Uko u Rwanda n’u Burundi byari bigiye kugirwa igihugu kimwe n’ibidasanzwe mu mibanire kuva mu myaka 500 ishize

Yanditswe na Philbert Girinema
Kuya 30 Mutarama 2021 saa 11:11
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Amateka agaragaza byinshi ku mubano w’u Rwanda n’u Burundi, ibihugu bisangiye umuco, bifite amoko amwe, ururimi n’ibindi. Usibye kuba ari ibihugu bihana imbibi, kuva na kera byari byimakaje ubushuti, bidaterana ahubwo bitabarana mu gihe cy’amage n’amakuba, byanagirana ibibazo bikabicocereza mu biganiro. Hari n’amateka agaragaza ko habuze gato ngo byombi bibe igihugu kimwe nk’uko tugiye kubibona muri iyi nkuru aho Umurwa Mukuru abakoloni bashakaga kuwushyira mu Rwanda rwa none mu Ntara y’Amajyepfo, mu mujyi witwaga Astrida [Huye y’ubu].

Uhereye ku buso, ibihugu byombi bitandukanywaho n’akantu gato kuko u Burundi burusha u Rwanda kilometero kare 1.492; byose ni ibihugu bigizwe n’imisozi, byahoze biyoborwa n’abami, bikolonizwa n’ibihugu bimwe, ahanini mu bihe bya mbere mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya 19 byacengewe n’imyemerere nyobokamana gatolika kandi byaboneye ubwigenge umunsi umwe mu 1962.

Byombi kandi byamaze igihe kinini bisangiye banki imwe y’igihugu, BERB, mbere y’ivuka rya Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda. Inoti y’amafaranga ijana ndetse n’iya 20 zombi zakoreshwa n’ibi bihugu byombi.

Hari n’amoko y’Abanyarwanda amwe n’amwe afite inkomoko mu Burundi kimwe n’ay’Abarundi afite inkomoko mu Rwanda. Urugero ni Abanyakarama bafite inkomoko i Burundi. Ikindi kandi Abanyiginya mu Burundi babayo cyo kimwe n’Abega.

Mu bice bya Kayanza na Ngozi, bihana imbibi n’Amajyepfo y’u Rwanda hatuye benshi mu Banyakarama bakomoka kuri Karama ka Mungwe (muntu ngwe) wavaga inda imwe na Rurenge; bose bakaba abuzukuru b’Abasinga.

Itandukaniro hagati y’ibi bihugu byombi riza mu mibereho y’abaturage, kuko mu bipimo byinshi bigenderwaho harebwa abaturage babayeho neza n’iterambere ry’ibihugu usanga u Rwanda ruri kure y’u Burundi.

Mu gihe cy’Abakoloni, u Rwanda n’u Burundi byari ibice byo mu Karere k’Ibiyaga Bigari byari mu maboko y’Abadage mbere y’uko Ababiligi babigaranzura. Icyo gihe ntibyitwaga gutya ahubwo byari Rwanda-Urundi, hari n’abajya batebya bakavuga ko Rwanda-Urundi byasobanuraga Urundi Rwanda, mu kumvikanisha ko u Rwanda rwahoze ari igihugu cyihagazeho kuva kera na kare.

Banque d’emission du Rwanda et du Burundi (BERB) yari ifite icyicaro i Bujumbura. Yavuyeho mu 1964 ubwo hashingwaga Banki Nkuru y'u Rwanda, BNR

Amasezerano yo kudaterana hagati ya Mutaga II w’u Burundi na Mutara I Semugeshi w’u Rwanda mu myaka ya 1500

Amateka agaragaza ko hambere, intambara z’u Rwanda n’u Burundi zabaga uyu munsi ejo zikongera bityo bityo. Gusa ngo nta kinini ibihugu byombi byabaga bipfa usibye guhigana ubutwari buri kimwe gishaka kunyaga nk’ubutaka igituranyi cyacyo.

Hari igitero kizwi cyane cyo ku Muhororo (muri Gisagara y’ubu) aho Ingabo z’Abashakamba zashyizwe ku rugerero rwa Nyaruteja ku Kanyaru zikitoza kurwana. Hakurya i Burundi ahitwa Kamigara hari naho urugerero rw’ingabo zitwaga Inzobe zarindaga umwami Ntare.

Izi ngabo zatangiye kujya zishotorana zikarwana ariko ntihagire izitsimbura izindi. Gusa nyuma ingabo zari i Nyaruguru zari ziyobowe na Nyarwaya Nyamutezi mwene Mbariyingabo zatsimbuye iz’u Burundi zizigera i Ngozi.

Iz’u Burundi nazo zagabye igitero ku z’u Rwanda zari ziyobowe na Rugaju rwa Mutimbo hapfa benshi. Byababaje umwami Yuhi Gahindiro biba ngombwa ko yoherezayo izindi ngabo noneho barwanira inkundura mu majyaruguru y’Uburasirazuba bw’u Burundi.

Ingabo z’u Rwanda ngo zongeye kurwana n’iz’u Burundi ziyobowe na Kabaka ka Kavotwa ka Sharangabo ya Cyilima II. Aho yaguye havuye izina rya Kirundo n’ubu yabaye imwe mu ntara zigize u Burundi.

Amateka agagaraza ko n’abami ubwabo bari basobanukiwe akamaro k’amahoro arambye hagati y’ibihugu byabo. Ni yo mpamvu Mutara I Semugeshi (1543-1576) yemeranyije na Mutaga II Nyamubi amasezerano bitaga imimaro y’u Rwanda n’u Burundi yo kutazashotorana. Aho byabereye ni ho bita mu Twicarabami twa Nyaruteja hafi ya Kansi.

Hafi aho niho hari agasozi ingabo zateraniragaho zigahiga imbere y’umwami, “ku ihigiro”, mu Kagari ka Higiro, mu gihe hakurya i Burundi hateganye n’aho hari ahitwa “mu mihigo”.

Habuze gato ngo u Rwanda n’u Burundi bigirwe igihugu kimwe

Mu 1925, u Bubiligi bwashyizeho itegeko rigenga Rwanda-Urundi, rinagenga Kongo nk’agace kabwo kuko icyo gihe yitwaga Kongo Mbiligi. Ibi bihugu byombi byavugaga indimi zijya gusa, ari nako bimeze magingo aya ku Kinyarwanda n’Ikirundi.

Mu gitabo cya Jean Pierre Chrétien cyo mu 1970 avugamo ko kugera mu 1930, u Bubiligi bwari bufite umushinga wo kubumbira u Rwanda n’u Burundi hamwe, bigakora igihugu kimwe.

Icyo gihe umurwa mukuru wari kuba muri Astrida i Butare ahari kuba icyicaro cya Guverineri w’ibihugu byombi.

Albert Rudatsimburwa uzi amateka y’ibi bihugu byombi, yabwiye IGIHE ko icyo gitekerezo kitamaze igihe kinini kuko abari bagitsimbarayeho bahise bavaho ubwo Repubulika yari itangiye.

Ati “Bageragezaga kubwira Abanyarwanda n’Abarundi ko bakora teritwari imwe, ubwo batangiraga kuganira ku bintu by’ubwigenge. Ni ibintu byari mu biganiro, Loni ishaka kubagira inama ko byabagirira akamaro babaye nka federasiyo.”
Yakomeje agira ati “Ari Rwagasore, Rudahigwa na Lumumba, bose bari mu bayobozi bo muri Afurika baharanira iterambere, bifuzaga ko wenda bafatanya, ariko cyane cyane hagati y’u Burundi n’u Rwanda.”

Ikarita y'U Rwanda n'u Burundi bihujwe ni uku yari kuba imeze

Ababiligi bagombaga kugira Rwanda-Urundi agace ko guturamo bagomba kwita “La Nouvelle-Belgique”

Mu gitabo Ibitaramo ku Mateka y’u Rwanda cya Zefirini Kagiraneza, avugamo ko guhera mu 1916 kugera mu 1923, u Bubiligi bwagowe bikomeye no kugabana u Rwanda-Urundi kuko byabasabye kwitabaza ingufu za gisirikare.

Ngo Ababiligi babanje kwiga uburyo bagira u Rwanda-Urundi, agace ko guturamo bagombaga kwita “La Nouvelle-Belgique” ariko uwo mushinga baza kuwureka kuko basanze ubutaka bwo guhingaho ari buto ku buryo butahuruza “Abazungu bashaka kuhatura”.

Usibye abaturage, ngo nta wundi mutungo Rwanda-Urundi byari bifite usibye inka, cyane ko icyo gihe impu zazo zari imari ishyushye, nizo zoherezwaga mu mahanga ziturutse muri ibi bihugu.

Umurwa mukuru wa Rwanda-Urundi wari gushyirwa Astrida [Huye], Ikinyarwanda n’Ikirundi bigahuzwa

Muri gahunda yo kugira u Rwanda n’u Burundi igihugu kimwe, Umwanditsi Kagiraneza asobanura ko hari n’inyandiko yasohotse muri Kinyamateka nimero 214 yo muri Kanama 1950 yasobanuraga ko ishuri ry’Abafurere b’Abashariti leta Mbiligi yageneye Rwanda-Urundi ryagombaga gushyirwa Astrida [i Butare] “hateganyijwe ko uwo Mujyi ariwo uzaba Umurwa Mukuru w’ibyo bihugu”.

Usibye kugira u Rwanda n’u Burundi igihugu kimwe, hari n’umushinga wo guhuza indimi z’ibihugu byombi, ndetse cyari n’igitekerezo cyishimirwa n’abantu benshi.

Hari umwanditsi w’i Burundi wigeze kunyuza inyandiko muri Kinyamateka avugamo ko abaturage b’ibihugu byombi bagera kuri miliyoni eshanu bavuga ururimi rumwe byabashyira “imbere maze rukagira amagambo menshi rugakwira, ntitujye tugomba gutira izindi ndimi zo mu mahanga”.

Guhuza ururimi byabonwaga kandi nk’ikintu cyagira uruhare mu majyambere y’ibihugu byombi kuko byatuma haboneka ibitabo byinshi “by’ubwenge byanditse mu rurimi rwacu kuko hariho abanyamwete babuze uburyo bwo kwiga mu mashuri makuru”.

Mu nyandiko y’umwanditsi w’u Burundi yatambutse muri Kinyamateka muri Werurwe 1950, hari aho agira ati “Tuzabona bene ibyo bitabo bigizwe n’ururimi rwacu, tubanje kuruhuza. Njye sinshidikanya ko ubwo buryo bwadushyira imbere bugahindura ibihugu byacu maze bigashobora kugira ubwenge nk’ibindi”.

U Burundi n’u Rwanda byabonye ubwigenge ku munsi umwe mu 1962, mbere y’uko icyo gihe kigera, hari hashize iminsi hibazwa niba bitazarangira ibi bihugu byombi byihuje bikaba leta imwe.

Igitekerezo cyo kugira u Rwanda n’u Burundi leta imwe, cyari gishyigikiwe cyane n’abantu baba mu mahanga ku buryo nk’abaturage b’ibihugu byombi babaga muri Uganda bari barakoze ihuriro ryitwa “Abanyarwanda-Abarundi bibumbye” aho biyitaga Abadahemuka.

Kugeza mu 1957, Abadahemuka bashakaga ko Rwanda-Urundi yigenga vuba kandi igakomeza kuba igihugu kimwe.

Nyuma y’itanga rya Mutara Rudahigwa mu 1957, nibwo uyu mugambi wakendereye kuko ingoma ya cyami yahise ikurwaho mu Rwanda, gusa hakurya y’Akanyaru bo bari bataratekereza gukuraho umwami.

Muri ayo mahindura, muri Loni ho bigaga ikibazo cy’ubwigenge bwa Rwanda- Urundi kuko abenshi bashakaga ko bikomeza kuba igihugu kimwe ariko bakibaza uko iby’umukuru w’igihugu bizagenda.

Ubutaha tuzarebera hamwe imibanire y’u Rwanda n’u Burundi kuva mu 1962 ibihugu byombi bikimara kubona ubwigenge.

Astrida niho hari gushyirwa Umurwa Mukuru w'u Rwanda n'u Burundi iyo bihuzwa bikaba igihugu kimwe

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