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Ibyihariye ku buzima bwa Kenneth Kaunda wabaye Perezida wa mbere wa Zambia watabarutse

Yanditswe na Dufitumukiza Salathiel
Kuya 19 Kamena 2021 saa 05:43
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Ku gicamunsi cyo ku wa 17 Kamena 2021 ni bwo hatangajwe urupfu rwa Kenneth David Kaunda ku myaka 97,ufatwa nk’indorerwamo y’ubwigenge bwa Zambia yabonye mu 1964 yigobotoye ubukoloni bw’Abongereza.

Yari umuhererezi mu bana umunani bakomoka kuri Révérand David Kaunda wari umwe mu bayobozi b’idini ya Church of Scotland.

Révérand David Kaunda yavuye mu gace kitwa Nyasaland ubu kabarizwa muri Malawi, yimukira mu kitwaga Northern Rhodesia ubu kabarizwa muri Zambia.
Hafi y’aho muri Chinsali ni ho yibarukiye Kenneth David Buchizya Kaunda ku wa 28 Mata 1924.

Kenneth Kaunda cyangwa “KK” yakuze ababyeyi be bombi ari abarimu, ndetse nyina witwaga Helen ni we Munyafurikakazi wa mbere wigishije muri Zambia yo mu gihe cy’ubukoloni.

Urupfu rwa se rwashegeshe imyigire ye cyane ko atari yakarangije amashuri, akazajya acishamo agakora imirimo iciriritse ngo abashe kubona amafaranga y’ishuri.

Ubwo buzima bw’umuryango bwatumye na we yinjira mu mwuga w’ubwarimu ubwo yasorezaga amashuri yisumbuye ku ishuri ryari ryarashyiriweho Abanyafurika muri Northern Rhodesia, ahagana mu myaka ya 1940.

Ajya kwigisha yahereye ku ishuri ry’abamisiyoneri rya Lubwa Church of Scotland mu 1943 ari na ryo yizeho amashuri abanza. Nyuma yaho yaje kwerekeza mu yari Tanganyika yaje kuba Tanzanie, agaruka aba umuyobozi w’iryo shuri kuva mu 1944 kugeza mu 1947.

Mu 1948 yavuye muri izo nshingano yerekeza mu bucukuzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro, ndetse yongera kuyobora ishuri ryisumbuye rya Mufulira kugeza mu 1949.

Kenneth Kaunda ni umwe mu batangije ANC (African National Congress),ishyaka ryagize uruhare rukomeye mu kwibohora kw’uduce tugize Zambia. Iyo ANC yabo yari itandukanye n’iyo muri Afurika y’Epfo ya Nelson Mandela nubwo zombi zari zihuje intego yo kwirukana abakoloni.

Kuva mu 1953 kugeza mu 1958 ni we wari Umunyamabanga Mukuru wa ANC yari iyobowe na Harry Nkumbula.

Bijyanye no kuba yarakundaga amahame y’Umuhinde, Mahatma Gandhi na we wamaganaga ubukoloni bw’Abongereza, mu 1957 Kenneth Kaunda yasuye u Buhinde nk’isoko y’ingufu z’urugamba yari atangiye rwo kwirukana ba gashakabuhake b’Abazungu ku Mugabane w’Abirabura.

Mu rugamba rwo gushaka ubwigenge bwa Zambia, Kenneth Kaunda ni umwe mu babigizemo uruhare n’umuhate ugaragarira buri wese, aho yagiye aca Abazungu n’Abanya-Asia intege agaragaza ko Abanyafurika bashobora gutesha agaciro ibikorwa byabo bishyira imbere inyungu zabo bwite.

Urugero rwa hafi ni ukuntu yatambamiye kenshi ibikorwa bya CAF (Central African Federation) yashaka guhuriza hamwe agace kitwaga Northern Rhodesia, akitwaga Southern Rhodesia na Nyasaland ngo bibe nk’igihugu kimwe kuko hose hakolonizwaga n’Abongereza. Yarabirwanyije bicika intege birangira uwo mushinga utagezweho.

Kenneth Kaunda ubwo yagezaga ijambo ku bitabiriye umuhango wo gushyingura Nelson Mandela mu 2013

Uko yinjiye muri guverinoma

Kaunda yakomeje kuba impirimbanyi y’ubwigenge bwa Afurika ndetse ni umwe mu bitabiriye inama ya Kwame Nkurumah wahirimbaniye ubwigenge bwa Ghana, yahurije hamwe Abanyafurika benshi bashakaga kwigobotora ingoyi y’ubukoloni mu 1958.

Icyo gihe ni bwo yagize amahirwe yo guhura n’abandi bahuje umugambi bakorera mu bihugu bitandukanye.

Hagati ya 1958 na 1959, Kaunda yatandukanye na Nkumbula watumaga ibikorwa bya ANC bigenda biguru ntege kubera gukorana n’Abazungu,ashinga ishyaka rye yise Zambia African National Union, ariko ntiryaramba kuko ryateje imyivumbagatanyo muri rubanda bituma rihagarikwa ndetse nawe nk’umuyobozi waryo amara amezi icyenda mu gihome.

Agifungurwa mu 1960 yahise atangiza irindi yise United National Independence Party (UNIP). Yaje kongera kwihuza na ANC bafatanya kuyobora Northern Rhodesia nyuma yo gutorerwa kuba mu bagize Inteko Ishinga Amategeko.

Muri iyo myaka hashyirwaho guverinoma ya mbere irimo umubare munini w’Abirabura, Kaunda yabaye Minisitiri w’Ubutegetsi bw’Igihugu n’Imibereho myiza y’abaturage kugeza mu 1962.

The Guardian yanditse ko ishyaka rye UNIP ryakomeje kwigaragaza mu bikorwa bitandukanye, ndetse riza kumufasha kuba Minisitiri w’Intebe wa Northern Rhodesia muri Mutarama 1964, ari nawe wari muto mu bayobozi b’ibihugu bikoresha Icyongereza.

Muri Gicurasi uwo mwaka yitabiriye ibiganiro byabereye i Londres mu Bwongereza, ari nabyo byagejeje ku bwigenge bwa Zambia agahita ayibera Perezida wa mbere ku wa 24 Ukwakira 1964.

Uhereye iburyo, Kenneth Kaunda yari kumwe na Agostino Neto wayoboraga Angola, na Julius Nyerere wayoboraga Tanzanie. Aha bari bahuriye i Lusaka muri Mutarama 1974.

Ubutegetsi bwe bwagejeje mu 1991 muri manda zitandukanye bwaranzwe no gukundwa n’abaturage ndetse akumvwa, gusa mu myaka ya 1970 yaje kugira ubwimvikane buke n’umwe mu bo bafatanyije ingundura yo kurwanira ubwigenge, Simon Kapwepwe, maze ahita atangiza ishyaka rye yise United Progressive party (UPP).

Bakomeje kutajya imbizi kugeza ubwo Kaunda yashyize Kapwepwe mu gihome, undi afunguwe ahita yongera kuyoboka UNIP maze Zambia isa n’ibarizwamo ishyaka rimwe.

Ikindi gikomeye cyabaye ku ngoma ye, ni muri Kamena 1990 ubwo igiciro cy’ifu y’ibigori cyatumbagiraga kandi ari yo itunze Abanya-Zambia hafi ya bose.

Byateje imyigaragambyo yamaze iminsi itatu biba ngombwa ko hitabazwa ingufu za gisirikare, ikomerekeramo abagera ku 150, 27 barapfa naho abandi batatangajwe ingano barafungwa.

Uko ubutegetsi bwe bwarangiye

Reuters yatangaje ko muri uko kwezi ari na bwo umusirikare ufite ipeti rya Lieutenant yagiye kuri radiyo y’igihugu atangaza ko Perezida Kaunda yahiritswe ku butegetsi abaturage buzura imihanda ya Lusaka. Icyo ariko cyari igihuha kuko uwabivuze yahise atabwa muri yombi.

Ubutegetsi bwe bwarangiye mu 1991, mu 1996 agarutse kwiyamamaza ntibyamuhira. Chiluba bari bahanganye yavuze ko Kaunda atemerewe kuyobora Zambia kuko ababyeyi be bafite inkomoko muri Malawi, kandi bisaba ko baba baravukiye muri icyo gihugu. Ibyo byatumye afatwa nk’umunyamahanga.

Aha Perezida Kagame yaganiraga na Kenneth Kaunda muri Kamena 2017

Yakomeje kugenda mu bikorwa bya politiki gake gake ndetse agerageza guhirika ubutegetsi mu 1997 biramupfubana arafungwa, aza kubihagarika burundu mu 1999 ubwo umuhungu we Wezi Kaunda wari waragiye muri politiki yicwaga.

Kaunda ni umwe b’ingenzi bagize uruhare mu gushaka ubwigenge bw’ibihugu byo mu Majyepfo ya Afurika.

Avugwaho kandi uruhare mu biganiro byo gushaka ubwigenge bwa Mozambique mu 1975, ubwa Zimbabwe mu 1980 ndetse n’ubwa Namibia mu 1990.

Mu myaka ya 1987 yayoboye ihuriro ryitwaga Frontline States ryari rigamije kurwanya Apartheid, ryari rigizwe na Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Tanzanie, Zambia, na Zimbabwe.

Kaunda yabaye n’umuyobozi wa Afurika yunze Ubumwe icyitwa OUA mbere y’uko iba AU. Mu bihe bitandukanye yaburiye Abanyafurika kureka kuryana basubiranamo ahubwo bagasenyera umugozi umwe.

Ubwo yavugaga ku bwicanyi bwibasiraga abanyamahanga muri Afurika y’Epfo mu 2019 bwaguyemo Abanya-Nigeria benshi, Kenneth Kaunda yagize ati “Benedata na bashiki bacu bo muri Afurika y’Epfo bagombye kwibuka ko aba bantu bari kugirira nabi ari bo bagenzi babo bafatanyije kwigobotora amatwara akandamiza ya Apartheid.”

Uretse ibikorwa bya politiki, Kaunda yakoze n’ubukangura mbaga mu kurwanya SIDA dore ko ko yari yarahitanye n’ubuzima bw’umwe mu bana be.

Mu kiganiro yahaye Reuters mu 2002 yagize ati “Twarwanyije ubukoloni. N’ubu dushobora gukoresha imbaraga twakoresheje icyo gihe mu kurwanya SIDA kuko igiye kutumaraho abantu muri Afurika.”

Yanditse n’ibitabo bitandukanye bigarura icyizere mu mitima y’Abanyafurika nk’icyo yise “Zambia Shall Be Free” cyo mu 1962, “Kaunda on Violence” cyo mu 1980, “Letter to my Children” cyo mu 1973 n’ibindi.

Mu 2012,yagaragaye muri filime yiswe “Comrade President” mu 2012, yagarukaga ku buryo bwo kurwanya ubukoloni.

Ubwo Perezida Paul Kagame yagiriraga uruzinduko muri Zambia mu 2017, Kenneth Kaunda ari mu bo bahuye ndetse bagirana ibiganiro.

Nelson Mandela (iburyo) na Kenneth Kaunda (ibumoso) ubwo bahuriraga i Lusaka. Aba bombi ni impirimbanyi z'ubwigenge bwa Afurika

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