Kwamamaza

Uko u Bufaransa bwihisha inyuma y’ifaranga rya CFA bukadindiza bimwe mu bihugu bya Afurika

Yanditswe kuya 14-09-2016 saa 11:30' na Karirima A. Ngarambe


Nyuma y’imyaka 70 hashyizweho ifaranga ryiswe CFA, bimwe mu bihugu byo muri Afurika byari byarakolonijwe n’u Bufaransa biracyarikoresha, nubwo bimwe muri byo n’imiryango y’abirabura mu Bufaransa badahwema gusaba ko ryavaho burundu.

Mu bushakashatsi bwakozwe n’umunyamakuru w’Umufaransa, Fanny Pigeaud yagaragaje uburyo imikoreshereze y’ifaranga rya CFA yagize ingaruka ku bukungu bw’ibihugu bitandukanye muri Afurika.

Iri faranga rikunze kunengwa bikomeye n’inararibonye mu by’ukungu ku mugabane wa Afurika ariko abayobozi bo muri ibyo bihugu birikoresha bararuca bakarumira bitewe n’inyungu zabo bwite babifitemo, abandi bagatinya gukomakoma umubano bafitanye na Leta y’u Bufaransa.

Iki kibazo abagikurikiranira hafi bavuga ko kimaze igihe kirekire ariko kikaba kimeze nk’icyirengagijwe n’impande zirebwa na cyo.

U Bufaransa ni cyo gihugu cyonyine ku Isi kigicunga ifaranga ry’ibihugu cyakoronije nyuma y’imyaka irenga 5o, ibi bihugu bibonye ubwigenge.

CFA ni ifaranga rikoreshwa n’ibihugu 14 byo ku mugabane wa Afurika ndetse n’Ibirwa bya Comores, bigendera ku mategeko yashyizweho na Minisiteri y’Imari mu Bufaransa.

Muri Afurika, amajwi menshi yahagurikiye kwamagana imikoreshereze y’ifaranga rya CFA, abahanga benshi mu bijyanye n’ubukungu bemeza ko ibi bituma u Bufaransa bukomeza kugenzura ibihugu birikoresha ndetse bikagira ingaruka ku bukungu bw’abarikoresha.

Iri faranga ryashyizweho tariki ya 26 Ukuboza 1945, mbere y’imyaka 6 u Bufaransa bushyiraho ikiswe ‘‘Zone Franc’’, bashyiraho uburyo habaho ko rikoreshwa mu bihugu byari bigize ‘‘Empire Colonial’’ yayoborwaga n’u Bufaransa mu ntangiriro na nyuma y’intambara ya kabiri y’Isi.

Icyari kigamijwe ngo kwari ukugira ngo hatabaho ihungabana mu bihe by’intambara no gukomeza kwibonera imitungo kamere yo gukoresha mu nganda zabo ku giciro gito, mu bihugu cyari gikoronije.

Zone Franc yari ikubiyemo ibihugu byose bikoresha ifaranga rifitanye isano n’iryakoreshwaga n’Abafaransa muri icyo gihe, ndetse n’iryo mu bihugu bwakolonije.

Aya mafaranga yavaga hagati ya Banki Nkuru y’u Bufaransa, na Banki z’ibihugu bwakolonije binyuze mu masezerano yashyizweho n’impande zose.

Banki y’u Bufaransa ni yo yagenzuraga imikorere y’aya mabanki yose binyuze muri Zone Franc.

CFA ni ijambo risobanura ibihugu bya Afurika byakoronijwe n’u Bufaransa “Colonies Françaises d’Afrique”, ryaje guhindurirwa inyito mu 1958, yitwa “ Communauté Française d’Afrique”.

Nyuma y’uko ibihugu u Bufaransa bwakoronije bibonye ubwigenge mu ntangiriro za 1960, bumvikanye ko buzakomeza kugira uruhare mu gucunga “Zone Franc.”

Nibwo CFA yaje gutangira gukoresha ifaranga rihuriweho na bimwe mu bihugu bya Afurika yitwa “Communauté Financière Africaine” muri Afurika y’Iburengerazuba , naho muri Afurika yo hagati ryitwa “Coopération Financière en Afrique Centrale.”

Ibice bigize ’Zone Franc’

“ Zone Franc” igizwe n’ibice bine muri Afurika birimo UEMOA (Union Economique et Monétaire Ouest-Africaine) harimo ibihugu nka Bénin, Burkina Faso, Côte-d’Ivoire, Guinée-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Sénégal na Togo, na ho ikindi kigizwe na CEMAC (Communauté Economique et Monétaire de l’Afrique Centrale) ihuza ibihugu birimo Cameroun, Centrafrique, Congo, Gabon, Guinée-Équatoriale na Tchad.

Ibi byiyongeraho, ifaranga rikoreshwa mu Birwa bya Comores(FC), ndetse n’irikoreshwa mu Bufaransa no mu birwa bya Nouvelle-Calédonie, Polynésie Française na Wallis na Futuna biherereye mu Nyanja ya Pacifique.

Kuba u Bufaransa bugenzura imikoreshereze y’ifaranga mu bihugu bitandukanye byo ku mugabane wa Afurika bifasha ubukungu bw’iki gihugu kuva bwajya mu Muryango w’Ubumwe bw’ibihugu by’i Burayi, kuko bukomeza kubona imwe mu mitungo kamere ituruka ku mugabane wa Afurika irimo nka cacao, ikawa, ibitoke, ibiti, Zahabu, peterori, ubutare bwa uranium n’ibindi, batarinze kuvunjisha.

Ibi bituma kandi abashoramari b’Abafaransa boroherwa no gukorera muri “Zone Franc” inyungu igataha mu bihugu by’i Burayi nta nkomyi.

Muri 1996, Perezida wa Gabon, Omar Bongo, yatangaje ko amafaranga yinjira mu Bufaransa aruta asohoka ahabwa Abanyafurika.

Yagize ati “Iyo ubajije Umufaransa muhuriye mu muhanda arakubwira ngo niba wari uzi ukuntu duha amafaranga menshi umugabane wanyu wa Afurika, ariko ntazi ahubwo ayo basubiranayo uko angana ko ari yo menshi.”

Inzobere mu by’ubukungu zemeza ko ibihugu 11 kuri 14 byo muri Afurika biri muri “Zone franc” biri ku murongo w’ibidatera imbere, kubera imikoreshereze y’ifaranga rya CFA idahwitse.

Muri Afurika, iki kibazo gikunze guterwa n’ifaranga rya CFA, gikomeje kuba nk’ibanga, usanga kigarukwaho kenshi mu biganiro binyura mu bitangazamakuru, bitandukanye birimo Radio, Televiziyo n’izindi Mbuga Nkoranyambaga.

Abagize ishyirahamwe rihagarariye imiryango y’abirabura mu Bufaransa, CRAN “Conseil Représentatif des Associations Noires de France”, basabye ko ubu buryo bw’imikoreshereze y’ifaranga rya CFA bwacika burundu.

Abaminisitiri b’Ubukungu mu bihugu bigize ‘Zone Franc’ baherutse guhurira i Yaoundé kuya 9 Mata uyu mwaka mu nama yiga ku hazaza h’ifaranga rya CFA, bamwe bemeza ko bashaka kureka kurikoresha.

Iyi nama yahuriranye n’iyindi ngarukamwaka itegurwa na Banki y’Isi ndetse n’ikigega cy’Imari ku Isi, FMI ihuza ibihugu byo muri Afurika yo mu Burengerazuba no hagati ndetse n’u Bufaransa bwari buhagarariwe na Minisitiri w’Imari Michel Sapin.

Mu nama zose ziga ku bukungu bwa Afurika iri faranga rikunze gushyirwa ku murongo w’ibyigwa.

Inama iheruka guhuza ibihugu bihuriye muri ‘Zone Franc’ ku ya 2 Ugushyingo 2015, Minisitiri w’Imari mu Bufaransa,Michel Sapin yatangaje ko buri munyamuryango yigenga kandi yemerewe gufata icyemezo kitamubangamiye cyo kuva no kuguma muri uyu muryango.

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