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Gatanya ziyongera n’igihombo giterwa n’ubuke bw’inzobere mu mategeko: Ikiganiro na Prof Sam Rugege

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 18 Ugushyingo 2021 saa 07:18
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Imyaka 27 irashize urwego rw’ubutabera mu Rwanda ruvugururwa. Hari byinshi byakozwe birimo kuburanisha imanza za Gacaca zigera kuri miliyoni ebyiri mu myaka icumi, kwinjiza ikoranabuhanga mu mikorere y’inkiko n’ibindi.

Nubwo bimeze gutyo, urwo rwego ruracyagaragaramo ibibazo byinshi birimo ruswa, ubwiyongere bw’imanza mu nkiko, ubumenyi budahagije ku bakora mu nkiko n’ibindi.

Nta wamenya imizi y’ibyo bibazo n’umuti usharira wabitsirika kurusha uwabibayemo imyaka isaga 40 ari we Prof Sam Rugege wahoze ari Perezida w’Urukiko rw’Ikirenga, kuri ubu akaba ayoboye Akanama k’Abahuza bigenga.

Abahuza bashinzwe kunganira inkiko n’abakozi bazo mu gushishikariza Abanyarwanda gukemura ibibazo bafitanye bakoresheje ubwumvikane, aho guhora bitabaza inkiko.

Uyu mwanzuro washyigikiwe n’amategeko yashyizweho mu 2018 ajyanye n’ubuhuza mu nkiko, aho mu manza mbonezamubano n’iz’ubucuruzi, ababuranyi bemerewe guhagarika urubanza aho rwaba rugeze hose, bakitabaza ubuhuza.

Rugege yaganiriye na IGIHE agaruka ku bibazo bitandukanye biri mu butabera bw’u Rwanda birimo gatanya, uruhare rw’ubuhuza mu gukemura amakimbirane n’ibindi.

IGIHE: Umwaka urashize muhawe kuyobora Akanama Ngishwanama k’Abahuza mu Nkiko, ni iki cy’ingenzi mumaze kugeraho?

Prof Rugege: Impamvu akanama kagiyeho ni ugushishikariza abaturage gukoresha ubuhuza mu mwanya wo kugana inkiko kugira ngo bagabanye amakimbirane, barusheho kubana neza. Ikindi akanama gashinzwe ni ugukurikirana imanza zoherezwa mu buhuza zivuye mu nkiko no kureba uko byakomeza gutera imbere.

Tubona bitanga umusaruro kuko imanza nubwo atari nyinshi, ziragenda ziyongera gake gake. Nko mu 2019 imanza 550 zarangiriye mu buhuza, mu 2020 ziba 575, ubu mu 2021 nubwo umwaka utarashira, zimaze kugera kuri 514. Twiringiye ko zizakomeza kwiyongera nubwo bitaragera ku rwego umuntu yakwishimira kuko imanza zose zijya mu nkiko zirenze ibihumbi 70 buri mwaka.

Kuba ubuhuza butaratangira kwitabirwa, ni uko Abanyarwanda bakunda kuburana?

Prof Rugege: Ntabwo Abanyarwanda bakunda kuburana kurusha abandi bantu kuko tubisanga no mu bindi bihugu […] Nibwira ko u Rwanda ahubwo rwarushaho gukemura ibibazo mu bwumvikane kurusha ahandi kubera biri mu muco wacu.

Kuva kera ibibazo byakemurwaga mu bwumvikane, abakoloni ni bo batuzaniye ibyo guhora mu nkiko. Ubundi umuntu yananirwaga kumvikana mu rwego rw’umuryango, bakajya ku Mutware byananirana bakajya ku Mwami. Ibibazo hafi ya byose byakemurwaga mu bwumvikane. Ntitubona impamvu bitakomeza tukava muri uyu muco mushya wo guhora mu nkiko.

Hari ikibazo ko no mu mashuri yacu batwigisha kuburana, nk’abanyamategeko bakatwumvisha ko gutera imbere ari ugutsinda urubanza mu rukiko. Ibyo rero dukwiriye kongera kubisubiraho.

Amategeko ntabeho ngo abantu bashwane burundu, ntibazongere kuvugana ahubwo abeho kugira ngo abantu bakemure ibibazo byabo.

Hashize iminsi imibare ya gatanya mu Rwanda yiyongera, mubona biterwa n’iki?

Prof Rugege: Hari impamvu zituma abantu batandukana cyangwa bemererwa gutandukana zirimo nk’ubusambanyi, guhoza ku nkeke uwo mwashakanye, guhohotera uwo mwashakanye, guta urugo hagashira amezi 12 cyangwa kutabana hagashira imyaka ibiri.

Kuri ibyo nta cyahindutse cyatuma abantu boroherezwa mu gukora gatanya. Ahubwo ngira ngo icyahindutse ni imibanire y’abantu muri iyi minsi bijyanye n’iterambere.

Gutera imbere kw’abagore haba mu mashuri, mu mirimo, haba mu rwego rw’ubucuruzi, bituma babona amafaranga yababeshaho. Ndibwira ko bituma abagabo bagira kwitinya cyangwa impungenge, bakumva badatekanye kubera ko abagore babarusha amashuri, amafaranga cyangwa bafite imirimo iri ku rwego rwo hejuru kurusha iyabo.

Uko kudatekana gutuma haba kutumvikana, hakaba amakimbirane ashobora gutuma umwe ahohotera undi, hakaba gatanya.

Abagore na bo bamenye uburenganzira bwabo, ko batagomba gukomeza kubana n’ababahohotera, ko bashobora kwibeshaho nta mugabo. Ibyo kera ntibyabagaho. Ubundi umuco wasaga nk’aho ubahatira kuguma mu rugo kubera abana, kubera isura y’umuryango ariko abagore batangiye kumenya ko atari byo, ko afite uburenganzira bwo kwiteza imbere no gukora ibyo bashoboye bateza imbere igihugu.

Imyumvire igomba guhinduka haba iy’abagabo n’ababyeyi kugira ngo bamenye ko muri iki gihe umugore atasigara inyuuma, agomba gukora ibyo ashoboye agateza igihugu imbere.

Prof Sam Rugege yavuze ko gatanya zongerwa ahanini no kutumva neza ihame ry'uburinganire biteza ibibazo mu miryango

Kuba inkiko zitanga gatanya nyinshi, ntibyaba bivuze gutsindwa k’ubuhuza n’umuryango?

Prof Rugege: Ikibazo si ugutsindwa k’ubuhuza ahubwo wenda imishyikirano yo guhuza no kugira ngo abashakanye bongere batekereze ku bya gatanya, ntibikorwa nk’uko byagakozwe.

Itegeko rivuga ko umucamanza mbere y’uko ajya mu rubanza rw’ubutane agomba kubanza guhuza abashakanye, akabashishikariza kongera kubisuzuma kugira ngo bongere babane. Abaha amezi atatu ngo bongere babitekerezeho ariko abacamanza ntabwo babihuguriwe cyane cyane abo mu nkiko z’ibanze n’izisumbuye.

Bimaze kuba nk’umuhango, abantu baraza bati ’tugende mu rukiko tuvugane n’umucamanza baduhe amezi atatu, twongere tugaruke baduhe gatanya’. Ntabwo bifasha.

Ndibwira ko bakwiriye kongera gusuzuma iryo tegeko noneho umucamanza akabohereza mu bajyanama (counselors) babyigiye cyangwa mu bahuza.

Abo bantu bakwiriye gufashwa kurangiza ikibazo cyabo mu bwumvikane, byaba ari ukubaha gatanya bakayibaha ari uko bumvikanye ku ngingo zose zirimo uko abana bazarerwa, uko bazagabanya imitungo, uko bazakomeza gusura abana. Numva aribyo byafasha kurusha ubu buryo bwabaye nk’ihame bwo kujya ku mucamanza nyuma y’amezi atatu bakagaruka.

Hari imbaraga zashyizwe mu guhashya ruswa mu nkiko, nyamara ntibicika burundu. Mukurikije ibimaze gukorwa n’inzego bireba, ni he hakenewe izindi mbaraga?

Prof Rugege: U Rwanda rugerageza cyane guhashya icyaha cya ruswa harimo n’inzego z’ubutabera. Ntacyo batakoze kugira ngo barandure ruswa ariko birakomeza. Gusa wibuke ko atari abacamanza gusa cyangwa abashinjacyaha bafite icyo kibazo, ahubwo abayitanga nabo ni ikibazo.

Ingamba ziriho ndabona nta kibazo kirimo ahubwo ni ugukomeza gushishikariza abantu kudatanga ruswa. Hari abatanga ruswa y’ubwoko bubiri, hari abayitanga ari uko bazi ko bari mu makosa bazi ko badashobora gutsinda badashatse inzira za ruswa, hari abayitanga kubera ko babona inzira zaragoranye imanza ziratinda.

Nibyo twavugaga by’ubuhuza, abantu bakwiriye gusobanukirwa ko mu buhuza aribo bifatira ibyemezo. Ntawe uzajya gutanga ruswa ngo urubanza rurangire. Muba mufite amahirwe angana yo kurangiza icyo kibazo. Niba utishimiye uko ubuhuza buri kugenda ufite uburenganizra bwo kubihagarika ugasubira mu rukiko ariko ni uburyo bwo kurwanya ruswa.

Ni ugukomeza gutanga ibihano bikarishye kugira ngo abatanga ruswa n’abayirya bahanwe by’intangarugero, bamenye ko bidindiza iterambere.

Mu bindi bihugu dukunze kubona impuguke mu mategeko runaka (specialists). Mu Rwanda abenshi ni abiga amategeko mu buryo bwa rusange (générale), habura iki?

Prof Rugege: Nibyo nta mpuguke dufite uko bikenewe ariko amasomo nk’ayo yo kwihugura mu manza nka nshinjabyaha, ibidukikje, amategeko mpuzamahanga, yose arigishwa ku rwego rw’icyiciro cya kabiri cya kaminuza n’icya gatatu.

Ubumenyi barabufite ahubwo kwihugura byihariye akenshi bikorerwa mu kazi. Abajya kwihugura byihariye muri Masters na Phd akenshi baba bashaka kujya kwigisha muri za Kaminuza cyangwa kwandika ibitabo ariko ntabwo aribo bakurikirana izo manza, n’ubundi bijya mu bavoka.

Uburyo bwiza mbona ni uko abavoka bacu bagira urwego runaka bihuguramo by’umwihariko, bagashinga ibigo (Cabinet d’avocat) ireba ibintu runaka nk’amasosiyete y’ubucuruzi, Cabinet d’avocat ireba iby’imiryango, iy’iby’imanza nshinjacyabaha.

Uko nabibonye mu nkiko, umwavoka aza kuburana urubanza nshinjabyaha umunsi umwe, uwo munsi akaba afite urubanza rw’ubucuruzi, yavayo akajya mu rubanza rw’umuryango mu izungura. Ntabwo byakunda gukora ibintu byose ngo ubikore neza nkuko bikwiye.

Ni iki igihugu gihomba kuba kidafite impuguke zihariye mu mategeko zihagije?

Prof Rugege: Usanga nk’iyo habaye urubanza rukomeye igihugu cyifashisha inzobere zo hanze, ugasanga mu gutegura amategeko yihariye urugero nk’ajyanye n’ikoranabuhanga, ugasanga ugomba gushaka inzobere yo hanze ngo aritegure kandi byashoboraga gukorerwa mu gihugu. Bigatuma dutanga amafaranga menshi bigatera igihombo.

Hari n’abacuruzi baba bafite amasezerano n’abandi bacuruzi bo hanze, bakagira imanza hanyuma byagera mu kuburana bakarusha [abo mu Rwanda]. Mu bihugu byateye imbere bafite izo nzobere. Ukisanga uraburana n’umuntu ukora gusa mu bijyanye n’amategeko mpuzamahanga cyangwa amategeko y’ibigo by’ubucuruzi, ukaburana n’umuntu ukurusha cyane. Ni igihombo ku gihugu.

Imyaka ibiri irashize mugiye mu kiruhuko cy’izabukuru, mu gihe mutari mu mirimo y’ubuhuza, muba muhugiye mu biki?

Prof Rugege: Mfata umwanya wo kuruhuka ariko kandi nemerewe no gufasha ibigo, kubakorera inyigo ku bibazo bitandukanye, kujya mu nama, kungurana ibitekerezo ku bibazo ibi n’ibi cyangwa se kuvugurura imikorere, amategeko n’ibindi.

Ni ukugira ngo ubwenge bukomeze gukora no gukomeza gushaka icyo umuntu yakora.

Prof Sam Rugege yagaragaje ko ubuhuza ari bwo buryo bwiza bwo kugabanya ubwinshi bw'imanza zijya mu nkiko

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