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Igisubizo cya Habyarimana ubwo yabazwaga impamvu u Rwanda rutagiraga televiziyo

Yanditswe na Musangwa Arthur
Kuya 16 Nzeri 2021 saa 07:20
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Umwana wavutse muri iyi myaka ya vuba agasanga u Rwanda rufite televiziyo zirenga 10 na radiyo zirenga 30, byagorana kumwumvisha ko hari igihe cyabayeho, u Rwanda ruri mu bihugu mbarwa bitagiraga televiziyo n’imwe ku Isi.

Benshi bakunze kugaragaza itangazamakuru nk’ubutegetsi bwa kane nyuma y’Ubutegetsi Nshingamategeko, Ubutegetsi Nyubahirizategeko n’Ubutegetsi bw’Ubucamanza.

Ibi bigaragarira ku kuba iyo itangazamakuru rikoreshejwe neza rihinduka umuyoboro w’amajyambere arambye, kuko rituma abaturage bamenya ibibera hirya no hino mu gihugu no ku Isi, bakanamenya aho inyungu zabo ziherereye n’aho zitari.

Amateka agaragaza ko u Rwanda rwagiye rugenda biguru ntege mu bijyanye no kwimakaza itangazamakuru rishya cyangwa rya kijyambere (itangazamakuru ryandika, radiyo na televiziyo), birushaho kuba agatereranzamba kuri televiziyo.

Aya mateka yerekana ko ikinyamakuru cya mbere cyabayeho mu Rwanda ari ‘Kinyamateka’, yashinzwe mu mwaka wa 1933 n’Abapadiri bera b’i Kabgayi. Kinyamateka igitangira, yibandaga cyane ku nkuru za gatigisimu ariko nyuma muri 1959-1960 iza gushyiramo n’inkuru za politiki.

Mu 1954 havutse ikinyamakuru cyitwa ‘Temps nouveaux d’Afrique’ cyavugaga amakuru y’akarere, ni ukuvuga u Burundi n’uburasirazuba bwa Kongo-Mbiligi.

Mu 1955, Musenyeri Bigirumwami yashinze akanyamakuru k’abana kitwa «Hobe» n’ubu karacyabaho, gasohokera mu icapiro Pallotti Press i Gikondo.

Mu1959 ni bwo hatangiye Itangazamakuru rya Leta, imfura yaryo iba «Imvaho» yandikirwaga mu biro bya Rezida, ni ukuvuga uwari uhagarariye ubutegetsi bw’u Bubiligi mu Rwanda.

Kuwa Gatandatu tariki 27 Gicurasi 1961, hatashywe ku mugaragaro studio za Radio Rwanda. Mu 1963 ibikoresho byose biza gukurwa Usumbura mu Burundi (Bujumbura) ahari hari icyicaro gikuru cya Teritwari ya Ruanda-Urundi, ari na ho hari Radio nkuru yari iri byimurirwa i Kigali aba ari na ho itangira gukorera.

Uru rugendo rw’itangazamakuru rigezweho u Rwanda rwari rutangiye rwabaye nk’urudindira kuko byafashe imyaka 31 nyuma yo kubona radiyo ya mbere, kugira ngo u Rwanda runabone televiziyo.

Kugeza iki gihe u Rwanda rwari mu bihugu bike ku Isi bitagira televiziyo, kuko nko mu Karere, Uganda yari yarabonye televiziyo ya mbere mu 1963, Kenya yarayibonye mu 1962, Tanzania yo yarayibonye mu 1970.

Na nyuma yo gutangira kw’iyi televiziyo, umuntu yavuga ko nta kamaro kanini yagiriye Abanyarwanda kuko yari itunzwe na mbarwa. Abenshi bari mu bukene kandi bakaba bataragerwagaho n’umurirmo w’amashanyarazi.

Ntiyashakaga televiziyo yirirwa yerekana filime z’aba-cowboy

Kuba u Rwanda ari cyo gihugu rukumbi kitagiraga televiziyo ku Isi byakunzwe kugarukwaho cyane ndetse mu 1988 abanyamakuru ba Radio Télévision Suisse (RTS) bari basuye u Rwanda, babibajije Perezida Juvénal Habyarimana.

Muri iki gihe Jean-Claude Chanel na Guy Ackermann, bombi bakoreraga RTS bagize umwanya wo gutembera ibice bitandukanye by’u Rwanda, bagirana ikiganiro cyihariye na Perezida Habyarimana.

Aba banyamakuru babajije Perezida Habyarimana impamvu u Rwanda rudafite televiziyo kandi ari uburyo bw’itangazamakuru bwari bugezweho hirya no hino ku Isi.

Mu kubasubiza, Perezida Habyarimana yavuze ko u Rwanda rukennye kandi rudakeneye televiziyo izajya yerekana filime z’aba-cowboy.

Ati “Ni ukubera ko turi abakene ariko ntabwo tubyicuza, ntabwo tubyicuza kubera ko dushaka televiziyo izagira uruhare mu iterambere, ntabwo dushaka televiziyo izerekana filime z’aba cow-boy umunsi wose cyangwa ibiri kuba i Paris, ibiri kuba i Bruxelles.”

Filime z’aba-cowboy Habyarimana atashakaga, ni ubwoko bwa filime bwakunzwe cyane mu mpera za 1950 kugeza mu mpera za 1990.

Izi filime zo mu bwoko bw’izizwi nka ‘Western Films’ zirangwa no kuba zikiniye ahantu hasa nko mu butayu, abarimo benshi baba bambaye ingofero z’urugara, inkweto za ‘Santiago’ ariko ziri mu bwoko bw’izizamuye zizwi nka ‘boots’.

Ikizakubwira izi filime kandi ni uko akenshi ziba zirimo amafarashi, imbunda za kera zo mu bwoko bwa LeMat Revolver, Whitworth Rifle, Derringer Pistol na Sharps Rifle. Izi mbunda zose zikubiye mu kizwi nka ’Wild West guns’.

Filime z’aba-cowboy zamenyekanye cyane harimo The Treasure of the Sierra Madre yasohotse mu 1948, High Noon yasohotse mu 1952. Aba vuba bo bashobora kuba bazi The Mask of Zorro kuko yasohotse mu 1998. Ubu nibwo bwo bwoko bwa filime Habyarimana yavugaga ko adashaka ko zirirwa kuri Televiziyo y’u Rwanda.

Habyarimana yakomeje avuga ko ashaka televiziyo izaza ari moteri y’iterambere. Ati “Turashaka televiziyo izaba moteri y’iterambere yerekana uko bacunga umutungo wa koperative, ni gute bakingira abana ? Mu kihe gihe? Ni gute birinda isuri? Iyo ni yo televiziyo dushaka, televiziyo y’abaturage bose, itazaba televiziyo y’abize bo mu mujyi gusa.”

Amakuru IGIHE ifite ni uko u Rwanda rwatinze kubona televiziyo kubera impamvu zitandukanye zirimo amikoro make, kutagira abakozi babifitiye ubushobozi baba abanyamakuru ndetse n’abatekinisiye.

Ku rundi ruhande ariko hari n’ikibazo cy’ubushake buke bwa politike ngo kuko hari ibihugu bitarushaga u Rwanda amikoro cyane, byari byarabashije kugira televiziyo.

Amateka agaragaza ko Habyarimana atigeze ashyira imbere iterambere ry’itangazamakuru kuko no mu 1974 ubwo yategekaga ko hashyirwaho ORINFOR, gisimbura Minisiteri y’Itangazamakuru yahaye ibiro bye inshingano zo gukurikirana ibyo gikora umunsi ku munsi.

Abagize Inama y’Ubutegetsi ya ORINFOR n’abayobozi bayo bashyirwagaho na Perezida ndetse Umuyobozi w’iki kigo agahita aba n’Umuvugizi wa Guverinoma.

Ibi byatumaga ORINFOR idakora mu bwisanzure ndetse n’itangazamakuru ryigenga risa n’irikumiriwe.

Nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, umubare w’ibinyamakuru, cyane cyane iby’abikorera ku giti cyabo wagiye urushaho kwiyongera buri munsi.

Uwari Perezida w'u Rwanda, Habyarimana Juvenal, yasobanuye impamvu u Rwanda rwatinze kubona televiziyo

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