kiri hagati y’imyaka 800 na 1000, ari na yo mpamvu ibikorwa byo gutangira kwitegura icyo gikorwa no gushaka uburyo cyaburizwamo ari ingenzi cyane.

Ikiyaga cya Kivu gikorerwamo uburobyi icyakora ntigikunze kugira amafi menshi kuko mu ndiba yacyo hari umwuka wa CO2 na gaz methane bishobora kugira ingaruka ku binyabuzima

Icyafatwaga nk’igisasu mu Kivu cyatangiye kubyazwa umusaruro

Ntabwo ari ibanga ko Ikiyaga cya Kivu ari kimwe mu biyaga bishobora guteza ibyago bikomeye ku bagituriye, ndetse bamwe ntibatinya kucyita ’Ikiyaga cy’Urupfu’, bitewe n’uburemere bw’ibyago gishobora guteza mu gihe cyaba kititaweho.

Ibi ni byo byatumye ibihugu by’u Rwanda na Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo bisangiye iki Kiyaga, bigirana amasezerano akubiyemo n’uburyo bwo kubyaza umusaruro ingano iri hejuru ya gaz methane iri mu Kivu, aho kurindira ko izagira ikiyikoma igaturika, ikaba yakwica abantu ikanangiza ibikorwa bitandukanye.

Ibi bijyana n’uko iki Kiyaga gifite ibyago byinshi byo kuba cyagira izindi mpanuka, na cyane ko kiri mu birometero birindwi gusa uvuye ku Kirunga cya Nyiragongo, kandi iki Kirunga kikaba kigifite ubushobozi bwo kuruka.

Ku rundi ruhande, bijyanye n’uko iki Kiyaga kiri ahantu hagenda hasaduka, byitezwe ko imitingito ikomoka kuri iryo saduka ry’ubutaka, ishobora kugira uruhare mu kongera ibyago byo kuba gaz methane na CO2 biri mu Kivu bishobora guhungabana.

Mu gihe iri turika ryabaho, ryagira ingaruka ziteye ubwoba kuko Ikiyaga cya Kivu gituriwe n’abarenga miliyoni ebyiri ku ruhande rwa Congo n’u Rwanda, ariko ubwinshi bwa CO2 ndetse gaz methane iri muri iki Kiyaga bukaba bushobora gutuma ingaruka zigera kure cyane, kuko mu Kiyaga cya Nyos havuyemo metero kibe miliyoni 80 za CO2 zageze mu birometero 25 uvuye ku Kiyaga, ubwo wakwibaza uko byagenda mu gihe mu Kivu haba impanuka imeze gutya, kandi cyo kibitse metero kibe miliyari 300 za CO2.

Bumwe mu buryo bwo kwirinda izi ngaruka zose ni ukubyaza umusaruro gaz methane iri mu Kivu, dore ko isanzwe yifashishwa mu bikorwa birimo gutanga umuriro w’amashanyarazi.

Inyingo zagaragaje ko mu Kiyaga cya Kivu harimo gaz methane ihagije ku buryo ishobora kuryara amashanyarazi angana na megawatt zishobora kugera kuri 700 ku mwaka mu gihe cy’imyaka irenga 50 iri imbere.

Uretse umuriro w’amashanyarazi, iyi gaz yanakoreshwa mu bindi bikorwa bikenerwamo gaz birimo nko guteka, kuba yakoreshwa mu bikorwa by’ubwikorezi, inganda n’ibindi bitandukanye.

Kuva mu 2011, u Rwanda rwatangiye ubufatanye n’ikigo cy’Abongereza kizwi nka Contour Global, mu rwego rwo kugira ngo herebwe uburyo gaz methane yabyazwa umusaruro muri ibi bihe, aho kuzarindira ko iteza ibyago.

Impande zombi zimaze kugera kuri byinshi, na cyane ko igice kimwe cy’umushinga cyatangiye gutanga umusaruro, aho kugera mu ntangiriro z’umwaka ushize, 30% by’umuriro wakoreshwaga mu Rwanda waturukaga kuri uyu mushinga wiswe ‘Kivuwatt’.

Kuri ubu uyu mushinga uri gutanga amashanyarazi arenga megawatt 25, ariko nuramuka wuzuye uzatangira gutanga megawatt 100. Umushinga wo kuvana gaz methane mu kiyaga ikabyazwamo amashanyarazi nta handi hantu wari warigeze ukorerwa ku Isi, ari na yo mpamvu uyu mushinga watinze kuko watwaye imyaka irindwi yose.

Kugira ngo gaz ikurwe mu mazi, hoherezwa amatiyo maremare mu ndiba y’Ikiyaga muri metero zishobora kugera kuri 350 nk’uko bimeze mu Kivu, ubundi akanyuramo amazi avanze na gaz methane na CO2. Nibura buri saha, metero kibe ibihumbi 20 bya gaz methane birazamurwa bigatunganywa.

Mu kuzamurwa, aya mazi ayungururwa inshuro ebyiri, bwa mbere bikabera munsi y’amazi ariko mu buryo bworoheje, ubundi akongera kuyungururwa ageze mu bitembo biri hejuru y’amazi ari naho gaz methane itandukanyirizwa n’amazi ndetse na CO2.

Iyi gaz methane ihita yoherezwa ku ruganda ruri mu birometero 13 ku nkombe z’amazi, inyuze mu matiyo yabugenewe, ubundi igatunganywa neza, igakorwamo amashanyarazi ashyirwa ku muyoboro mugari w’igihugu. Amazi na CO2 byasigaye bisubizwa mu Kiyaga cya Kivu.

Uretse umushinga wa Kivuwatt, hari n’undi mushinga w’ikigo cya Shema Power Lake Kivu cyashoye miliyoni 400$, kigamije kuzabyaza umusaruro gaz methane yo mu Kivu umuriro ungana na megawatt 75.

Ku rundi ruhande, ikigo cya Gasmeth Energy nacyo cyashoye miliyoni 400$ aho byitezwe ko mu mwaka utaha kizatangira kubyaza umusaruro gaz methane, ku buryo ishobora gukoreshwa mu bikorwa byo guteka n’ibindi birimo iby’ubwikorezi.

Mu gihe imishinga yose igamije kubyaza umusaruro gaz methane yo mu Kiyaga cya Kivu yatanga umusaruro witezwe, iyi gaz ishobora kuzaba igize ibirenze kimwe cya kabiri cy’amashanyarazi u Rwanda ruzaba rukoresha mu mwaka wa 2024, agomba kuba agera kuri megawatt 556, aho Abanyarwanda bose bazaba bagerwaho n’amashanyarazi, bavuye kuri 63% kugera muri Gicurasi uyu mwaka.

Leta ikeneye amafaranga arenga miliyari 600 Frw kugira ngo izashyire mu bikorwa imishinga igamije kugeza amashanyarazi ku baturage bose mu 2024.

Umushinga wa Kivuwatt witezweho kuzatanga megawatt 100 numara kuzura
Abaturage barenga miliyoni ebyiri baturiye Ikiyaga cya Kivu, bituma ibikorwa byo kwirinda iturika rya gaz methane ikirimo birushaho gukenerwa cyane
Ikiyaga cya Kivu kimaze imyaka irenga miliyoni eshanu

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