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Contrat y’igihe gito mu rushako, igisubizo ku bibazo byugarije ingo mu Rwanda?

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 13 Kanama 2021 saa 11:30
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Biragoye muri iyi minsi kumarana isaha n’urubyiruko, utarumva nk’umwe avuze imvugo ya ‘nta gikwe’. Hari ababifata nk’urwenya, abandi bakabifata nk’ijambo riri aho gusa, nyamara hari ababa bakomeje.

Irankunda, umusore w’imyaka 27 aherutse kubwira IGIHE ko akurikije ibibazo abona mu ngo z’abashakanye muri iyi minsi, adateganya gushaka umugore keretse naramuka abonye ubundi buryo butari ukubana akaramata n’uwo bazaba bashimanye.

Uyu musore ari mu gihiriri cy’abandi bakunze gutanga ibitekerezo aho babonye inkuru ya za gatanya, dore ko no mu Rwanda zikomeje kwiyongera. Imibare iheruruka mu 2019, igaragaza ko uwo mwaka ingo zisaga 9000 zatandukanye.

Ubwo bwoba bwa gatanya ziyongera, amakimbirane yo mu miryango n’ibindi, bwatumye Irankunda atakereza ku kuzabana n’umukobwa uzemera ko basezerana kubana mu gihe cy’imyaka runaka (Bizwi nka Contrat y’igihe gito), yashira bagatandukana cyangwa bakiyongeza.

Ubu buryo buzwi nka ‘Renewable Marriage Contract’ bumeze nka ryabara ry’umuyaga, rivugwa ariko ritagaragara. Mu myaka isaga ijana ishize byagiye bisabwa ku isi hose, ariko nta Leta n’imwe yigeze yemera kwigerekaho urwo rusyo.

Mu Rwanda abagiye gusezerana haba mu mategeko no mu madini, bemeranya kubana akaramata, ni ukuvuga kubana ubuzima bwose. Icyo amategeko arusha amadini, ateganya n’uburyo abashakanye bashobora gutana mu gihe hari ibyo batumvikanyeho, ari byo byitwa gatanya.

Renewable Marriage Contract, ni uburyo bwavuzwe bwa mbere mu Ugushyingo 1891, buvugwa n’umwongereza Havelock Ellis. Uyu mugabo yashakanye n’umukobwa wari umwanditsi w’ibitabo, Edith Lees.

Bamaze kubana, basanze umugabo atajya agira ubushake bwo gukora imibonano mpuzabitsina na ho umugore yikundira kuryamana n’abo bahuje igitsina.

Nubwo gutandukana mu buryo bw’amategeko byashobokaga, barabanye kugeza ubwo Lees yapfaga mu 1916. Mu 1916, Ellis yazanye igitekerezo cy’uburyo bushya bw’ishyingirwa yise ubw’igerageza, aho abantu bakundana bashobora kubanza kugerageza bakabana nk’umugabo n’umugore mu gihe runaka ariko bakabyemeza imbere y’amategeko kugira ngo hatagira serivisi bimwa nk’abashakanye.

Yavuze ko muri icyo gihe, bakumvikana uko bakoresha imitungo yabo, bagakora imibonano mpuzabitsina ariko bagafata imiti yo kuboneza urubyaro igihe bihaye cyashira bagatandukana cyangwa bakiyongeza.

Nyuma ya Ellis hari abandi bashakashatsi nka E. D. Cope, wavuze ko byajya biba byiza abagiye kubana babanje gusinya kubana imyaka itanu, ishobora kongeraho indi icumi cyangwa 15 bakabona gusezerana kubana burundu.

Hashize igihe contrats z'igihe gito mu rushako zisabwa ariko nta gihugu kigeze kibyemeza

Mu 1966, Umunyamerika Margaret Mead na we yavuze ko hakwirye kubaho uburyo bwo kubana ku banyeshuri biga muri Kaminuza aho ababihisemo bashobora kwemeranya kubana mu gihe runaka bakiri kwiga, iryo sezerano rigata agaciro bakirangiza kwiga. Mu gihe baba bashaka gukomeza kubana, bagasezerana bya burundu.

Kuva ubwo mu Nteko zishinga Amategeko z’ibihugu bitandukanye icyo cyifuzo cyo gusezerana by’igihe gito cyagiye gitangwa ariko nta na hamwe byigeze byemerwa.

Mu 1971 cyatanzwe na Lena King Lee muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika. Mu 2007, umunyamategeko wo mu Budage na we yongeye kubisaba, Mu 2010, muri Phillipines ihuriro riharanira uburenganzira bw’abagore ryasabye ko habaho kontaro y’imyaka icumi ku bashakanye, byongera gusabwa mu mujyi wa Mexico mu 2011.

Abashyigikiye ubu buryo, bavuga ko uretse kugabanya ibibazo mu miryango n’amakimbirane, ari n’ibintu byafasha mu kugabanya imanza za gatanya mu nkiko, amafaranga yakoreshwaga muri ibyo akajya mu bindi.

Ababishyigikiye kandi bavuga ko ubwo buryo bwafasha abashakanye kubanza kumenyana neza kuko akenshi ibibazo byinshi mu ngo bigaragara hashize imyaka mike babanye.

Urubyiruko rurabishaka, MIGEPROF ibitera utwatsi

Mugabo (izina ryahinduwe), yasezeranye n’umukunzi we mu 2013, nyuma y’imyaka itatu bari bamaze barambagizanya. Uyu mugabo wakoraga mu nzego z’umutekano ari n’umurokore, yumvaga ko ubuzima bwe bwose buzaba ari umunezero n’umugore we wari ufite umuryango wishoboye.

Ibyari ibyishimo byatangiye kubaba bibi ku munsi wa mbere, ubwo bamwe mu bo ku ruhande rw’umukobwa bangaga gutaha ubukwe.

Umugore yaje guhinduka cyane, ahanini bitewe n’uko umwe mu babyeyi be atifuzaga uwo musore gusa banga kubabuza kubana ngo batagaragara nabi mu rusengero.

Mugabo yaje kuganira byimbitse n’umugore we, umugore abwira umugabo ko yamwibeshyeho kuko atari we Imana yamugeneye.

Mumbabarire kuko inkuru yabo ni ndende, gusa yasorejwe mu rukiko bahawe gatanya, ubu Mugabo aheruka umwana we w’umuhungu mu myaka itatu ishize kuko nyina atakimwemerera kujya kumureba.

Mu kiganiro na IGIHE, Mugabo yavuze ko iyo haza kubaho uburyo bwo kubanza kumenya neza umukunzi we batarasezerana burundu mu mategeko, hari ibyo yanyuzemo byinshi atari kunyuramo.

Ati “Mbona byagira umumaro, niba koko umuntu mwasezerana ko muzabana imyaka ibiri yashira mwabona biri kugenda neza mukongerho indi ibiri cyangwa itanu mubyumvikanyeho, ku giti cyanyu byaba byiza.

Irankunda nubwo atarashyingirwa, na we yemeza ko habaye hari uburyo bundi bw’isezerano butari burundu, byagira icyo bigabanya ku bibazo biri mu miryango.

Ati “Iyo urebye ukuntu ingo z’ubu zisigaye zimeze, ntabwo nasezerana n’umuntu iteka ryose. Njye umugore nzashaka tuzagira kontaro y’umwaka tubane tutarabyara, umwaka nushira tubasha kumvikana tuzakomezanye. Nushira byaranze, tubivemo aho kugira ngo tuzananiranwe tujye no muri gatanya.”

Nubwo bamwe babyifuza, kuba hari henshi byagiye bitangwa nk’ibyifuzo ntibishyirwe mu bikorwa hari impamvu.

Umunyamategeko Bayingana Janvier yabwiye IGIHE ko ibihugu byose usanga bishingiye ku miryango, ku buryo koroshya amategeko ajyanye n’imibanire byagira ingaruka cyane.

Ati “Itegeko Nshinga n’andi mategeko agaragaza ko umuryango ari wo shingiro ry’umuryango nyarwanda. Ntabwo igihugu cyabaho kidafite umuryango w’ibanze, ni nk’ubuzima bw’igihugu.”

Yavuze ko impamvu bigoye ko amategeko atahindurwa ngo abantu bemererwe kubana imyaka runaka bashaka, ari ingaruka bishobora kugira ku bazabakomokaho.

Ati “Ntabwo amasezerano y’ubushyingiranwe afite kamere nk’amasezerano asanzwe. Nk’amasezerano y’akazi ahuza umukozi n’umukoresha, bashobora kuyashyiraho iherezo igihe babishakiye, kubera ko hari ihame ry’uko amasezerano agira ingaruka ku bayagiranye.”

“Abashakanye bo, iyo bamaze kwinjira mu masezerano babyara abana kandi abo bantu bakaba bafite uburenganzira. Uburere n’uburenganzira bw’abana bwahazaharira kandi n’umuco na wo uri mu bibungabungwa, igisubizo numva kitari mu masezerano ahubwo kiri mu bindi bintu.”

Yakomeje agira ati “Kubera iki umuntu akeneye kujya kubana ateganya ko bazatandukana? Byaba bije gusenya aho kubaka. Kubana nyine ni ukugira ibyo wigomwa ukagira ibyo wunguka. Abo bake byananiye amategeko afite inzira yateganyije.”

Depite Izabiriza Marie Médiatrice yabwiye IGIHE ko gushyingirwa ari umushinga wo kwitondera, uwugiyemo akaba azi neza uko azawitwaramo

Ati “Marriage ni umushinga ugomba kubanza kwigwaho nk’uko wajya mu yindi mishinga ukumva uzunguka, numva rero no kubana mbere na mbere wumva ko bizaguhira. Iyo bitagenze neza nk’uko wabyifuzaga, amategeko yacu atanga umurongo ko habaho kwiyunga byakanga hakabaho gatanya.”

“Akamaro ko kubana kw’abashakanye mu buryo burambye bifasha mu kurinda uburenganzira bw’umwana bwo kurerwa n’ababyeyi bombi kandi bari kumwe. Mu muco wacu kandi kumva ko ababyeyi b’umuntu batandukanye, bibabaza ababakomokaho”.

Depite Izabiriza asanga kwemera contrats z'igihe gito byagira uruhare mu gusenya umuryango

Depite Izabiriza yavuze ko n’ubundi abagiye kubana babanza kurambagizanya, bityo uwo mwanya ari wo wafatwa nk’uwo kugerageza, wabona bitazakunda ukabivamo.

Ati “Ubu buryo bwo kubana hagendewe ku myaka runaka ni bubi kuko bwatera ibibazo mu muryango.”

Prof Bayisenge Jeannette, Minisitiri w’Uburinganire n’Iterambere ry’Umuryango aherutse kubwira IGIHE ko nka Leta igamije kubaka umuryango, itashyiraho uburyo bugamije kuwusenya.

Ati “Twe tugamije kubaka umuryango ukomeye kandi utekanye, kuko cyane cyane tureba no ku bana kuko mushobora kumvikana ngo murabana imyaka ibiri, muri aho hagati nimubyara nimutandukana wenda mwatekereje, uwo mwana azabaho gute? Ishusho uzaba uhaye umwana y’umuryango uzashinga ni iyihe?”

Minisitiri Bayisenge yavuze ko abagiye kurushinga ari ngombwa kubanza kubitekerezaho, bakabikora babyiyemeje.

Ati “Injira mu rugo wumva ko ruzaramba, unakore ibishoboka kugira ngo rurambe, nibyanga ubwo nyine bizaba byanze, ariko winjiyemo ufite intego yo kurukorera ngo rurambe.”

Me Bayingana na we yavuze ko igihugu kiramutse gishyigikiye ubwo buryo bwo kubana by’igihe gito, cyaba gishaka kwisenya no gusenya ejo hazaza.

Ati “Hari abandi bantu ayo masezerano yagiraho ingaruka by’umwihariko abana, ubwo iyo byagize ingaruka ku bana, biba byagize ingaruka muri rusange no ku gihugu.”

Mu gihe abashakanye baba batandukanye barabyaye harimo umwe muri bo utishoboye, Bayingana yavuze ko byagaruka bikaba umutwaro kuri Leta kuko ba bana ari Leta yabitaho.

Nubwo kubana by’igihe runaka bitemewe, mu bihugu bitandukanye hari uburyo abantu babana batarasezeranye buzwi nka cohabitation, urebye mu Rwanda ni nko gukocora. Icyakora ubu buryo ntibwemerwa mu mategeko, gusa abana bavutse bahabwa uburenganzira bwose bugenwa n’amategeko.

Mu gihe abashakanye gutyo batandukanye, ntacyo babaza amategeko kuko nta sezerano rizwi baba bagiranye.

Minisitiri Prof Bayisenge Jeannette yavuze ko urubyiruko rukwiriye kubana rwabitekerejeho neza

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