Bizasaba iki ngo ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside iranduke burundu mu Banyarwanda?

Yanditswe na Dufitumukiza Salathiel
Kuya 13 Mata 2021 saa 06:52
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Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi yakozwe n’abenegihugu bayikorera abandi bari basanzwe babana, bavuga ururimi rumwe, basenga Imana imwe kandi basangiye umuco. Urugendo rwo kubiba urwango mu bavandimwe kugeza aho umwe yumva ko kwica undi nta kibazo kibirimo, rwatangijwe n’abakoloni babwiye Benekanyarwanda ko imiterere y’imibiri yabo inyuranye.

Ubwo buyobe bwagendeweho igihe kirekire, ababwiwe ko ari Abahutu bamenesha abiswe Abatutsi mu gihugu basangiye, barabatoteza abandi babica uruhongohongo kugeza ubwo mu minsi 100 yatangiye ku wa 7 Mata kugeza ku wa 4 Nyakanga 1994 hishwe Abatutsi barenga miliyoni.

Jenoside yarahagaritswe ariko ibisigisigi byayo birimo n’ingengabitekerezo biracyahari nyuma y’imyaka 27. Ububi bwayo bwaragaragaye bihagije ku buryo nta wakwifuza no kurota yongeye kubaho aramutse afite umutima wa kimuntu.

Nyamara hari ba ntamunoza batanyurwa n’amahoro n’umutekano biranga urwa Gasabo rukataje mu iterambere, rurangajwe imbere n’ubuyobozi buharanira icyari cyo cyose cyagarura ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda.

Byatangiriye mu kubabarirana abishe basaba imbabazi abo biciye muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, hagamijwe komora ibikomere by’abayirokotse batari bagifite icyizere cyo kubaho, ndetse no gukura mu isoni abari batewe ipfunwe n’amahano bakoze babagaho batabohotse kuko batatiye igihango.

Ubu amahoro arahinda benshi bemeye gusubira mu buvandimwe bwaranze ba sogokuruza mbere y’umwaduko w’Abakoloni, ariko hari abagitsimbaraye ku ngengabitekerezo ya Jenoside banze kuva ku izima ngo bashyire hamwe n’abandi mu kubaka Urwababyaye, bagahora iteka mu ntekerezo zihembera urwango n’amacakubiri kandi bazi neza ishyano byakururiye igihugu mu 1994.

Abenshi muri bo biganjemo abagize uruhare muri Jenoside (haba abafunzwe n’abari mu bwihisho batarafatwa ngo babiryozwe). Ikibabaje kurushaho, ni uko bagenda babicengeza no mu rubyiruko ku buryo umuntu ashobora kugira impungenge z’urungano rwitezweho kuzakomereza aho igihugu kigeze cyiyubaka, mu gihe rwaba ruhaye umwanya iyo ngengabitekerezo mu mitwe yarwo.

Icyakora intambwe imaze guterwa mu kunga Abanyarwanda ni nziza kandi itanga icyizere cy’uko abagifite “iyo myumvire ipfuye” bazatsindwa. Imbaraga za buri wese zirakenewe mu kubamagana, ku buryo gusubiza inyuma inzira y’ubumwe bumaze kugerwaho bazahora babirota gusa.

Wakwibaza uti “Bizasaba iki ngo ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside icike burundu mu Banyarwanda; ubutsinzi buzatuma babaho batishishanya bagasenyera umugozi umwe?”

Mu kiganiro cyihariye IGIHE yagiranye n’abo mu ngeri zitandukanye barimo abanyamadini, abanyamategeko, abarokotse Jenoside, umuyobozi wa Komisiyo y’Igihugu y’Ubumwe n’Ubwiyunge, abahanga mu by’imitekerereze, abanyamakuru, umudepite ndetse n’umunyepolitiki; hari ibyo bagaragaje byafasha kugera ku iyo ntambwe.

Imiyoborere myiza

Kimwe mu biraje ishinga Guverinoma yahagaritse Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi ikunga abayirokotse n’abayikoze ni imiyoborere myiza ituma buri wese yiyumvamo ko igihugu ari icye. Ni politiki yaje ihabanye n’iya guverinoma yateguye ikanashyira mu bikorwa Jenoside kuko yo yavugaga ko “Igihugu ari icy’Abahutu, Abatutsi batagomba kugituranamo na bo”.

Umuyobozi w’Ishyaka riharana Demokarasi no kurengera Ibidukikije, Dr Frank Habineza, yavuze ko iyo politiki y’imiyoborere myiza nikomeza bizatuma ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside icika kuko “buri wese azaba yibanamo ubuyobozi” kandi abona ko ahabwa uburenganzira busesuye mu byo akora n’ibyagenerwa.

Yakomeje ati “Ariko ibyo bizanajyana no gukomeza kurandura ubukene mu Baturarwanda kuko ariho abajya gukwirakwiza ya ngengabitekerezo n’amacakubiri buririra.”

Dr Habineza yavuze ko abanyepolitiki bashobora kumvisha umuturage ko “abayeho nabi kandi hari abandi bahabwa amahirwe yo kubaho neza kumurusha” bigatuma abagirira urwango, akaba yakumva ibyo bamubwira akagira ingengabitekerezo.

Ati “Mu gihe Abanyarwanda bose bazaba bafatwa kimwe, bahabwa uburenganzira bungana muri gahunda zose, ‘ingengabitekerezo izacika”.

Umuhanga mu by’Imitekerereze n’Imyitwarire bya muntu, Nsengiyumva Innocent, na we ahamya ko “guca burundu ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside mu Banyarwanda bizasaba gukomeza gushyigikira imiyoborere myiza” kuko ari yo ikubiyemo byose.

Yagize ati “Nituba dufite ubuyobozi bwiza buzabasha guca intege [abafite ingengabiteketrezo] no gusobanura neza ibintu uko biteye n’uko byagenze. Bizanafasha kwita ku bagizweho ingaruka na Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.”

“Muri make ni wo muti kuko n’amahanga azabasha gusobanukirwa uko ibintu byabaye, bigende bihindura imyumvire y’abantu kuzageza ubwo ba bandi bavuga ibitari byo bagaragara nk’abanyabinyoma. Uko ni ko imitekerereze izagenda ihinduka, kera kabaye ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside iranduke mu mitwe y’abayifite.”

Gushyira imbere Ubunyarwanda

Umuyobozi wa Komisiyo y’Igihugu y’Ubumwe n’Ubwiyunge, Ndayisaba Fidèle, yavuze ko urugamba rwo kurandura ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside mu Banyarwanda ruzagirwamo uruhare na buri wese “akabanza kwiyumvamo Ubunyarwanda mbere yo kwibona cyangwa akabona abandi mu ndorerwamo z’amoko”.

Buri wese niyiyumvamo Ubunyarwanda, ya macakuriri yo kubona mugenzi wawe ugahita utekereza kumenya niba ari Umuhutu cyangwa Umututsi bizahagarara, umubonemo Umunyarwanda musangiye igihugu, ururimi n’umuco.

Yakomeje ati “Ushyize imbere Ubunyarwanda ntiwakomeretsa mugenzi wawe kandi ntiwakomereka, ahubwo byakomora ibikomere kuko buri Munyarwanda afite uko yagiye akomeretswa n’amateka mabi Igihugu cyacu cyanyuzemo.”

Ndayisaba asanga nihimakazwa iyo gahunda nk’uko Leta yanabishyigikiye ikuraho ibitandukanya Abanyarwanda nk’indangamuntu z’amoko [zandikwagamo Hutu, Tutsi cyangwa Twa], ndetse buri wese akemererwa byose hatagenedewe ku bwoko ubu n’ubu, ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside izatsindwa.

Gukomeza kwigisha no gusobanura amateka, cyane cyane mu rubyiruko

Umubare munini w’Abanyarwanda ubu ugizwe n’urubyiruko rwiganjemo abavutse nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi n’abo yabaye bakiri bato. Ibyo bituma byoroha kubayobya kuko baba babarirwa ibyo batiboneye, bityo abafite ingengabitekerezo bikaborohera kurwigarurira barutekeramo ipfobya n’ihakana ryayo.

Umudepite mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko y’u Rwanda, Karemera Francis, yavuze ko urubyiruko rugomba kwigishwa cyane amateka y’u Rwanda, rugasobanurirwa neza “ko nta Jenoside ebyiri zabayeho”.

Yavuze ko n’ubundi kwigishwa bisanzwe bikorwa mu mashuri ariko abana “bagera ku ishyiga ababyeyi babo bakabacengezamo andi matwara,” ibintu bibangamira iyo gahunda kuko bikomeza gushyira urubyiruko mu gihirahiro.

Depite Karemera yongeyeho ko hari igitekerezo cyo gutegura izindi gahunda zo gutanga inyigisho ku mateka no ku rubyiruko rutiga, rukayasobanukirwa kurushaho.

Yagize ati “Tukajya mu midugudu tugakomeza kwigisha abana uko Jenoside yatangiye, ukuntu amacakubiri yaje, ntitubereke ko se (ufunze yenda) ari we wabitekereje akabikora.”

Iyo ngingo ayihurizaho na Pasiteri Rev Uwimana Jean Pierre usanzwe ari n’Umwarimu muri Kaminuza y’u Rwanda, uvuga ko niba abanyamadini bigisha urukundo rw’Imana bagomba no kwigisha abayoboke kubana neza nk’abavandimwe aho kwibonamo amoko atandukanye.

Ibyo bizafasha kurandura ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside kuko abayoboke bazajya bahurira mu nsengero ntibibonemo Abahutu, Abatutsi cyangwa Abatwa ahubwo bakibonamo abahuje ukwemera basenga Imana imwe.

Rev Uwimana yagize ati “Dusanzwe twigisha Abakirisitu tukabahugura ku kuri kwabayeho kuri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994, ndetse no kugira igihe cyo kwibuka kugira ngo umuntu atazibagirwa kandi cya gishyika cyo mu mitima kiveho.”

“Hanyuma tukabigisha ihame ry’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge kuko ijambo ry’Imana rishingiye ku rukundo, ari narwo rutujyana mu kwiyunga no gushyira hamwe, rukadusaba kubabarira no kwihangana ku mutima ushengutse.”

Rev Uwimana yavuze ko iyo ibyo bifatanyijwe n’amasengesho y’ukwizera, ‘bituma umuntu agira imbaraga zo kwihangana no kubabarira (ku wiciwe) n’izo guca bugufi agasaba imbabazi (ku wishe)”.

Uko ibyo bizagenda bikorwa kenshi mu gihe kirekire, yizera ko bizatuma ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside icika burundu.

Impuguke mu by’Amategeko akaba n’Umwarimu muri Kaminuza y’u Rwanda, Me Kayitana Evode, yavuze ko amategeko atari yo akenewe mu kurandura ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside kuko ibera mu ntekerezo, ashimangira ko bizagerwaho binyuze mu kwigisha.

Yagize ati “Kurandura ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside si ikibazo cy’amategeko. Ni ikibazo cyo kwigisha abantu kizakorwa n’abanyepolitiki n’abahanga mu by’imitekerereze. Ntabwo ari ukuvuga ngo hazashyirwaho amategeko akaze kuko ingengabitekerezo ni ibitekerezo kandi abantu ntibareka gutekereza kubera ibihano.”

Umunyamakuru w’Urwego rw’Igihugu rw’Itangazamakuru (RBA), Uwimana Ferdinand, na we yemeje ko hakwiye gukomeza “kwigisha ububi bwa Jenoside” cyane cyane mu rubyiruko, ariko “n’abakuru bakigishwa ko bagomba gusigira umurage mwiza abakiri bato.”

Yakomeje ati “Umunyamakuru na we ubwo bukangurambaga yabukora, akabwira abantu ko u Rwanda ruzira amacakubiri n’ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside ari rwo Rwanda dukwiye kuraga abazadukomokaho. Umunyamakuru ni ijwi rya rubanda kandi rigera ku bantu benshi icyarimwe, uwo mwanya nawo wakagombye kuba ari mwiza kuko ubutumwa atanze bufatwa nk’ukuri bukizerwa.”

Uwimana yibukije ko itangazamakuru ribi ryagize uruhare muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi bigatuma benshi bayikora kuko baryizeye, avuga ko ubu ari cyo gihe cyo “gukoresha imbaraga dufite twubaka u Rwanda.”

Yagaragaje ko gusobanura neza uko amateka mabi y’u Rwanda yagenze bizanakomeza gutera isoni abayagizemo uruhare, bikabaca intege ntibakomeze gukwirakwiza ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside.

Abashakashatsi n’abanditsi bashobora kubyandika kugira ngo bitazibagirana ndetse n’ibimenyetso byose biyagaragaza bikabungabungwa, kuko “uko abakoze jenoside bazajya babibona,bakabisoma cyangwa bakabyumva bizabaca intege”.

Hari icyizere ko bizagerwaho

Abarokotse Jenoside baganiye na IGIHE bavuze ko uko bimeze ubu hari icyizere cy’uko ingengabitekerezo izashira mu bayifite.

Perezida wa Ibuka mu Murenge wa Kintobo ho mu Karere ka Nyabihu, Ntawirinda Jean Damascène, yagize ati “Mbere nka za 2010 twageraga mu bihe byo kwibuka ugasanga hari nk’aho batemye inka y’umuntu warokotse Jenoside, ariko kugeza ubu [mu 2021] ntabyo twari twumva. Hari impinduka zagiye zigaragara uko imyaka ishira, icyizere kirahari.”

Ntawirinda arabibona kimwe n’abandi benshi barimo na Ndayisaba Fidèle, wavuze ko “abasigaranye ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside ari udutsiko duto twiganjemo abakorera mu mahanga”.

Hashingiwe ku byagezweho mu myaka 27, abo bose bavuzwe haruguru batangaje ko babona hari icyizere cy’uko ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside izaranduka burundu mu Banyarwanda.

Raporo ya Komisiyo y’Igihugu yo Kurwanya Jenoside (CNLG) yo mu 2015 yerekanye ko mu 2011 habonetse dosiye zijyanye n’ingengabitekerezo 143, 2012 haboneka 190 naho hagati ya 2013 na 2014 haboneka 183.

Icyegeranyo cy’Ubushinjacyaha bw’u Rwanda mu myaka itatu ishize kigaragaza ko hagati ya 2017 na 2018 hari dosiye 333, mu 2018 na 2019 ziba 293, naho mu 2019 na 2020 haboneka izigera kuri 323.

Umuvugizi wa Polisi y’Igihugu, CP John Bosco Kabera aheruka gutangariza RBA ko muri ibi bihe byo kwibuka ku nshuro ya 27 Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, hamaze gutahurwa abarenga 30 bakoze ibifitanye isano n’ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside.

Abishe n'abiciwe muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi basabanye imbabazi ubu babana batishishanya
Depite Karemera Francis yavuze ko kwigisha neza urubyiruko ko nta Jenoside ebyiri zabayeho bizafasha mu guhangana n'ingengabitekerezo
Pasiteri Rev Uwimana Jean Pierre avuga ko abanyamadini nibigisha urukundo rw’Imana bagomba no kwigisha abayoboke kubana neza nk’abavandimwe aho kwibonamo amoko
Umuyobozi wa Komisiyo y’Igihugu y’Ubumwe n’Ubwiyunge, Ndayisaba Fidèle, yavuze ko urugamba rwo kurandura ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside mu Banyarwanda ruzagirwamo uruhare na buri wese

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