1987-2017: Uko u Rwanda rwakuye umugore ku ishyiga rukamugeza mu ndege

Yanditswe na Cyprien Niyomwungeri
Kuya 30 Ugushyingo 2017 saa 02:46
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Amateka y’u Rwanda asobanura neza ko mu bihe byahise umugore yambuwe agaciro n’uburenganzira bwe bugahutazwa n’umuryango nyarwanda ndetse n’ubutegetsi bubi bwamuhezaga ku ishyiga no mu gikari, na we akabitwarira aho bigoramiye akemera kubaho mu butindi bwa mbuze uko ngira.

Umunyarwanda yabivuze neza ngo ‘nta mvura idahita’, mu myaka 23 ishize u Rwanda rubohowe n’ingabo zari iza RPA, ubuyobozi bwiza burangajwe imbere na FPR-Inkotanyi, bwagaruriye agaciro umugore ubu akanyamuneza ni kose, umukobwa ariga nka musaza we, aragana amabanki agafashwa kwiteza imbere, mu nzego zifata ibyemezo ntahatangwa ndetse n’indege arayitemesha ikirere nta mususu.

Umugore ni isoko y’iterambere ry’umuryango rirambye. Imibare yerekana ko abagore ari 52% by’abaturage b’u Rwanda bangana na miliyoni 11.4, kudaha agaciro ubushobozi bwabo no kubasiga inyuma akaba nta terambere ryagerwaho. Ubuyobozi burangajwe imbere na FPR-Inkotanyi, bwabibonye kare ko abagore batabaye inkingi mwikorezi nta terambere ryagerwaho.

Bimwe mu byagezweho mu iterambere ry’umugore mu myaka 23 ishize, turabirebera mu ndorerwamo ya gahunda zitandukanye Guverinoma yagiye ishyiraho yaba mu burezi, ubukungu, imiyoborere n’ibindi, ibimaze kugerwaho bigashingirwa kuri raporo zitandukanye zigenda zishyirwa ahagaragara.
Mu nzego zifata ibyemezo

Itegeko Nshinga rya Repubulika y’u Rwanda, ryo mu 2003 ryavuguruwe mu 2015, rishimangira ko abagore bagira nibura 30% by’imyanya mu nzego zifatirwamo ibyemezo.

Ibi byafunguriye amarembo abagore, baritinyuka bafata iya mbere bagira uruhare mu miyoborere y’igihugu, ntibyagarukiye aho byatuma u Rwanda ruba ishuri ry’imiyoborere myiza no kwimakaza ihame ry’uburinganire kuko mu baminisitiri 20 bari muri Guverinoma 11 ni abagore.

Abagore bari mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko bihariye 64%, ari nayo nteko ifite abagore benshi ku Isi kandi hari hashyizweho n’imyanya y’abadepite bahagarariye abagore mu nteko. Mu badepite icyenda bahagarariye u Rwanda mu nteko ishinga amategeko y’Umuryango wa Afurika y’Iburasirazuba, bane ni abagore.

Raporo yakozwe mu 2014, mu nzego z’ubutabera, mu Rukiko rw’Ikirenga abagore bari 43%, mu nkiko nkuru ari 30.8%, mu nzego z’Abunzi abagore bangana na 44.3%. Ba Meya bari ku 10%, ababungirije bashinzwe ubukungu bari 17%, abashinzwe imibereho myiza ni 84%, ba gitifu b’uturere ni 7%, abagize njyanama z’uturere bari kuri 43% mu gihe abari mu mirimo ya leta muri rusange abagore bari 45%.

Muri komite nyobozi z’Imidugudu abagore bari kuri 38.7% naho abagabo ari 61.3%, Inama Njyanama z’Utugari, abagore bari kuri 43.9% naho abagabo bakaba 56.1%, mu gihe mu Nama Njyanama z’Imirenge abagore bari 45.1% abagabo bakaba 54.9%.

Abagore bakomeje kugira uruhare mu miyoborere myiza kuko mu matora ya Perezida wa Repubulika ya 2017, abiyandikishije kuri lisiti y’itora bose hamwe bari 6,897,076. Abagore banganaga na 54%.

Uburezi

Urwego rw’uburezi bw’umwana w’umukobwa ni rumwe mu zitaweho cyane dore ko hambere umuco utamwereraga kwiga nka musaza we. Raporo ya Minisiteri y’uburezi yo mu 2011, igaragaza abakobwa mu mashuri y’incuke bari 51.4%, amashuri abanza bari 50.9%, mu mashuri yisumbuye bari 51.5%. Abakobwa bigaga siyansi bari 48.7%, imyuga ari 38.8% naho Kaminuza bakaba 43.2%.

Raporo nk’iyi yo muri 2016 igaragaza ko mu bana bitabira amashuri y’incuke, 50.8% ari abakobwa naho abahungu bakaba 49.2%. Mu mashuri abanza abakobwa ni 50.1% naho abahungu bakaba 49.9%, mu yisumbuye ni abakobwa ni 52.9% naho abahungu ni 47.1%. Mu mashuri y’imyuga TVET, abakobwa ni 41.1%%. Mu mashuri makuru na za Kaminuza, abakobwa ni 44.6%.

Muri uru rwego nta wakwirengagiza umusanzu w’umuryango Imbuto Foundation washinzwe na Madamu Jeannette Kagame mu myaka 16 ishize, by’umwihariko mu gufasha abakobwa kwiga, kubatinyura no kubagira inama mu mahitamo y’amasomo yabo.

Mu 2005, Madamu Jeannette Kagame, yatangiye guhemba abakobwa batsinze neza ibizamini bya leta bazwi nk’Inkubito z’Icyeza. Muri iyi gahunda abakobwa barenga 4,000 barahembwe.

Ubukungu

Abagore ntibasigaye inyuma mu kwegerezwa serivisi z’imari, bigishijwe kwizigamira binyuze mu matsinda, batinyuka kwegera amabanki n’ibindi bigo by’imari bahabwa inguzanyo ubu bateye imbere.

Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe muri Gashyantare 2016 n’ikigo gishinzwe amakoperative mu Rwanda (RCA) bwagaragaje ko umubare w’abagana ibigo by’imari bamaze gufunguza konti abagabo ari 51,5%, abagore bakaba 39, 5% na ho amatsinda akaba 9,1% . Ni mu gihe kandi abagabo bamaze guhabwa inguzanyo bangana na 68,9% na ho abagore ni 26,8% , mu matsinda bageze kuri 4,3%.

Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yashyizeho ikigega BDF cyishingira abagore n’urubyiruko ku ngwate bagahabwa amafaranga n’amabanki cyangwa ibigo by’imari bakiteza imbere. Umwaka ushize iki kigega cyari kimaze gufasha abagore barenga ibihumbi 33.

Abagore batunze konti mu mabanki n’ibigo by’imari bariyongereye bava kuri 5.1% mu 2006 bagera kuri 21.8% mu 2013. Mu 2012 abagore bagerwagaho na serivisi z’imari bari 36%, ariko mu 2016 bari bageze kuri 62.9%.

Ubuzima

Urwego rw’ubuzima ni ingenzi mu mibereho y’abaturage ariyo mpamvu umugore yitaweho muri gahunda zinyuranye nko gukurikirana ababyeyi batwite, kubitaho mu gihe babyara, kubigisha uko bita kubana nabo ubwabo n’izindi.

Imibare yerekana ko Abanyarwanda bacengewe na gahunda yo kuboneza urubyaro kuko umubyeyi yavuye ku bana 6.1 yabarirwaga mu 2010, ageze kuri 4.2.

Guverinoma yateganyije ko kugeza mu 2017 ababyeyi bapfa babyara cyangwa batwite bagomba kuba munsi ya 200/100,000, Ababyeyi bapfa babyara mu 2015 bari bageze kuri 210/100,000 bavuye kuri 476/100,000 2010.

Mu 2011 Guverinoma y’u Rwanda ku bufatanye n’amashuri n’abaturage muri rusange, yakoze ubukangurambaga mu gihugu hose bwo gukora ubuvugizi no gukingira abangavu kanseri y’inkondo y’umura. Ubu bukangurambaga bwasize 95% by’abakobwa bafite imyaka 12 bakingiwe.

Ikigo Isange One Stop Center, ni iyindi ntambwe ikomeye yagezweho mu kurengera ubuzima bw’abanyarwanda cyane cyane abagore bakunda guhura n’ihohoterwa rishingiye ku gitsina.

Ubuyobozi bw’iki kigo butangaza ko kuva mu 2009 iki kigo gitangizwa kimaze kwakira abatari bake aho 87% ari abagore n’abakobwa baba bahuye n’ihohoterwa na ho 57% bakaba abatarageza ku myaka y’ubukure.

Umutekano

Abanyarwandakazi baratinyutse biyemeza kugira uruhare mu iterambere ryose ntaho biheje. Mu nzego z’umutekano ntibahatanzwe ndetse ntibasubira kujya gutanga umusanzu wabo mu butumwa bwo kugarura amahoro hirya no hino ku Isi.

Kuva mu 2005 kugeza muri Gicurasi 2014, abapolisi 446 bari bamaze kujya mu butumwa bw’amahoro bw’Umuryango w’Abibumbye n’Umuryango wa Afurika yunze Ubumwe mu bihugu nka Sudan, Sudan y’Epfo, Haiti, Liberia, Mali, Centrafurika na Côte d’Ivoire.

Kugeza ubu Loni yemeza ko u Rwanda ari urwa gatatu mu kugira abagore benshi mu butumwa bw’amahoro bagera kuri 302, aho rubanzirizwa na Ethiopia ifite 657 na Ghana ifite 308.

Umunyarwandakazi atwara indege

Umunyarwandakazi ntiyasigaye inyuma mu ikoranabuhanga rigezweho kuko imibare ya Minisiteri y’uburinganire n’iterambere ry’umuryango (Migeprof), igaragaza ko abagore batunze telefoni ngendanwa ubu ari 40.8% naho abagabo bakaba 59.2%.

Hari kandi gahunda ya TechGirls nk’urubuga rw’aho abagore b’icyitegererezo mu masomo ya siyansi, ikoranabuhanga, ubwubatsi n’Imibare (STEM), bahura n’abakobwa bakabatinyura bakabashishikariza kwiga aya masomo ndetse n’imyuga.
Kubera gahunda zitandukanye ziteza imbere umugore zimakajwe mu myaka 23 ishize, ubu Mbabazi Esther, ku myaka 24 yakoze amateka nk’umunyarwanda kazi wa mbere utwara indege.

Nta kabura imvano

Nta wakwibagirwa amategeko ndetse n’ibigo bitandukanye birengera umugore byashyizweho. Hashyizweho Inama y’Igihugu y’Abagore akaba ari urubuga rw’ubuvugizi n’ubukangurambanga ku bibazo by’abagore hagamijwe kongera ubushobozi bwabo no kugira uruhare mu iterambere ry’igihugu muri rusange n’iry’abagore by’umwihariko.

Uretse itegeko Nshinga, hari andi mategeko arengera uburenganzira bw’umugore nk’iryerekeye imicungire y’umutungo w’abashyingiranywe, irage n’izungura, itegeko rihana icyaha cy’ivangura n’amacakubiri, itegeko ryerekeye ishyirwaho ry’abayozi b’inzego z’ibanze n’itegeko rigena imikoreshereze n’imicungire y’ubutaka mu Rwanda.

Hari itegeko rigena imikorere n’inshingano by’urwego rw’igihugu rushinzwe iyubahirizwa ry’uburinganire hagati y’umugore n’umugabo (GMO), itegeko rigena ishyirwaho ry’abahagarariye u Rwanda mu nteko y’umuryango wa Afrika y’Uburasirazuba n’itegeko rikumira kandi rihana ihohoterwa iryo ariryo ryose rishingiye ku gitsina.

Abadepite barahira mu Ukuboza kwa 2013. Icyo gihe u Rwanda rwabaye igihugu cya mbere ku Isi kigize abagore barenga 50% mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko

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