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Ethiopia: Intandaro y’ihangana hagati ya Guverinoma ya Abiy n’abo muri Tigray

Yanditswe na Iradukunda Serge
Kuya 8 Ugushyingo 2021 saa 12:32
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Ibintu bikomeje kudogera muri Ethiopia kuko ubu isaha n’isaha Umurwa Mukuru Addis Ababa ushobora kugwa mu maboko y’abarwanyi bo mu Ntara ya Tigray ndetse ubutegetsi bwa Minisitiri w’Intebe w’iki gihugu, Abiy Ahmed bugahirikwa.

Oromo Liberation Army (OLA), umutwe w’abarwanyi wiyunze ku wa Tigray Defense Force (TDF) hagamijwe kurwanya ubutegetsi buriho muri Ethiopia uherutse gutangaza ko ingabo zawo zigera ku 1.165 ziri mu nzira igana mu Murwa Mukuru ndetse ko zibura intera nto ngo zihagere.

Uyu munsi turarebera hamwe uko Minisitiri w’Intebe, Abiy Ahmed wabonwaga nk’ipfundo ry’umutekano muri Ethiopia ndetse akaza kubihererwa igihembo cya Nobel yaje guhinduka indwanyi karundura ndetse kuri ubu urugamba asa n’uwashoje rukaba rwaramunaniye kuruhagarika.

Hashize umwaka hatangiye intambara hagati y’ishyaka rya Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF) - ryigeze kuba riri mu mpuzamashyaha yari ku butegetsi - na guverinoma ya Abiy Ahmed.

Umwuka mubi wafashe indi ntera, mu Ugushyingo 2020 ubwo Minisitiri w’intebe Abiy yategekaga ko hagabwa ibitero bya gisirikare ku Ntara ya Tigray, nyuma y’uko avuze ko ingabo z’iyi Ntara zagabye igitero ku kigo cy’ingabo za leta "cyakomerekeje benshi kikanangiza byinshi".

Amatora yabaye muri Tigray muri Nzeri 2020, mu gihe leta yari yarayabujije kubera coronavirus, abonwa cyane nk’impamvu ya vuba y’aya makimbirane. Ariko mu by’ukuri ni amakimbirane amaze igihe atutumba.

TPLF, yahoze ari ishyaka ryiganje mu butegetsi mu myaka myinshi cyane, yagiye ishyamirana na guverinoma ya Abiy Ahmed kuva nyuma gato y’uko ageze ku butegetsi mu 2018.

Amaze gutorwa nk’umutegetsi "w’impinduka", Abiy yashinje abahoze muri guverinoma ruswa no guhonyora uburenganzira bwa muntu, anavana abakomeye muri TPLF muri guverinoma y’igihugu.

Abo barimo uwahoze akuriye ubutasi kandi ukomeye muri TPLF, Getachew Asefa, wacitse ubwo yari agiye gufungwa agahungira mu karere ka Tigray, aho n’ubu ari mu bwihisho.

Icyemezo cy’umwaka ushize cya Bwana Abiy cyo gushyira hamwe amashyaka, ashingiye cyane cyane ku moko, agahurira mu kitwa Prosperity Party (PP) byongereye amakimbirane. TPLF yanze kujya muri iryo huriro ivuga ko rizacamo ibice igihugu.

Mu ntangiriro za 2020, ubushyamirane bwarakabije ubwo guverinoma ya Addis yangaga ko amatora mu gihugu aba kubera coronavirus.

Intara ya Tigray yo yarabyanze muri Nzeri ikora amatora, yafashwe nk’igikorwa cyo kugumuka kuri leta ya Addis Ababa. Inteko ishinga amategeko y’igihugu yavuze ko "anyuranyije n’amategeko".

Kuva icyo gihe, leta y’igihugu na leta y’Intara ya Tigray buri imwe yita indi ko "itemewe n’amategeko".

TPLF mu gihe cyashize yagiye yerekana ko ishaka ubwigenge, ikomoza ku ngingo yo mu itegeko Nshinga yemerera uturere "ubwigenge, harimo no kwiyomora ku gihugu".

Mu kwezi kwa munani Debretsion Gebremichael uyobora iyi Ntara yagize ati: "Ntituzihanganira uwo ari we wese ushaka kutwima uburenganzira twatsindiye bwo kwigenga".

Mu ntangiriro za Ukwakira 2020, leta ya Addis yanzuye guhagarika imikoranire n’intara ya Tigray, inteko ishinga amategeko nayo itora ko ingengo y’imari yahabwaga Tigray ihagarikwa.

Ingabo za Leta iyobowe na Minisitiri w'Intebe, Abiy Ahmed zimaze igihe zishyamiranye n'izo muri Tigray

Intandaro y’ikibazo

Ibibazo tubona uyu munsi muri Ethiopia bifite imizi mu mateka maremare y’iki gihugu. Byose byatangiye mu 1991 ubwo ishyaka rya TPLF ryahirikaga ubutegetsi bwa Mengistu Hailemariam. Muri iki gihe ubutegetsi bwahise bufatwa na Meles Zenawi ukomoka muri Tigray, wayoboye iki gihugu kugeza mu 2012.

Muri iki gihe Meles Zenawi yayoboye Ethiopia, yagiye ashinjwa na benshi kuyoboza inkoni y’icyuma ndetse no gukoresha icyenewabo kuko imyanya yose ikomeye muri Guverinoma yahise ihabwa abakomoka muri Tigray.

Ku buyobozi bwa TPLF, abakomoka muri Tigray bashyizwe ku ibere, bahabwa uburenganzira busesuye ku mutungo w’igihugu urimo ubutaka ndetse n’amahirwe y’ishoramari mu bikorwa bitandukanye.

Uretse kwiharira ibijyanye n’imiyoborere, igisirikare n’ubukungu, TPLF ishinjwa ko kuva yajya ku butegetsi yatangiye kwinjira no mu miyoborere y’amadini kuko yayabonaga nk’uburyo bwiza bwayifasha kwigarurira abaturage.

Urugero iri shyaka ryagiye rigira uruhare mu gushyiraho abayobozi b’idini ry’aba- Orthodox rifite abayoboke basaga miliyoni 40 muri Ethiopia. Aba bayobozi kandi wasangaga abenshi bakomoka muri Tigray.

Uku kwivanga mu miyoborere y’amadini kwa TPLF niko kandi kwakuruye imyigaragambyo y’Abayisilamu yabaye mu 2012, nyuma y’uko hari abayobozi babo banze kuyoboka imikorere y’iri shyaka bagafungwa.

TPLF yongeye kunengwa cyane mu 2005 ubwo ingabo za Leta zarasaga abaturage bigaragabyanga bavuga ko habayeho uburiganya mu matora yari yabaye muri uwo mwaka. Iri shyaka ryongeye gukora mu jisho abaturage mu 2015 ubwo ryatangazaga ko ariryo ryatsindiye imyanya yose yo mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko yo muri iki gihugu.

Iyi myitwarire ya TPLF yatumye mu 2018 muri Ethiopia haduka imyigaragambyo karundura yasize heguye Minisitiri w’Intebe Hailemariam Desalegn wari warasimbuye Meles nyuma yo kwitaba Imana mu 2012.

Ni imyigaragambyo yagizwemo uruhare rukomeye n’abaturage bo mu duce twa Oromia na Amhara, tugizwe n’ubwoko bugize 60 % by’abatuye igihugu.

Nubwo Hailemariam atakomokaga muri Tigray, abandi baturage ntibigeze bamwiyumvamo cyane, kuko ntacyo yigeze akora ngo akosore amakosa yari yarakozwe na TPLF.

Mu 2018, Abiy Ahmed uva mu ishyaka rya Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front yatorewe kuba Minisitiri w’Intebe wa Ethiopia aba umuntu wa mbere ukomoka mu bwoko bw’aba Oromo ugeze muri uyu mwanya.

Kuva yagera ku butegetsi TPLF yabonye Abiy Ahmed nk’umuntu uje kubakura ku mugati kandi koko niko byagenze.

Nyuma y’iminsi mike agiye ku butegetsi, yatangiye gutegura imirongo migari ya politike n’ubukungu igamije guca integer TPLF yari yarabaye ikigugu muri Ethiopia.

Urugero, yatangaje ko ateganya kwegurira abikorera, Ethio Telecom, uruganda ruri mu bucuruzi bw’isukari n’ibijyanye n’ingufu. Uru ruganda ruri mu zikomeye muri Ethiopia kuko rufite umutungo mbumbe ubarirwa muri miliyari 7$ kandi ubuyobozi bwarwo bwari bwiganjemo abakomoka muri Tigray.

Muri Nzeri 2020, Minisitiri Abiy yenyegeje umuriro, afata umwanzuro wo gushyiraho ifaranga rishya. Iyi politike benshi bemeza ko yari igamije kurwanya abo mu ishyaka rya TPLF bari bamaze kwigizaho amafaranga menshi Leta itabashaga kugenzura, gusa we yavuze ko yabikoze agamije kurwanya ibyaha byari bisigaye bikorwa mu rwego rw’ubukungu.

Abiy, amaze kugera ku butegetsi kandi yagabanyije ijambo TPLF yari ifite mu bijyanye n’umutekano kuko yatangiye gukora amavugurura mu gisirikare, azamura abato mu ntera, bamwe bakomoka muri Tigray barirukanwa.

Ibi byatumye TPLF ibona uyu mugabo nk’uyiteye icyugazi, ihagurukira kumurwanya ndetse no kwisubiza icyubahiro. Nyuma y’amezi atatu atowe, Abiy yari amaze kurusimbuka inshuro nyinshi. Iperereza ryaje kwanzura ko iyi migambi itegurwa na Getachew Asefa wahoze akuriye iperereza kandi akaba akomoka muri Tigray.

Nyuma yo kumenya ko ari guhigwa Getachew Asefa yahise ahungira muri Tigray ku ivuko. Leta ya Ethiopia yahise imushyiriraho impapuro zo kumuta muri yombi ariko ubuyobozi bwo muri Tigray buyibera ibamba bwanga kumutanga. Inzigo n’urwangano hagati ya Tigray na Guverinoma ya Abiy bifata indi ntera gutyo.

Ku ngoma ya Meles Zenawi, Abanya-Tigray bashinjwe kwikubira umutungo w'igihugu

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