Aho u Rwanda rugeze rwegereza abaturage amazi meza nk’uko intego z’Iterambere Rirambye zibiteganya

Yanditswe na Cyprien Niyomwungeri
Kuya 31 Gicurasi 2018 saa 10:23
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Imyaka irayingayinga itatu i New York muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, hatangirijwe intego 17 zigamije iterambere rirambye (SDGs), ndetse buri gihugu mu 193 bigize Loni gihabwa umukoro wo gukora iyo bwabaga kugira ngo muri 2030 kibe cyesheje imihigo ikubiye muri izi ntego.

Kugeza amazi meza kuri bose ndetse no kubungabunga ku buryo burambye ibikorwa by’amazi n’isukura kuri bose, ni intego ya gatandatu muri 17 z’iterambere rirambye. Ni imwe mu zikomeye kuko ari umusemburo w’izindi zirimo; kurandura ubukene, inzara, ubuzima bwiza, uburezi bufite ireme n’izindi.

Ibihugu byiyemeje ko mu 2030, amazi meza azaba agera ku baturage bose mu buryo buhoraho, burambye kandi ku giciro gihendutse, bikazafasha abaturage kugira ubuzima bwiza, iterambere ry’ubukungu n’imibereho myiza.

Ibi biragendana n’uko serivisi z’isukura n’izo kubungabunga imyanda zigera ku banyarwanda bose mu buryo burambye kandi buhendutse, bityo zigatanga umusanzu mu kugabanya ubukene, kugira ubuzima bwiza, kurengera ibidukikije n’iterambere ry’ubukungu.

OMS igaragaza ko mu 2015, abagera kuri 71% by’abatuye Isi ni ukuvuga miliyari 5.2, begerejwe amazi meza aho batuye, bakayabona uko bayakeneye kandi adahumanye.

Ku rundi ruhande OMS ikomeza igaragaza ko hagendewe ku bipimo by’intego z’iterambere rirambye (SDGs), mu 2015 miliyari imwe na miliyoni eshatu z’abaturage begerejwe amazi meza, ku buryo kugera no kuva aho bayabona bitwara iminota itarenga 30.

Igaragaza ko abandi miliyoni 263 kuva no kugera aho amazi meza aherereye bibafata iminota irenze iyagenwe, miliyoni 423 bavana amazi ku mavomero atitabwaho naho miliyoni 159 ntibaragerwaho n’amazi meza bakoresha avuye mu migezi, mu biyaga n’ahandi.

U Rwanda kimwe n’ibindi bihugu rurakataje mu kugeza amazi meza n’isukura ku baturage, nk’uko rwabyiyemeje haba mu ntego z’iterambere rirambye (SDGs), muri gahunda ya Guverinoma y’imyaka irindwi 2017-2024 n’icyerekezo 2050, aho biteganyijwe ko Abanyarwanda bazaba bagerwaho n’amazi meza ku kigero cya 100% nibura mu 2024 bavuye kuri 84.8% bariho ubu na 74.2% bariho mu 2010.

Nta washidikanya ko ibi bizagerwaho kuko ugereranyije no mu myaka 17 ishize hari intambwe imaze guterwa mu kugeza amazi meza ku baturage, kuko abari bafite amazi icyo gihe bari munsi ya 50%. Iyi ntambwe yatewe biturutse ahanini ku mishinga myinshi yashyizwe mu bikorwa uko bikwiye ku nzego zitandukanye.

Hazakomeza guterwa intambwe mu kubaka no gusana imiyoboro y’amazi yo mu Mujyi wa Kigali, indi mijyi no mu cyaro ndetse hazongerwa ingano y’amazi atunganywa ku munsi akazava kuri metero kibe 182 120 akagera kuri metero kibe 303 120.

Hari imishinga ihanzwe amaso

Kuva mu 2010, Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yihaye intego yo kugeza amazi meza ku baturage bose nk’imwe mu ngamba zo guharanira iterambere rirambye. Hirya no hino mu gihugu hakozwe imishinga myinshi yongereye ingano y’amazi akoreshwa ndetse n’abaturage ageraho bariyongera.

Muri 2016 hafunguwe uruganda rwa Nzove I rwatumye amazi yakoreshwaga mu Mujyi wa Kigali utuwe n’abarenga miliyoni imwe ava kuri metero kibe 65 000 ku munsi agera kuri metero kibe 90 000 ku munsi. Uru ruganda rwafunguwe rufite ubushobozi bwo gutanga metero kibe 25 000 ku munsi ubu rutanga izigera ku 40 000 ku munsi.

Hari kandi urundi ruganda rushya rwa Nzove rufite ubushobozi bwo gutanga ku ikubitiro metero kibe 40 000 ku munsi rumaze kuzura.

Mu Mujyi wa Kigali harimo gushyirwa mu bikorwa indi mishinga. Twavuga nk’uwo kubaka umuyoboro w’amazi uzavana amazi ku ruganda rushya rwa Nzove I. Ibi byose bikorwa mu rwego rwo gukemura mu buryo burambye ibibazo by’ibura ry’amazi mu duce twinshi tw’Umujyi wa Kigali harimo Remera, Kimironko, Kanombe na Kicukiro.

Mu bice by’icyaro naho hakozwe imishinga yo kwegereza abaturage amazi meza. Urugero ni nko mu Karere ka Rusizi aho abaturage ibihumbi 17 batuye mu kirwa cya Nkombo, bagejejweho amazi meza, imwe mu ngamba zo guhashya icyorezo cya Cholera cyaharangwaga.

Mu mijyi itandatu yunganira Kigali ariyo; Muhanga, Nyagatare, Rubavu, Rusizi, Musanze na Huye imyinshi yagejejwemo amazi meza. Kongera imiyoboro no kuyagura, mu rwego rwo kuyongerera ubushobozi bwo gutwara amazi no kubaka ibigega bizatuma agera ku baturage neza birakomeje.

Muri rusange mu turere 30 tw’Igihugu hari imishinga yo gukwirakwiza amazi meza yamaze kurangira n’indi igikorwa. Imwe muri yo ni iyi ikurikira: Mpanga mu Karere ka Nyanza hubatswe uruganda rufite ubushobozi bwo gutanga metero kibe 5000 ku munsi.

Mu Karere ka Gatsibo hubatswe uruganda rwa Gihengeri rufite ubushobozi bwo gutanga metero kibe 2500 ku munsi.

Mu Karere ka Bugesera mu Murenge wa Gashora harimo kubakwa uruganda rwa Kanyonyomba ruzatanga metero kibe 5,000 ku munsi rukaba rwitezweho kugeza amazi muri Gashora na Rweru.

Isukura

Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yiyemeje kuzamura ibikorwa by’isuku n’isukura bikava kuri 84% bikagera ku Banyarwanda bose (100%). Hazanashyirwaho uburyo buboneye bwo gutunganya imyanda mu mijyi itandukanye ndetse no mu cyaro.

Mu nyubako zirimo iza Leta n’iz’ubucuruzi hazakomeza kubakwamo imisarani rusange; mu Mujyi wa Kigali hazashyirwaho kandi ahantu hakusanyirizwa hakanatunganyirizwa imyanda y’amazi, ahantu hose hateganyirijwe kuzubakwa inzu zizatuzwamo abantu benshi hazashyirwamo uburyo bwo gutwara imyanda buciriritse ndetse mu turere hubakwe ibimoteri rusange biboneye hanashyirweho uburyo bwo gutunganya imyanda muri rusange.

Ubufatanye ni ingenzi

Guverinoma y’u Rwanda ikorana n’abafatanyabikorwa mu iterambere barimo imiryango Mpuzamahanga itegamiye Leta, iy’imbere mu gihugu n’abandi bafite aho bahuriye no kugeza amazi meza ku baturage n’ibikorwa by’isukura.

Urugero ni WaterAid, umwe mu bafatanyabikorwa mu bijyanye no kwegereza amazi meza abaturage n’isukura. Uwo muryango wibanda ku gufasha abaturage kubona amazi meza, isuku n’isukura mu bihugu biri mu nzira y’amajyambere.

Mu myaka hafi umunani uwo muryango umaze ukorera mu Rwanda, wafashije abaturage 47,365 bo mu Karere ka Bugesera kubona amazi meza, abagera ku 10,295 babona ibikorwa by’isukura bigezweho naho abarenga 45 000, babona amahugurwa yo kubafasha guhindura imyumvire ku bijyanye n’isuku.

WaterAid kandi wafashije mu kubaka umuyoboro w’amazi mu Murenge wa Rweru mu Karere ka Bugesera, ureshya na kilometero umunani, ukazatuma abantu 6000 bagerwaho n’amazi meza. Uyu muryango na none wateye inkunga ibikorwa byo kubaka umuyoboro wa Rwingeso-Musenyi-Kanazi ureshya na kilometero 23 uzageza amazi meza ku bantu 15,000 n’uwa Juru uzageza amazi meza ku bantu 45 000.

Mu bijyanye n’isukura wateye inkunga mu kubaka ibikorwa remezo by’isukura mu mashuri n’ibigo nderabuzima byo mu Karere ka Bugesera.

Hari JICA ikorera mu Rwanda kuva mu 2005, aho yateye inkunga imishinga irimo uwa Rwakibogo, ugeza amazi meza ku baturage 43 000 bo mu mirenge ya Mwulire, Kigabiro na Munyaga yo mu Karere ka Rwamagana, Kigina, Gatore, Mushikiri na Gahara yo mu Karere ka Kirehe.

World Vision ni umuryango nawo utanga umusanzu mu kugeza amazi meza ku baturage no kubakura mu bukene. Nyamagabe ni hamwe mu hantu umunani hakorera gahunda ya World Vision, izwi nka Rwanda THRIVE, izageza amazi meza ku ngo 5500.

Umuryango Water For People nawo ni umufatanyabikorwa wa Leta mu gukora imishinga igeza amazi meza ku baturage. Wiband amu turere twa Kicukiro, Rulindo na Gicumbi. Ukorana kandi n’abafatanyabikorwa batandukanye mu kugeza ku baturage amazi meza yo kunywa, isukura n’inyigisho z’isuku.

Kwegereza amazi meza abaturage bitanga umusanzu ukomeye mu kugabanya igihe abaturage bakoresha bajya kuvoma, bigatuma abana bagana ishuri kandi ntibakererwe ndetse abagore n’abakobwa usanga barahariwe imirimo yo kuvoma bagaturwa uwo mutwaro.

Ibyiza byo kwegerezwa amazi meza n’isukura ni byinshi kuko bituma abaturage bagira ubuzima bwiza. Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ryita ku buzima, OMS, ryemeza ko iyo abaturage badafite mazi meza ntibagire n’ibikorwa by’isukura bibaviramo kurwara impiswi, inzoka n’izindi ndwara zirimo n’izikomoka ku mirire mibi.

Mu Karere ka Nyagatare hubatswe uruganda rwa Mirama rwakemuye isaranganya ry'amazi muri uyu mujyi
Uruganda rw'amazi rwa Nzove ruravugwa ibigwi n'abatuye i Kigali
Umushinga WaterAid wigisha abaturage isuku n'isukura

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