Libya ihagaze ite nyuma y’urupfu rwa Gaddafi?

Yanditswe na David Eugène Marshall
Kuya 4 Nzeri 2018 saa 02:43
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Benshi iyo batekereje Libya yo ku butegetsi bwa Muammar Gaddafi, bakayigereranya n’iy’uyu munsi amarira azenga mu maso, bibutse ubushongore n’ubukaka iki gihugu cyahoranye mu bukungu, imibereho myiza n’iterambere muri rusange.

Mbere ya 2011 ubwo Gaddafi yakurwaga ku butegetsi yari amazeho imyaka 42, abanya Libya bari mu baturage babayeho neza cyane ku Isi, ari igihugu gikize, abaturage bacyo baba mu bukene bari munsi y’ab’u Buholandi.

Leta yishyuriraga umuturage amashuri kugeza ku rwego rwa Kaminuza, agahabwa impano y’inzu n’amadolari 50.000 ya Amerika yo kumufasha gushinga urugo, kwiyubaka no gutangiza ubuzima bushya.

Amashanyarazi kuri buri rugo yari ubuntu, kwivuza ari uko. Imibare y’Ishami rya Loni ryita ku buhinzi, FAO, yerekana ko umubare w’abaturage bari bafite ikibazo cy’imirire mibi bari 5%.

Libya cyari kimwe mu bihugu byo ku isi bitagiraga ideni mu bigega mpuzamahanga by’imari nka FMI na Banki y’Isi. Ni mu gihe ibihugu by’ibihangange mu bukungu nka Amerika icyo gihe yari ifite ideni ry’amahanga ringana na miliyari 180 z’amadolari.

Mu 2011 umusaruro mbumbe wa Libya wari Miliyari 84.7 z’Amadolari ya Amerika, mu gihe umuturage yinjizaga amadolari 5.204 ku mwaka.

Nta nyungu ku nguzanyo, banki zari iza leta kandi umuturage wese yahabwaga inguzanyo ku nyungu ya 0% nk’uko itegeko ryabivugaga.

Mbere y’ubutegetsi bwa Gaddafi abanya Libya 25% nibo bari barize, yishwe bageze kuri 83%. Uwashaka kuba umuhinzi yahabwaga ubutaka, ibikoresho, imbuto, inzu byose ku buntu.

Umunya Libya washakaga kugura imodoka, Leta yamwongereragaho 50% by’igiciro cyayo. Iyo hari uwarangizaga kwiga ntabone akazi leta yamwishyuraga ahwanye n’impamyabumenyi ye kugeza akabonye. Uwabyaye yahabwaga amayero 3447.

Iki gihugu cyari gifite ubwizigame bw’amadevize ahwanye na Miliyari 150 z’amadolari ya Amerika, byiyongera ku bubiko bwa zahabu na diyama Gaddafi yari yarazigamiye igihugu cye.

Politiki ya ‘Jamahiriya’ Col. Gaddafi yari yarimakaje ku butegetsi bwe n’amahame y’ubutegetsi yari akubiye mu gitabo yari yarise ‘Green Book’ yifashishaga mu kugena ibikenewe gukorwa mu gihugu, biri mu byatumye Libya iba ikirangirire.

Ibi byiyongeraho uruhare cyagiye kigira muri politiki mpuzamahanga ndetse n’ubutunzi bwa Peteroli gifite.

Libya nyuma ya Gaddafi

Bijya gucika muri Kanama 2011, byamenyekanye ko Kaddafi afite umugambi wo gushinga Ikigega cy’Imari cya Afurika (Banque Centrale Africaine), cyari kugira inshingano nk’iz’Ikigega cy’Isi cy’Imari (FMI).

Inzobere mu bya politiki zivuga ko ibi biri no mu byabaye imbarutso y’uko Amerika yafatiriye amafaranga ya Libya miliyari 30 z’Amadolari Gaddafi yateganyaga kwifashisha mu gushinga icyo Kigega.

Ibi byose byari mu mugambi wa Gaddafi wo kurwanya ubuhake ahubwo agashyira imbere ko Afurika yigira idategereje kubeshwaho cyangwa kugenerwa uko ibaho n’abanyamahanga.

Uru rwango yagiriwe n’abo mu Burengerazuba bw’Isi rwahuye n’urw’abari bamurambiwe n’impinduramatwara yo mu bihugu by’Abarabu, bishyira iherezo ku butegetsi n’ubuzima bwe.

Mu myaka irindwi ishize Gaddafi yishwe, Libya iracyakomeje kurangwamo imvururu za politiki, imitwe y’iterabwoba, ubwicanyi bwa hato na hato n’ibindi bishyira mu kaga ubuzima bw’abaturage.

Ubu ni igihugu gifite Guverinoma ebyiri, buri imwe ifite Minisitiri w’Intebe, Inteko Ishinga Amategeko n’igisirikare.

Ambasade z’Abanyaburayi na Amerika zose zafunze imiryango, amajyepfo y’iki gihugu yabaye ijuru ry’imitwe y’iterabwoba, amajyaruguru yacyo ahinduka isoko ry’abimukira.

Ibihugu nka Misiri, Algeria na Tunisia byafunze imipaka yabyo ibihuza na Libya.

Ubukungu bwarahungabanye. Uretse mu 2012 umusaruro mbumbe wazamutse ukagera kuri miliyari 79.759 z’Amadolari, umuturage akinjiza angana n’amadolari 12.694, indi myaka ibintu byarushijeho kuba urudubi.

Mu 2014, ubukungu bwa Libya bwatangiye kumanuka ku kigero gikabije, aho wa musaruro waguye ukagera kuri miliyari 24.262 naho umuturage akinjiza amadolari 3.876.

Mu mwaka wa 2015, Libya yari ifite umusaruro mbumbe uhwanye n’amadolari 17.194 ya Amerika, umuturage akinjiza amadolari 2.758, naho muri 2016 Libya yinjiza amadolari 18.539 umuturage akinjiza amadolari 2.946.

Ibyo abaturage bagenerwaga byose byabaye amateka muri iki gihugu cyahindutse isibaniro ry’intambara n’ibitero by’iterabwoba.

Gaddafi kandi yari yarubatse impombo zavanaga amazi mu Nyanja ya Méditterannée mu mushinga witiriwe ‘The Great Man-Made River Water Supply’, uyu mushinga wari ugamije gukwirakwiza ingomero zo kuhira imyaka mu gihugu cyose kigizwe n’ubutayu, byatumye Libya yihaza mu biribwa ku rwego rukomeye.

Izi mpombo n’ibigega by’amazi byarasibanganye, ahari amazi hasubiye kuba ubutayu, imirima yahingwaga kubera ubwo buryo bwo kuvomera imyaka yarumagaye, ubu igice kinini cy’abatuye Libya kubona ibyo barya ni ikibazo kitaboroheye.

Libya yari igihugu gifite ibiciro bya Lisansi kuri pompe biri hasi cyane ku isi, aho Litiro yayo yaguraga 0.14 by’idolari, mu gihe kuri ubu Lisansi igura umugabo usibye undi ku idolari 1.05 kuri Litiro, ugereranije ni nk’amafaranga 1000 y’amanyarwanda.

Ishami ry’umuryango w’abibumbye ryita ku bana (UNICEF) muri raporo yaryo ya 2017, ritangaza ko abanya Libya kuri ubu babangamiwe no kubura amazi, aho abana batagira ingano bakeneye ubufasha bwihutirwa ku bijyanye n’ubuzima bwabo, ndetse abandi 315.000 bakaba batagerwaho n’uburezi bukwiriye.

Nubwo bimeze bityo ariko ubukungu bwa Libya buratanga icyizere, nyuma y’aho abashyamiranye baherutse kugirana ibiganiro biganisha ku kugarura ubumwe bw’abatuye iki gihugu.

Gaddafi yayoboye Libya imyaka 42 yicwa mu 2011

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