Ese koko mu Rwanda nta bwisanzure bwo gutanga ibitekerezo buhari?

Yanditswe na Akayezu Jean de Dieu
Kuya 1 Mata 2021 saa 04:36
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Muri Bibiliya, igitabo gitagatifu havugwamo uko Imana yaremye Adamu na Eva, irangije ibatuza mu busitani bwiza bwa Edeni; ibyo biremwa bishya yari imaze kurema tubwirwa ko byahawe uburenganzira bwo kugenga aho byari bimaze gutuzwa. Nubwo bahawe ububasha bwose muri Edeni hari igiti babujijwe kuryaho.

Inkuru ikomeza ivuga ko byaje kugera nyuma maze inzoka ikoresha amayeri adasanzwe maze ishuka Eva ngo arye ku giti cyiswe ‘Icy’ubugingo’. Kuva icyo gihe Muntu ahorana inyota yo kugira uburenganzira ku kintu adakunze guhabwa ho uburenganzira cyangwa kugira ubwisanzure aho yabuvukijwe kabone n’ubwo yaba yarahawe ibya mirenge ku ntenyo.

Reka tuve muri Bibiliya tujye mu buzima busanzwe! Uburenganzira n’Ubwisanzure bwo gutanga Ibitekerezo ni uburenganzira bw’ibanze bwa buri muntu. Ubwo burenganzira bugendana n’inshingano (kubaha icyo amategeko ateganya).

Iyi ni ingingo umuntu yavuga ko itazigera ivugwaho rumwe kuko impaka ziyigibwaho ni iz’urudaca, haba mu bitangazamakuru, imiryango itandukanye yiganjemo ivuga ko iharanira uburenganzira bwa muntu ndetse n’ubw’itangazamakuru muri rusange.

Ubwisanzure bwo kuvuga icyo umuntu ashaka n’uburenganzira bwo gutanga ibitekerezo bukoreshwa mu bitekerezo by’ubwoko bwose harimo n’ibishobora kubabaza cyangwa kubangamira cyane abandi.

Ni ihame rishyigikira ubwisanzure bw’umuntu ku giti cye cyangwa umuryango wo kuvuga ibitekerezo byabo n’ibitekerezo badatinya kwihorera, gukurikiranwa cyangwa guhanwa na leta.

Ijambo ubwisanzure mu gutanga ibitekerezo rikoreshwa mu buryo bumwe ariko, mu buryo bwemewe n’amategeko, rikubiyemo igikorwa icyo ari cyo cyose cyo gushaka, kwakira no gutanga amakuru cyangwa ibitekerezo, tutitaye ku buryo bwakoreshejwe.

Uburenganzira bwo gutanga ibitekerezo bwemewe nk’uburenganzira bwa muntu hashingiwe ku ngingo ya 19 y’Itangazo ry’Amasezerano Mpuzamahanga ry’Uburenganzira bwa Muntu (UDHR) kandi ryemewe mu mategeko mpuzamahanga y’uburenganzira bwa muntu mu masezerano Mpuzamahanga y’Uburenganzira bwa Muntu na Politiki (ICCPR).

Abo mu Burengerazuba bw’Isi usanga akenshi bashinja ibihugu bya Afurika birimo n’u Rwanda kuniga ubwisanzure bwo kugaragaza icyo umuntu atekereza haba mu ruhame cyangwa mu miyoboro itandukanye irimo itangazamakuru n’imbuga nkoranyambaga.

Ibihugu nka Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika byumvikana kenshi zifatira ibihano ibihugu, ibigo by’ubucuruzi cyangwa se abategetsi ku giti cyabo babashinja kubangamira ubwisanzure n’ukwishyira ukuzina kw’abo bayobora mu nguni zitandukanye.

Nko mu Rwanda, abahanga bagaragaza ko uburenganzira bwo gutanga ibitekerezo buhari ahubwo usanga hari benshi bashobora kwanga gutanga ibitekerezo ku bw’inyungu zabo runaka ariko mu by’ukuri ntawe uba wabafunze umunwa.

Impuguke mu itangazamakuru ndetse akaba yaranabaye Umunyamabanga Nshingwabikorwa w’Ishyirahamwe ry’Abanyamakuru mu Rwanda [ARJ], Muganwa Gonza, yavuze ko nk’umuntu usanga ari umudepite cyangwa undi muyobozi muri leta akanga kugaragaza ibitekerezo bye atinya ko yazakurwa kuri iyo mirimo.

Mu kiganiro yagiranye na IGIHE yagize ati “Ubwisanzura burahari ariko ntabwo bukoreshwa, hari n’impamvu […], reka tuvuge nk’abanyepolitiki bafite ibitekerezo bagatinya kubivuga ku mugaragaro ariko baba babaze inyungu.”

Yakomeje agira ati “Ashobora kureba ati niba ndi Depite nimvuga ibi n’ibi, umwanya wanjye ndawutakaza, ariko aba yafashe icyemezo gishingiye ku byo atekereza. Inkuru tubona mu bitangazamakuru mpuzamahanga ntabwo ari uko ziba zibujijwe mu Rwanda ahubwo ni uko abantu baba batinye gukoresha uburenganzira bafite bwo kuzitangaza.”

Muganwa yavuze ko amategeko y’u Rwanda asobanura neza ko ubwisanzure bwo kugaragaza ibitekerezo bwemewe ahubwo wenda ikibazo ari icy’abantu batabukoresha ku bw’izo nyungu runaka baba baharanira.

Ni bwinshi, ariko ntibukoreshwa!

Ubwisanzure bwo gutanga ibitekerezo ndetse n’ubwisanzure bw’itangazamakuru biteganywa n’Ingingo ya 38 mu Itegeko Nshinga rya Repubulika y’u Rwanda. Ubwisanzure bwo gutanga ibitekerezo buhuzwa kenshi n’ubw’itangazamakuru kubera ko itangazamakuru ari umwe mu miyoboro ikoreshwa muri kwa gutanga ibitekerezo.

Iyi ngingo ivuga ko ‘ubwisanzure bw’itangazamakuru, ubwo kugaragaza ibitekerezo n’ubwo guhabwa amakuru buremewe kandi bwubahirizwa na Leta’.

Ikomeza igaragaza ko ubwisanzure bwo kugaragaza ibitekerezo n’ubwo guhabwa amakuru butagomba kubangamira ituze rusange rya rubanda n’imyifatire mbonezabupfura, ukurengera urubyiruko n’abana, n’uburenganzira bw’umwenegihugu bwo kugira icyubahiro n’agaciro, ubwo kutagira uwivanga mu mibereho ye bwite n’iy’umuryango we.

Itegeko Nshinga risobanura neza ko uko ubwo bwisanzure bukoreshwa n’iyubahirizwa ryabwo biteganywa n’amategeko.

Muganwa yavuze ko umuntu wese aba afite uburenganzira bwo gutanga ibitekerezo ariko itegeko rivuga ko umuntu adashobora gukoresha ubwo burenganzira mu gutesha agaciro abandi bantu ari nayo mpamvu usanga hari amategeko akumira ibyaha bimwe na bimwe nk’itegeko ry’ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside.

Ati “Kuba ufite ubwisanzure bwo gutanga ibitekerezo ntabwo bivuze ko uhutaza mugenzi wawe.”

Yakomeje agira ati “Abantu benshi bakunze kuvuga ngo mu Rwanda nta bwisanzure bwo gutanga ibitekerezo buhari ariko njye ntabwo nemeranya nabo. Ahubwo ubuhari ntabwo bukoreshwa bihagije, yaba abaturage ubwabo cyangwa itangazamakuru, hari ubwisanzure bwinshi kuruta ubukoreshwa.”

Muganwa avuga ko kuri ubu ikoranabuhanga ryaguye cyane imiyoboro abantu bakoresha batanga ibitekerezo aho usanga bifashisha za YouTube, Twitter, Facebook n’ahandi, aho ibintu byinshi byavugwaga ntibimenyekane ubu bisigaye byoroshye kuko aho kubinyuza habaye henshi.

Ku rundi ruhande ariko avuga ko leta idakwiye kugenzura ibivugirwa cyangwa ibikorerwa ku mbuga nkoranyambaga ahubwo abazikoreraho ibyaha bakwiye kujya bahanwa hifashishijwe amategeko ahana ibyaha bikorwa hifashishijwe ikoranabuhanga.

Ubwisanzure bwabaye iturufu kuri benshi ...

Umuhanga mu bukungu Amartya Kumar Sen, mu gitabo yise ‘Freedom as Development’ agaragaza ko iterambere ridashoboka nta bwisanzure mu nguni zitandukanye, mu gihe abategetsi benshi b’abanyagitugu bagaragaza ko igikenewe ari iterambere naho ubwisanzure atari ngombwa.

Abaharanira kugera ku butegetsi cyangwa se abarwanya Leta z’ibihugu byabo (Opposition) iturufu bakunze gushyira imbere ni uguharanira ko ngo “rubanda rubona ubwisanzure mu gihugu cyabo”.

Ni mu gihe hari n’abandi bagaragaza ko ubwisanzure ari nk’igikoresho cyazanywe n’ibihugu byo mu Burengerazuba bw’Isi mu kugenzura ibindi bihugu, bakemeza ko hari Demokarasi, ubwisanzure n’izindi ngingo bibereye ibihugu by’abanyaburayi hakaba n’ibereye ibihugu byabo.

Muganwa avuga ko nka leta hari ibintu bitandukanye ishobora kuba idakora neza, bityo umuturage uri mu gihugu cyangwa umuryango runaka ukaba watanga ibitekerezo ugaragaza ibyakorwa mu gukosora.

Ku rundi ruhande ariko, avuga ko impamvu n’uburenganzira bwo gutanga ibitekerezo bufite aho bugarukira nk’uko itegeko ribiteganya, ari uko hari ingaruka zitandukanye ibitekerezo by’abantu bishobora kuzana.

Ati “Ntabwo nkeka ko hari umuntu wari wabihanirwa, ahubwo impamvu uburenganzira bwose bufite aho bugarukira, hagomba kubaho gushyira ku munzani ingaruka. Reka tuvuge bemeye bakavuga ngo ni uburenganzira bw’umuntu guhakana no gupfobya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, ingaruka zaba izihe? Ingaruka zaba uko ishobora kongera kuba cyangwa byateza umutekano muke mu gihugu.”

Yakomeje agira ati “Ubwisanzure ntabwo bwakwemerwa kugira ngo bubangamire abandi, kubera ko Jenoside kugira ngo ibe, hagomba kubaho abafite ingengabitekerezo, ikindi ni imvugo z’urwango cyangwa gutesha agaciro abandi […], ikindi uwakoze Jenoside aba agomba kuyihakana cyangwa kuyitesha agaciro kugira ngo azimanganye ibimenyetso.”

Muganwa avuga ko muri rusange ubwisanzure buhari ariko n’amategeko aba agomba kubahirizwa.
Ati “Ubwisanzure burashoboka, turi muri demokarasi ariko habaho n’ayo mategeko akumira urwango. Iyo urebye no mu gitabo cy’amategeko ahana usanga hari aho bavuga ko umunyamakuru atemerewe guha umwanzi ijambo, ntabwo wavuga ngo njyewe ngomba gushyigikira igihugu cyateye u Rwanda.”

Umunyamabanga Nshingwabikorwa wa Komisiyo y’Igihugu yo kurwanya Jenoside, Dr Bizimana Jean Damascène, aherutse kubwira IGIHE ko n’ubwo mu gihugu abantu bemerwa n’itegeko gutanga ibitekerezo badakwiye kunyuranya n’andi mategeko nk’irihana icyaha cy’ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside.

Itegeko ryo mu 2013 rishyiraho icyaha cy’ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside n’ibindi byaha bifitanye isano nayo, rivuga ko guhakana Jenoside bishingiye ku magambo agoreka ukuri kuri Jenoside hagamijwe kuyobya rubanda no kwerekana ko Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi itateguwe.

Rikomeza rivuga ko gupfobya bigizwe n’amagambo agabanya uburemere cyangwa ingaruka za Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi no koroshya uburyo Jenoside yakozwemo.

Abashakashatsi bagaragaza ko mu byiciro byo gushyira mu bikorwa Jenoside, icya nyuma ari ukuyihakana ariyo mpamvu buri wese akwiriye kurwanya ubigerageza yaba abizi cyangwa atabizi.

Gonzague Muganwa ni umwe mu bemeza ko mu Rwanda hari ubwisanzure mu gutanga ibitekerezo ahubwo ko abantu babukoresha nabi

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