Kwamamaza

1995-2016: Impinduka z’urudaca zakozwe mu burezi bw’u Rwanda zabyaye iki?

Yanditswe kuya 1-11-2016 saa 10:20' na Ntakirutimana Deus na Emmanuel Kanamugire


Kuva mu myaka 22 ishize kugeza magingo aya, uburezi mu Rwanda bwakozwemo impinduka nyinshi cyane; zirimo isimburana rya hato na hato ry’abaminisitiri muri Minisiteri ibushinzwe, impinduka mu nteganyanyigisho n’indimi zigishwamo, imitangirwe y’amanota y’abasoza ibyiciro bitandukanye, kwinjiza ikoranabuhanga mu mashuri, gutangiza gahunda y’uburezi bw’imyaka icyenda na cumi n’ibiri n’ibindi.

-  Ba Minisitiri bahindutse umusubizo

-  Icibwa rya diplôme ntiryavuzweho rumwe

-  Inkubiri yo gutema (kwirukana) yashoboraga gutuma bamwe bahagarika amasomo burundu

-  Kubara amanota byavuye ku ijanisha, bijya kuri 11, ubundi 55, ubu bigeze kuri 73

-  Abasimbukaga umwaka bahanishijwe gusubira inyuma

-  Amashami (Section) yavuyeho himakazwa ikomatanya ry’amasomo (Combinations)

Umuntu yakwibaza niba izi mpinduka tuvuze n’izo tutavuze hari intambwe zabashije guteza u Rwanda mu rugamba rwo gusigasira no guteza imbere ireme ry’uburezi nk’igihugu kirwana no kugira iterambere rishingiye ku bumenyi.

Nta wabura kuvuga ko u Rwanda ari “bavakure” mu bigendanye n’uburezi bitewe n’uko mbere ya 1994 higaga umugabo hagasiba undi nk’uko imibare ibigaragaza:

Mbere ya 1994, mu Rwanda hari kaminuza n’amashuri makuru arindwi, ubu agera kuri 35.

Ku bijyanye n’abanyeshuri, Raporo y’Ishami rya Loni rishinzwe guteza imbere uburezi, ubumenyi n’umuco (UNESCO) yo muri Gashyantare 2005, igaragaza ko izo kaminuza zigagamo abanyeshuri 4131 mu 1995/1996. Ubu zirigamo abasaga ibihumbi 100. Bisobanuye ko hagati y’iyo myaka biyongereye ku kigero cya 95.8%.

Mu yisumbuye mu 1990/1991 bari 26 251 mu 1993/1994 ari 54 817 baje kugera kuri 543 936, mu 2015, byerekana ko kuva mu 1994 biyongereye ku kigero cya 89.9%.

Mu mashuri abanza mu 1990/1991 higaga 1 030 529, mu 1993/94 bari 1 174 448 mu gihe mu 1996/1997 bari 1154 768. Uwo mubare waje kwiyongera ugera kuri 2 450 705 muri 2015, ni ukuvuga ko kuva mu 1994 biyongereye ku kigero cya 52%.

Umubare w’abarangiza kaminuza kandi wagiye uzamuka kugeza ubwo ukubye hafi inshuro eshatu uw’abigaga kaminuza mu 1995/1996. Buri mwaka nibura abasaga ibihumbi 11 barangiza Kaminuza.

Mu yisumbuye abasaga ibihumbi 70 bayarangije muri 2015 bakubye hafi inshuro 2.5 abigaga muri iki cyiciro mu1993/1994 bari 54 817.

Nubwo umubare w’abanyeshuri wagiye wiyongera, hari bamwe batobora bakavuga ko nta byera ngo de, ndetse bakemeza ko ahanini uburezi mu Rwanda bupfunyikira abanyeshuri amazi, ndetse ireme ryabwo rikaba ryarasenzekaye. Ni ngombwa rero ko tugomba gusubiza amaso inyuma tukareba aho igihugu cyavuye, ibyakozwe n’aho bikigejeje, bityo mu nkuru itaha tukazareba icyakorwa kugira ngo ireme ry’uburezi rizamuke.

"Kuva 1900..."

Amateka y’Uburezi mu Rwanda si aya none kuko kera Abanyarwanda bagiraga uburezi gakondo aho ingimbi n’abangavu bajyanwaga mu ‘Itorero’ no mu ‘Rubohero’ bakigishwa indangagaciro na kirazira by’umuco Nyarwanda, bikabategura kuzavamo abagabo batabarira igihugu n’abagore bacyambarira impumbya.

Ubwo burezi bwunganiwe n’ubugezweho tubona uyu munsi, bwadukanywe n’Abamisiyoneri mu myaka ya 1900, aho umunyeshuri yicara mu ishuri akigishwa n’umwarimu amasomo atandukanye.

Intambwe u Rwanda rwari rumaze gutera yasubijwe inyuma na Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994, bifata hafi umwaka kugira ngo uburezi na bwo bwongere kubyutsa umutwe, aho mu 1995 amashuri yongeye gutangira. Kuva icyo gihe, urugamba rwo kubaka igihugu ntirwasize n’uru rwego rwaranzwe n’izibaniro ry’impinduka.

Abashinzwe uburezi ntibahwema kuvuga ko ahanini impinduka ziba zigamije kubwubaka no kubujyanisha n’igihe, nubwo hari bamwe babibona ukundi bashingiye ko hari izagize akamaro n’izikemangwa.

Mineduc iyobowe n’abaminisitiri 13 mu myaka 20

Impinduka ya mbere ishingiye ku mubare w’Abaminisitiri bamaze kuyobora Minisiteri y’Uburezi na politiki nshya bagiye bazana.

Mu myaka isaga gato 20, iyi Minisiteri ni yo imaze kuyoborwa n’Abaminisitiri benshi, bagera kuri 13. Urebye iri simburana wakwibwira ko kuyobora Minisiteri y’Uburezi bigoranye kuko Prof. Romain Murenzi wayirambyemo atarengeje imyaka itanu, na ho Prof. Silas Lwakabamba wayiyoboye igihe gito ntiyarengeje amezi umunani.

Ukurikije impuzandengo nta we urayiyobora igihe kirenze umwaka n’amezi atandatu.

Uruhererekane rw’abayoboye Mineduc

Jenoside ikirangira Mineduc yitwaga Mineprisec (Ministère de l‘Enseignement Primaire et Secondaire) icyo gihe yayobowe na Pierre Célestin Rwigema. Yaje gusimburwa na Ngirabanzi Laurien hataho Col Dr Joseph Karemera kugeza mu 1999, ubwo yagirwaga Ambasaderi w’u Rwanda muri Afurika y’Epfo.

Emmanuel Mudidi ni we winjije iyo Minisiteri mu kinyagihumbi gishya, ahawe inshingano kuva mu 1999 kugeza 2001, hakurikiraho Romain Murenzi wagejeje mu 2006.

Kuva muri 2006 yashyizwe mu biganza bya Dr Mujawamariya Jeanne d’Arc kugeza muri 2008, asimbuwe na Dr. Gahakwa Daphrose wayiyoboye umwaka umwe, na we asimburwa na Charles Muligande kuva muri 2009 kugeza mu wa 2011.

Mujawamariya Jeanne d'Arc

Dr.Pierre Damien Habumuremyi yayinjiyemo kuva ku wa 7 Ukwakira 2011 kugeza muri Nyakanga 2014, asimburwa na Dr.Vincent Biruta, wakorewe mu ngata na Prof.Silas Lwakabamba muri 2014 kugeza muri Kamena 2015. Kuva icyo gihe kugeza ubu iyobowe na Dr.Papias Musafiri Malimba.

Zimwe mu mpinduka zikomeye mu burezi bw’u Rwanda

Mu 1979, habayeho impinduka [réforme] mu burezi yashyizeho ko imyaka yo gutangira umwaka wa mbere w’amashuri abanza ari irindwi ivuye kuri itandatu. Imyaka umunyeshuri yamaraga mu mashuri abanza yavuye kuri itandatu igera ku munani, aho ibiri ya nyuma yibandaga ku buhinzi n’imyuga.

Mu gutoranya abajyaga mu mashuri yisumbuye y’icyitegererezo, habagaho ikizamini [concours] ndetse hakitabwaho n’aho umuntu akomoka.

Nyuma y’umwaka w’amashuri 1991/1992, mu nkubiri y’amashyaka menshi, umwaka wa munani wongeye kuvanwaho na Uwiringiyimana Agathe wayoboraga iyo Minisiteri, hasubizwaho umwaka wa gatandatu. Icyo gihe kandi uwajyaga mu mashuri yisumbuye yatangiriranaga n’ishami (Section) mu mwaka wa mbere.

Mu 1994 amashuri yaje guhagarara mu gihe cya Jenoside, asubukura mu 1995, amasomo yose yigishwa mu rurimi rw’Ikinyarwanda mu mashuri abanza, na ho mu yisumbuye biga mu Gifaransa bifashisha amashusho yamanikwaga ku bitambaro(figurines).

Icyo gihe kandi habayeho kwigisha ururimi rw’Icyongereza mu mashuri abanza n’ayisumbuye ndetse hashyirwaho Inama y’Igihugu Ishinzwe Ibizamini. Mbere ibizamini by’abarangije amashuri yisumbuye byategurwaga n’ibigo bigagaho bikaba ari na ho bitangirwa.

Muri iyo myaka ya nyuma gato ya Jenoside, abarimu bahembwaga ibishyimbo, ifu y’ibigori, amavuta n’ibindi kimwe n’uko byari bimeze mu nzego za leta kuko yari ikirwana no kwiyubaka.

Mu 1995 kugera mu 1996, abanyeshuri bakoreraga ibizamini bisoza amashuri abanza n’ayisumbuye ku bigo bigagaho nk’uko byari bisanzwe na mbere ariko mu 1997 batangiye kubikorera ku bigo byatoranyijwe (Centres des examens).

Prof. Silas Lwakabamba ari mu bayoboye Mineduc igihe gito

Impamyabumenyi zashingirwaga ku manota abanyeshuri bagize mu mwaka wa gatanu n’uwa gatandatu, hiyongereyeho ayo yabonye mu kizamini cyategurwaga n’akanama k’abarimu kashyirwagaho n’ikigo ariko na byo byaje guhinduka.

Bageze aho bamwita ‘Nyamuca’

Mu 1998, Minisitiri w’Uburezi, Col. Dr. Joseph Karemera yaciye diplôme z’abari barangije amashuri yisumbuye yavugaga ko zitujuje ibisabwa n’ireme ry’uburezi igihugu cyifuzaga kugeraho, bituma bamwita ‘Nyamuca’.

Impamvu yo guca izo diplôme, ni uko icyo gihe abayobozi b’ibigo batungwaga agatoki ku gutanga amanota mu buryo budakurikije amabwiriza ya Minisiteri y’Uburezi.

Karemera yavuze ko hari abahawe diplôme nta bumenyi buhagije bafite, hari abakopeye, ndetse n’abongerewe amanota. Ibyo byatumye diplôme zabo zicibwa.

“Ufite intare nayiziture”

Nubwo mu baciriwe diplôme harimo n’abana b’abayobozi n’abasirikare bari bakomeye icyo gihe, Col. Dr Karemera ntibyamubujije kwihagararaho.

Icyo gihe kubona diplôme byasaga n’igitangaza kuko igihugu cyari kimaze gutakaza abantu benshi bize abandi barahunze, gikeneye abo kuziba icyuho cyari mu nzego z’imitegekere, mu buvuzi no mu burezi zari zigwiriyemo abize CERAI(Centre d’Enseignement Rural et Artisanal Intègre), amashuri yigagwamo n’ ababaga batabonye amahirwe yo gukomeza mu yisumbuye; amasomo yabo akibanda ku myuga, ubuhinzi n’ubworozi.

Dr Vincent Biruta na we yanyuze muri Mineduc

Guca diplôme rero byafashwe nka sakirirego ari na byo byatumye itangazamakuru rishika ribaza Col. Dr Karemera niba nta bwoba afite bwo guhangara ikintu nk’icyo, maze arabasubiza ati “Ufite intare nayiziture.”

Hari n’abavuga ko nyuma yaho yaba yasuye iyahoze ari Kaminuza Nkuru y’u Rwanda, abanyeshuri bakamubaza uburyo diplôme zicibwa kandi kuzibona bivunanye, maze akabaha igisubizo cyatangaje benshi.

Yababwiye ko bagiye muri politiki basanga ari Minisitiri, mu gisirikare bagasanga ari Koloneli, mu bijyanye n’uburezi basanga ari Dogiteri. Ati “Ibyo nakoze nabitekerejeho.”

Telefoni zaramenwe…

Dr Mathias Harebamungu yibukirwa ku mpinduka nyinshi yazanye mu burezi bw’u Rwanda, ubwo yari Umunyamabanga wa Leta ushinzwe Amashuri abanza n’ayisumbuye.

Ariko icyo yibukirwaho cyane ni icyo gufata isuka agacoca telefoni zari zafatanywe abanyeshuri bo mu kigo cy’amashuri yisumbuye mu karere ka Ruhango. Icyo gikorwa yakoze muri 2013 cyari kigamije guha gasopo abanyeshuri bajyana telefoni ku ishuri.

Izindi mpinduka zagaragaye ni ugufunga Cantine mu mashuri yisumbuye, Harebamungu yasobanuye ko abayobozi b’amashuri bari barazigize ubucuruzi aho kurengera imibereho myiza y’umunyeshuri. Ibi byiyongeraho guca ibyo kuboha imisatsi ku bakobwa.

Igikorwa cyo kumena telefoni Dr Mathias Harebamungu yakoze ntikizibagirana

Inkubiri yo ‘gutema’ yashoboraga gushyira akadomo ku myigire ya bamwe

Mbere ya 1999, umunyeshuri wagiraga amanota ari munsi ya 50% ku mwaka, hiyongereyeho gutsindwa amwe mu masomo y’ingenzi yarirukanwaga, ibyo bitaga ‘gutema’.

Ibi byatumaga uwabaga avuka mu muryango udashobora kumwishyurira ishuri ryigenga, asezera ku ishuri burundu n’iyo yaba arikunda karijana.

Minisitiri Emmanuel Mudidi ni we wabagobotse avanaho icyemezo cyo kwirukana cyakuweho kuko atemeraga ko gutsindwa ari uruhare rw’umunyeshuri.

Mudidi yavugaga ko “nta mwana w’umuswa ubaho, bose bagomba kwimuka mu gihe hari imyanya yo kubakira mu ishuri ryisumbuye”

Byatumye abari barirukanwe ku bigo bimwe na bimwe basibizwa, uretse abari barazize imyitwarire mibi.

Iyi mpinduka ntiyavuzweho rumwe kuko hari abemeza ko yagabanyije uguhatana mu banyeshuri ku buryo umuco wo ‘kuraza amaguru mu ndobo y’amazi’ batinya kwirukanwa umwaka urangiye wahise uba umugani.

Aho hasa n’ahavutse gahunda yo kwimura abanyeshuri n’abagize amanota make (Promotion automatique), itaranyuze bamwe mu babyeyi usanga bataka ko abana babo bimurwa ntacyo bazi, ngaho abatazi gusoma no kwandika neza Ikinyarwanda n’ibindi.

Ikindi ni uko kuri ubu hari bamwe bigiraho ingaruka mu gihe basoje icyiciro runaka, ntibabone amanota abemerera gusibira cyangwa gukomeza, ni ukuvuga abari mu cyiciro cyiswe “unclassified”.

Hari kandi abashobora kurangiza amashuri yisumbuye batazi no kwandika ibaruwa isaba akazi mu rurimi kavukire (Ikinyarwanda), abagera mu nzego z’imirimo hakibazwa aho bize n’ibindi.

Igifaransa cyabererekeye Icyongereza

Mu mwaka wa 1996, habaye impinduka ku nteganyanyigisho mu birebana no kuringaniza ubushobozi bw’abanyeshuri bose b’u Rwanda.

Impinduka zatewe ahanini n’uko abanyeshuri babaga bumva indimi bitandukanye bitewe n’uko bari barakuriye mu buhungiro mu bihugu byo hirya no hino.

Hari abumvaga Icyongereza bagomba kwigana n’abumva Igifaransa cyangwa abazi Ikinyarwanda gusa ku buryo guhindura integanyanyigisho byahaye amahirwe buri wese n’icyo yiyumvamo mu ndimi eshatu.

Mu 2009, Icyongereza cyemejwe nk’ururimi rwo kwigamo amasomo yose mu mashuri yisumbuye gisimbura Igifaransa, hagamijwe ko u Rwanda rutanga ubumenyi buzatuma rupiganwa ku isoko ry’Umuryango w’Ibihugu bya Afurika y’Iburasirazuba( EAC) rwinjiyemo muri Nyakanga 2007 ndetse n’umuryango w’Ibihugu byakolonijwe n’Abongereza(Commonwealth).

Iyo gahunda yitiriwe Mutsindashyaka Théoneste wari Umunyamabanga wa Leta muri Minisiteri y’Uburezi icyo gihe.

Igifaransa cyagabanyirijwe amasaha mu mashuri yisumbuye, mu cyiciro rusange bacyigaga amasaha atandatu mu cyumweru agirwa abiri.

Dr Muligande Charles

Nta wakwirengagiza ko muri 2009 habaye izindi mpinduka mu burezi zari zijyanye no guhuza amasomo (Combination) mu cyiciro cya kabiri cy’amashuri yisumbuye. Urugero nk’abigaga Bio-Chime bagabanywa mu mashami mashya yiswe PCB (Physics- -Chemistry - Biology) na MCB (Mathematics-Chemistry-Biology). Abigaga indimi bagabanywa mu mashami nka EKK (English-Kinyarwanda -Kiswahili), EFK (English- French-Kinyarwanda).

Gukuraho ibihano bibabaza umubiri

Mbere ya 2007 abanyeshuri bajyaga bahanishwa inkoni cyane mu mashuri abanza n’ayisumbuye, ibyo bihano byaje kwamaganirwa kure n’abaminisitiri b’Uburezi batandukanye barimo Mujawamariya Jeanne d’Arc, bavugaga ko hari abo bishobora kuvana mu ishuri.

Uwo mwanzuro ntiwishimiwe n’abarezi n’ababyeyi bavuga ko watumye abana bigira kagarara kuko kubahanisha gukurwaho amanota y’imyitwarire bidahagije.

Kubara amanota byavuye ku ijanisha, bishyirwa kuri 11, ubu ni impuzandengo

Mbere na nyuma gato ya 1995 amanota y’abakoze ibizamini bya Leta yabarwaga ku 100 (%), byagiye bihinduka ashyirwa kuri 11 ndetse bikajyana no kuyagaragaza mu nyuguti. Nyuma yaje gushyirwa kuri 75 n’indi mibare yagiye ihinduka uko imyaka itashye, ubu hakurikizwa uburyo bwiswe ‘Aggregate’ bwatangiye muri 2008.

Hamwe n’ubu buryo ugaragara ko yagize icyo twakwita amanota yo hejuru aba yatsinzwe ugereranyije n’uwagize make (50<12).

Gusubiza inyuma abasimbutse imyaka

Muri 2013, abanyeshuri bari barasimbutse icyiciro rusange badakoze ikizamini kibemerera kwiga mu wa kane basubijwe inyuma kujya kugikora.

Ni ubwa mbere byari bibayeho kuko mbere hari abatarakangwaga n’icyo kizamini kibiza benshi ibyuya. Ku ikubitiro abanyeshuri bagera ku 6 186 bari barasimbutse icyo kizamini biyandikishirije kugikora.

Uburezi bw’ibanze bw’imyaka icyenda na 12 (9YBE &12YBE)

Muri 2008 hatangiye gahunda y’uburezi kuri bose mu rwego rwo gushyira mu bikorwa intego z’ikinyagihugu zemejwe na Loni (Education for All).

Amashuri abanza yitwaga Ecoles Primaires yaje kongerwaho ay’uburezi bw’ibanze bw’imyaka 9 na 12, ahindurirwa amazina yitwa ‘Urwunge rw’amashuri’(Groupe Scolaire).

Abanyeshuri batangiye kwigira ubuntu bituma umubare w’abagana ishuri wiyongera, hubakwa n’amashuri hirya no hino ku bufatanye bwa leta n’ababyeyi.

Aya mashuri yatabaye abanyeshuri benshi barangizaga icyiciro cy’abanza ntibabone amanota abajyana mu yisumbuye bikabaviramo kuba inzererezi cyangwa kwishora mu mirimo ivunanye.

Yatabaye kandi abatsindaga ibizamini bya Leta ntibabone ubushobozi bwo gukomeza bitewe n’amikoro macye, ubu basigaye bahinira bugufi bagakomereza muri aya mashuri kandi bagakomeza gutsinda, bakahavana amanota meza abinjiza muri kaminuza.

Inkubiri yo ‘gutema’ yashoboraga gushyira akadomo ku myigire ya bamwe yakuweho na Mudidi

Ikoranabuhanga mu mashuri

Muri 2007, Perezida Paul Kagame yatangije gahunda ya mudasobwa imwe ku mwana, mu rwego rwo gutangiza amasomo y’ikoranabuhanga mu mashuri no kurishishikariza abanyarwanda.

Iyo gahunda yagombaga gutangwamo mudasobwa ibihumbi 500 ku bana batandukanye biga mu mashuri abanza mu Rwanda.

Icyakora isa n’itaratanze umusaruro wari witezwe bitewe n’uko hari ibigo bimwe na bimwe byatanzwemo izi mudasobwa bidafite umuriro w’amashanyarazi cyangwa ubundi buryo zakoreshwa, bigatuma zibikwa igihe kinini zidakoreshwa, bikiyongeraho kuba abarimu bagombaga kuzigisha no kuzikanika nta bumenyi bari bazifiteho, utibagiwe kuziba n’ibindi.

Nubwo hari impinduka nyinshi zakozwe mu burezi, ireme ryabwo riracyari hasi nk’uko bigaragarira mu kwinuba kwa benshi mu bakoresha iyo bari gukoresha ibizamini by’akazi, bakumirwa iyo babonye intege nke za bamwe mu bo biteguraga guha akazi.

Inkuru yacu y’ubutaha izagaruka ku cyakorwa kugira ngo ireme ry’uburezi rizamurwe.

Dr.Pierre Damien Habumuremyi yabaye Minisitiri w'Uburezi kuva ku wa 7 Ukwakira 2011 kugeza muri Nyakanga 2014
Dr Harebamungu yakoze impinduka nyinshi mu burezi bw'u Rwanda ubwo yari akibarizwa muri Minisiteri ibigenzura
Dr.Papias Musafiri Malimba niwe Minisitiri w'Uburezi muri iki gihe

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