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Boherezwaga kuvumbura Abatutsi! Uko Inkiko Gacaca zagowe n’ikibazo cy’abana bakoze Jenoside

Yanditswe na Akayezu Jean de Dieu
Kuya 20 Ukwakira 2021 saa 07:11
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Tekereza gato kuri uwo muhungu wawe w’imyaka 12, uyu munsi uri gushyashyana ukubita hirya no hino ngo abone amakayi, imyambaro, amafaranga n’ibindi nkenerwa kugira ngo ajye ku ishuri, ari naryo iwacu dufata nk’umusingi w’ahazaza heza h’umwana.

Impamvu z’icyuya umubyeyi abira, ni uguharanira ko yazaba uw’ingirakamaro ku muryango n’igihugu. Ntawe udashengurwa no kubona umukomokaho mu bibi.

Kuva muri Mata kugeza muri Nyakanga 1994, u Rwanda rwari mu icuraburindi, hirya no hino ari imiborogo, ubwo ubuyobozi bubi bwashyiraga mu bikorwa umugambi wo kurimbura Abatutsi.

Ubukana bwa Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi bugaragarira mu kuba ibyiciro hafi ya byose by’Abanyarwanda byarayigizemo uruhare kugeza n’aho abana bato bamwe bazwi nk’abaziranenge bashowe muri ayo mahano.

Ubuhamya bw’abarokotse Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi bugaruka ku buryo abana bato b’imyaka iri hagati ya 10 na 16 nabo bajyaga bajyana n’ababyeyi cyangwa bakuru babo kwica Abatutsi ndetse bamwe bakavuga uburyo babashoraga bakajya kuvumbura Abatutsi babaga bihishe mu nzu no mu bihuru.

Ibi ariko usanga bishengura bamwe mu barokotse cyane ko abo bari abana n’ubwo bagize uruhare muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, batagombaga gukurikiranwa ngo baryozwe ibyo bakoze.

Kubakurikirana byabereye ihurizo rikomeye Inkiko Gacaca

Mu 2002, ubwo Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi yari imaze imyaka umunani ibaye, mu Rwanda hashyizweho Inkiko Gacaca nk’uburyo bwo gutanga ubutabera ku barokotse n’abakoze Jenoside.

Mu 2005, ni ukuvuga nyuma y’imyaka 11, Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi ibaye nibwo izi nkiko zatangiye imirimo yazo zitangira gucira imanza abakekwagaho uruhare muri ayo mahano.

Ibi bisahatse kuvuga ko uwari ufite imyaka 7 muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, Inkiko Gacaca zatangiye imirimo amaze kugira 18. Ni ukuvuga ko icyo gihe itegeko ryateganyaga ko afite imyaka y’ubukure, ashobora kuryozwa ibyo yakora byose.

Imirimo y’Inkiko Gacaca yateganywaga n’itegeko rizishyiraho kandi rigena imitunganyirize y’ikurikirana ry’ibyaha bigize icyaha cya Jenoside, ibyaha byibasiye inyokomuntu, byakozwe hagati ya tariki 1 Ukwakira 1990 n’iya 31 Ukuboza 1994.

Bamwe mu bari abacamanza [abitwaga Inyangamugayo za Gacaca] b’izi nkiko bavuga ko mu birego bahuye nabyo mu kazi bakoze hari harimo n’ibyashinjwaga abari abana, ni ukuvuga abari batarageza imyaka 18, ku wa 31 Ukuboza 1994.

Uwari Inyangamugayo ya Gacaca mu Murenge wa Kigabiro, Akarere ka Rwamagana utifuje ko imyorondoro ye ijya mu itangazamakuru yagize ati “Kiriya gihe mu buhamya twumvaga, wajyaga kumva ukumva umuntu arahagurutse ati uriya musore yatemye mama, cyangwa se niwe waje kutwerekana aho twari twari twihishe.”

Yakomeje agira ati “Icyo gihe n’ubwo wamubonaga aho ukabona ari umusore w’imyaka nka 24, ariko igihe yakoraga icyo cyaha yari afite imyaka 13, urumva ko icyo gihe ntabwo yari yagejeje imyaka yo gukurikiranwa.”
Ingingo ya 74 y’Itegeko ryagengaga Inkiko Gacaca, niyo yagengaga imikirize y’urubanza rw’umwana wahamijwe icyaha cya Jenoside n’icyibasiye inyokomuntu, mu gihe yakoraga icyo cyaha akaba yari afite imyaka iri hejuru ya 14 ariko itageze kuri 18.

Itegeko ryagengaga ko igihe uwo mwana ari mu rwego rwa mbere, igihano cyoroheje cy’igifungo gihera ku myaka 10 kugeza ku myaka 20.

Ku rundi ruhande ariko, mu gihe uwo mwana yabaga ari mu rwego rwa kabiri cyangwa urwa gatatu, igihano cyoroheje cy’igifungo yahabwaga cyari kimwe cya kabiri cy’imyaka itegeko-ngenga rihanisha abantu bakuru bahuje ibyaha.

Iyi ngingo kandi yagenaga ko ku mwana utarageza imyaka 14 [ni ukuvuga ko ubwo yakoraga ibyaha bya Jenoside mu 1994] mu gihe yakoraga ibyo byaha ashinjwa, ntabwo yakurikiranwaga n’Inkiko Gacaca ahubwo yajyanwaga mu igororamuco akigishwa nyuma agasubizwa mu muryango.

Mu kiganiro na IGIHE, Umuyobozi wa Komisiyo y’Igihugu ishinzwe kuvugurura amategeko, Domitilla Mukantaganzwa, [niwe wari umuyobozi w’Inkiko Gacaca], yavuze ko mu birego bakiraga hari harimo n’iby’abana batarageza imyaka yo gukurikiranwa n’inkiko.

Ati “Aba babamo ibyiciro bibiri kandi byombi twarabigize. Hari ababaga batarageza igihe cy’uburyozwacyaha, abo bana ntabwo bakurikiranwa n’ubutabera, ariko urabizi ko abana b’imyaka 12, 13 […] muri Jenoside bagiye bagira uruhare mu byaha.”

Yakomejeagira ati “Kuko hari abana bagiye batuma kuvumbura mu bihuru aho abatutsi bihishe hirya no hino, abo twarabagize.”

Abahamijwe ibyaha bya Jenoside ari abana byagenze bite?
N’ubwo kugeza ubu bigoye kubona raporo igaragaza imibare y’abana bagize uruhare muri Jenoside, ubwo byari bimaze kugaragara ko hari izo mbogamizi z’abana bagize uruhare muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi kandi, leta yahise ishaka igisubizo.

Hashyizweho ikigo gishinzwe kwigisha no gusubiza mu buzima busanzwe abana bagize uruhare muri Jenoside ariko batarageza imyaka yo gukurikiranwa. Ni ikigo kiri mu Bugesera.

Mukantaganzwa ati “Abo bana rero [icyo gihe bari bamaze kuba abasore abandi ari abagabo] bagiye bajyanwa muri icyo kigo, bakigishwa noneho bagasubizwa mu miryango yabo. Byakozwe n’umuryango witwaga Soferwa, ukajya wigisha abo bana nyuma bagasubizwa mu miryango.”

Yavuze ko hari ikindi gice cy’abana barengeje imyaka 14 ariko batarageza ku myaka 18, nabo bahanwaga nk’abana [nk’uko byateganywaga n’itegeko], aho abarenga 1800 bafunguwe bajyanwa mu kigo cyari giherereye i Rwamagana.

Ni ukuvuga ko aba bana bavanywe muri za gereza bajyanywa muri icyo kigo bategereza igihe cyo kuburanishwa aho bamwe bahabwa ibihano by’igifungo ariko abenshi baje kurangiza ibihano cyane ko itegeko ryateganyagako ibihano bagombaga guhabwa byari kimwe cya kabiri cy’ibihabwa abakuru.

Mukantaganzwa ati “Impamvu ni uko byagaragaraga ko igihano bari bamaze bafunzwe cyarutaga imyaka bagombaga gukatirwa n’inkiko Gacaca, kuko iyo ufashe nk’uwafunzwe mu 1994, nyuma y’imyaka 11 yari nko kuba yakatirwa imyaka 10, urumva ko yari yararangije igihano.”

Ubwo hizihizwaga Isabukuru y’imyaka 25 y’Umuryango Unit Club Intwararumuri, hatanzwe igitekerezo cy’uko aba bantu bakorwaho ubushakashatsi gusa kugeza ubu hari imbogamizi z’uko abenshi muri bo bafunguwe kuko ibihano bagiye bahabwa bitarenze imyaka 25.

Perezida wa Komisiyo y'Igihugu ishinzwe kuvugurura amategeko, Mukantaganzwa Domitilla wayoboraga Inkiko Gacaca, yavuze ko hari ibirego byinshi by'abana byaburanishijwe n'izi nkiko

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