Ibyo wamenya ku buzima bwa Robert Mugabe wayoboye Zimbabwe imyaka 37

Yanditswe na David Eugène Marshall
Kuya 25 Ugushyingo 2017 saa 08:39
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Kuwa 15 Ugushyingo 2017, inkuru yabaye kimomo mu bitangazamakuru bitandukanye byo ku isi yose, ko igisirikare cya Zimbabwe cyafashe umwanzuro wo kugota inzu ya Mugabe wahoze ayobora iki gihugu mu gikorwa cyo gufata abanyabyaha bari bazengurutse uwo muyobozi.

Byabaye nk’igikuba gicitse mu matwi ya benshi, bamwe ndetse babiburira inyito, kuko ari igisirikare ubwacyo cya Zimbabwe, ari na Perezidanse nta n’umwe wemezaga niba ibyari biri kuba kwari uguhirika ubutegetsi cyangwa niba koko kwari ugukanga abari barigize akaraha kajya he mu ishyaka ZANU PF riri ku isonga muri iki gihugu.

Ibintu byaje guhindura isura kuwa 21 Ugushyingo 2017, ubwo Robert Mugabe nyuma y’imyaka 37 ku butegetsi yagezaga ubwegure bwe kuri Perezida w’Inteko Ishinga Amategeko, Jacob Mudenda.

Robert Gabriel Mugabe ni muntu ki?

Robert Gabriel Mugabe afite uburebure bwa metero 1 na sentimetero 80. Yavutse ku ya 21 Gashyantare 1924.

Uyu mukambwe yavukiye kandi akurira ahitwa Kutama Mission, uyu mudugudu ukaba wari uherereye mu Karere ka Zvimba mu Majyepfo y’iyari Rhodesie y’Epfo mu gihe cy’Abakoloni b’Abongereza. Iri zina Rodhesie ni ryo ryaje guhinduka Zimbabwe mu gihe cy’ubwigenge.

Robert Mugabe mu bwana bwe, yakuranye ikinyabupfura gihambaye n’ubwenge mu ishuri yakomoraga ku Bafurere b’Abayezuwiti bamwigishije. Akiri muto ntiyigeze akunda gukina n’abandi bana ndetse n’abo bavukanaga uko ari batandatu ntiyabiyegerezaga kuko ngo yihoreraga mu bitabo asubira mu masomo.

Mugabe yasoje amashuri ye yisumbuye ahita abona akazi k’ubwarimu aho yahembwaga ama-pound abiri ku kwezi maze atangira gutera inkunga umuryango we, awufasha kwikenura.

Mu 1945 ubwo Mugabe yari mu mwuga wo kwigisha yaje kubona amahirwe yo kwiga muri Fort Hare University, iyi Kaminuza ikaba yari iherereye mu Mujyi wa Capetown muri Afurika y’Epfo, aho yatangiriye gukurikirana impinduramatwara z’impirimbanyi zaharaniraga kwibohora ingoma ya ba gashakabuhake [Apartheid], bategekaga iki gihugu muri icyo gihe.

Muri iyo Kaminuza, Mugabe yahise yiyunga ku nsoresore zari mu Ishyaka ANC (African National Congress) ryayoborwaga na Nelson Mandela.

Mugabe asoje amasomo ye, yasubiye muri Rodhesia y’Epfo kujya yigisha ariko arebana ay’ingwe n’abazungu bakolonizaga igihugu cye.

Mugabe ngo kuba yarabonaga igihugu cye kikiri mu bukoloni byamuriye mu mutwe kugeza aho yiyemeje kwigira muri Ghana, akajya kureba uko abandi babonye ubwigenge babayeho.

Yaje kubona akazi ko kwigisha muri Ghana. Ngo yahoranaga ku mutima kuzakabya inzozi nk’iza Kwame Nkrumah wagejeje ubwigenge kuri Ghana. Muri iki gihugu kandi ni naho Mugabe yahuriye n’uwo bashakanye bwa mbere, Sally Hayfron.

Robert Mugabe mu byishimo n'uwari umugore we wa mbere Sally Hayfron

Mu gihe Ishyaka ANC ryo muri Afurika y’Epfo n’inyigisho zaganishaga ku kwamagana abakoloni muri Afurika zari zirimbanije mu bihugu byinshi. Nguko uko uwitwa Joshua Nkomo wari umunya Rhodesie y’Amajyepfo yashinze ishyaka, aryita Southern Rodhesia African National Congress.

Iryo shyaka ariko ryahise rikubitwa inshuro n’ubutegetsi bw’abakoloni burarihagarika. Joshua Nkomo ntiyacitse intege kuko yahise ashinga irindi shyaka aryita National Democratic Party. Iri ryo Robert Mugabe yahise anatorerwa kuribera Umunyamabanga n’Umuvugizi. Naryo ntiryateye kabiri abazungu bararihagarika.

Joshua Nkomo yakomeje guhirimbana, bisoza ashyizeho irindi shyaka maze aryita ZAPU (The Zimbabwe African People’s Union). Mu 1961 Mugabe yaribereye Umunyamabanga mukuru. Mu myaka ibiri yakurikiyeho ZAPU nayo abazungu barayamaganye baranayihagarika.

Joshua Nkomo yaje gucika intege ajya muri Tanzania gutakambira Mwalimu Julius Nyerere ngo areke ZAPU ikorere Dar es Salaam, ihashingire Leta ikorera mu buhungiro.

Robert Mugabe (ibumoso) wayoboraga Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) na Joshua Nkomo washinze Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) mu 1976

Mugabe n’abandi barabyanze, Nyerere ahitamo kubagira inama yo gushinga umutwe w’inyeshyamba kandi ukajya kurwanira iwabo. Mugabe n’abandi bari kumwe na Joshua Nkomo, bipakurura igitekerezo cya Nkomo bashinga ishyaka rishya baryita Zimbabwe African National Union ariyo ZANU, Mugabe agirwa Umunyamabanga mukuru ariko adahari kuko icyo gihe yakoreraga muri Ghana.

Kuva ubwo Mugabe na Joshua Nkomo n’amashyaka yabo bibyara amahari, ZAPU iba itakaje imbaraga, ZANU itangira kwiyubaka ariko badacana uwaka.

Nyuma yo gufungwa hafi imyaka 12 muri gereza zitandukanye, Robert Mugabe yigiriye inama yo kujya muri Mozambique kureba Perezida wayo, Samora Machel ashaka ko ishami rya gisirikare rya ZANU ryitwaga ZANLA [ Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army] rigira ubuyobozi bukaze kandi buhamye.

Ku ikubitiro inyeshyamba zahabwaga imyitozo na Tanzania na Mozambique mu gihe u Bushinwa bwazigeneraga intwaro zose zarwanishaga. Muri icyo gihe abasore bagera ku 1000 bambutse umupaka wa Zambia, bacengera amashyamba ya Rodhesie y’Epfo, maze batesha umutwe ingabo za Leta ya Ian Smith wari umutegetsi w’umukoloni muri icyo gihugu.

Ahagana mu 1975 nibwo imirwano ikaze yanzitse. Bivugwa ko iyo ntambara yaba yarahitanye abasaga 30.000 ku mpande zombi.

Mu 1979 ubwo intambara zabicaga bigacika, Robert Mugabe yatumiwe i Londres mu Bwongereza mu nama yo kureba uko igihugu cyava mu kangaratete cyari kirimo. Ubwa mbere yabanje kwanga ariko nyuma aza kwisubiraho ajyayo.

Robert Mugabe yageze Londrès muri Nzeri 1979 ahahurira na Joshua Nkomo bari basangiye icyifuzo kuva kera ariko Nkomo we akitwara nk’umuntu udashaka gukabya ibintu byo gusaba ubwigenge mu gihe Mugabe we yagenderaga ku matwara akaze.

Mu byaganirwaga byose, u Bwongereza bwafataga Mugabe nk’uhagarariye igice kinini cy’abaturage bityo ijwi rye rikaba ryarahabwaga agaciro cyane ko ari na we wari ufite inyeshyamba zari zarariye karungu mu ntambara yo guharanira kwigenga.

Kuva ubwo Mugabe avuye Londres yahise ashimangira imigabo ya ZANU, yongeraho amagambo abiri ariyo Patriotic Front, guhera ubwo iba ZANU PF mu rwego rwo kuyitandukanya na ZAPU ya Joshua yari yarakomeje kugenda agoragoza. Mugabe yagiraga ngo mu matora abaturage bazamenye ko bitandukanye batazibeshya ku mazina y’ayo mashyaka.

Mu bihe bitandukanye byo gutegura amatora, Robert Mugabe yateguriwe umugambi wo kwicwa ubwo yiyamamazarizaga kuyobora Leta y’inzibacyuho. Yatezwe ibisasu inshuro ebyiri ariko ararusimbuka.

Muri ayo matora yo muri Gashyantare 1980, Ishyaka ZANU PF ryabonye amajwi 63%, hamwe n’intebe 57 kuri 80 zari zigize Inteko Ishinga Amategeko. Mugabe yahise aba Minisitiri w’Intebe.

Nyuma yo kwihuza kwa ZANU PF na ZAPU mu 1987, Mugabe yagizwe Perezida wa Zimbabwe, Joshua Nkomo aba Visi Perezida.

Mu myaka 37 Mugabe yahuye n’ibyiza ndetse n’ibibi, uwafatwaga nk’intwari yaharaniye ubwigenge yaje kwangwa n’abazungu ndetse imidari yagiye ahabwa arayamburwa.

Yafatiwe ibihano n’ibihugu by’i Burayi kubera kwirukana abazungu, ubukungu mu gihugu burazamba. Robert Mugabe yavuye ku butegetsi bamwe bakimufata nk’intwari yaharaniye ubwigenge abandi bamufata nk’umusaza w’umunyagitugu washyize igihugu mu manga.

Robert Mugabe n’uwari Visi Perezida we, Emmerson Mnangagwa washyizweho nk’Umukuru w’Igihugu mu gihe cy’inzibacyuho ubwo baganiraga i Harare mu 2014
Robert Mugabe n'umugore we Grace Mugabe binugwanugwa ko yategurirwaga kumusimbura ku butegetsi

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