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Kuva ku rubaho n’itushi kugeza kuri mudasobwa: Impinduka mu burezi bw’u Rwanda mu myaka 20 ishize

Yanditswe na Dufitumukiza Salathiel
Kuya 9 Nyakanga 2021 saa 07:23
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Si amakabyankuru kuvuga ko mu burezi bw’u Rwanda hari impinduka z’ingenzi zakozwe n’intambwe idasubira inyuma yatewe mu myigire kuva mu myaka 27 ishize benshi babera abahamya nubwo nta byera ngo de.

Imyigire y’umunyeshuri si nk’inzira y’icyerekezo kimwe, igirwamo uruhare na benshi kuva ku mwana ubwe, umuryango, mwarimu hatirengagijwe ibikoresho akenera n’imiterere y’aho yigira.

Urwego rw’uburezi rwabayemo impinduka mu myaka irenga 20 ishize hashyirwaho imirongo migari bugenderaho hagamijwe gukemura bimwe mu bibazo byadindizaga imigendekere myiza yabwo.

Hashingirwa ku kuba ikitagenze neza mu burezi ingaruka zacyo zitagarukira aho ahubwo zihungabanya n’izindi nzego bikazitira iterambere ryifuzwa.

Magingo aya politiki igenga uburezi yatangiye kuvugururwa ku buryo mu gihe kitarambiranye hari izindi mpinduka zitezwe nyuma y’iyagenderwagaho yari imaze imyaka igera kuri 18.

Izo mpinduka zose ziba zigamije kuvugurura uburezi nk’urwego igihugu cyifuza kubakiraho ubukungu bwacyo uhereye mu cyerekezo 2020. Gisabwa kugeza uburezi kuri bose uhereye mu mashuri y’incuke, kuzamura ubumenyi bw’abarimu, gushishikariza urubyiruko kwitabira amasomo y’imyuga n’ubumenyingiro no kongera ingengo y’imari igenerwa uburezi.

Reka tugaruke kuri zimwe mu mpinduka zakozwe mu burezi cyane cyane zakoze ku myigire y’abanyeshuri uhereye ku cyiciro cy’incuke ukageza ku cy’ayisumbuye mu myaka 27 ishize.

Kwigira munsi y’igiti, rukarakara ari zo ntebe…

Ibikorwaremezo bitaratera imbere byarashobokaga ko mu ishuri rimwe usanga harimo abanyeshuri barenze ubushobozi bwaryo bigatuma bamwe biga bahagaze.

Ahari ubucucike habaga hakanyakanya dore ko hari aho wasangaga n’ibyo byumba bidahagije nta bihari abana bigira munsi y’igiti. Ibyo si ibya kera cyane na nyuma ya Jenoside mu turere tumwe na tumwe niko byari bikimeze.

Intebe zabaga ari nke cyangwa mu ishuri ryose nta n’imwe irimo ari ukwicara kuri rukarakara cyangwa se imbaho zirambitse ku mabuye.

Ikibazo cy'ibikorwaremezo birimo ibyumba by'amashuri kirimo kirabonerwa igisubizo ku buryo abanyeshuri batazongera kwiga babyigana

Ivumbi mu mashuri na cyo ni ikindi cyari imbogamizi ikomeye mu burezi bwo mu mashuri abanza ryashoboraga kuba intandaro y’amavunja.Ubwiherero bwo ahenshi nta bwahabaga ahubwo ibihuru bikikije ishuri ni byo byitabazwaga.

Ubu ibikorwaremezo byageze henshi ndetse byubatswe mu buryo buteye imbere.
Ibigo by’amashuri abanza byariyongereye, aho nko mu mpera za 2020 byari bigeze ku 2.961. Ibyumba by’amashuri byarengaga ibihumbi 59 naho kuva mu 2019 leta yatangiye kubaka ibyumba by’amashuri bishya birenga ibihumbi 22, ibikoni n’ubwiherero.

Mu 2018 hari ibigo by’amashuri abanza gusa 1.800 byaje kugera ku 1.844 mu 2019; ibiriho uburezi bw’ibanze bw’imyaka icyenda biva kuri 615 biba 594 naho iby’ubw’imyaka 12 biva kuri 494 biba 523.

Ni ukuvuga ko byose hamwe byavuye ku 2.877 mu 2017 biba 2.909 mu 2018, bigera kuri 2,963 mu mwaka wakurikiyeho.

Uko byiyongeraga ni ko bijyana no gushyiramo intebe, amazi n’amashanyarazi na byo bikigizwa hafi.

Nko mu 2017 ibyumba by’amashuri kuri ibyo bigo byari 31.927, mu mwaka wakurikiyeho bigera ku 32.548 birimo intebe 529.285, mu gihe mu 2019 byari bimaze kuba 34.468 birimo intebe 539.277.

Kuva ku itushi n’urubaho…

Abize mu myaka ya 2000 na mbere yaho bazi uko mu mashuri yo mu Rwanda byari byifashe. Igikoresho cy’ibanze umwana utangiye abanza yitwazaga ni urubaho n’itushi.

Uru rubaho kubera imiterere yarwo byasabaga ko urukoresha mu gihe yarwanditseho rukuzura asiba kugira ngo abone aho yandika ibindi ariko icyabaga kigoye cyane ni igihe rumenetseho amazi cyangwa runyagiwe, ibyarwo byabaga birangiye.

Umuyobozi w’Ishuri ribanza rya Mburabuturo mu Murenge wa Kintobo muri Nyabihu, Uwasabwimana Samuel Isaac, yavuze ko kuba ubu abana bandika mu makayi bituma ababyeyi babo bamenya uko bahagaze mu myigire yabo.

Urubaho n'itushi byari ibikoresho by'ibanze mu burezi bwo hambere

Imyigire yatangiye kwinjizwamo ikoranabuhanga aho abanyeshuri kuva mu cyiciro cy’abanza bashyikirizwa mudasobwa bifashisha.

Mu 2008 ni bwo leta yatangije gahunda ya “One Laptop per Child” hagamijwe kuvugurura imyigire y’abo mu mashuri abanza ikajyana n’ikoranabuhanga.

Imibare y’inzego z’uburezi mu Rwanda igaragaza ko mu bigo by’amashuri 1523 byo hirya no hino mu gihugu hatanzwe mudasobwa zisaga ibihumbi 275.

Mu gihe abenshi bakoraga kuri mudasobwa bwa mbere bageze mu yisumbuye, ubu abarezi bishimira ko noneho abarangiza amashuri abanza baba bayifiteho ubumenyi bw’ibanze.

Imibare y’Ikigo cy’Igihugu cy’Ibarurishamibare yerekana ko abazi gukoresha mudasobwa mu bafite imyaka iri hagati ya 15 na 24 bavuye ku 6.5% mu 2010 bagera ku 10.9 mu 2014, mu 2017 baba 10.5% naho mu 2020 bari bageze kuri 15.2%.

Nibura kugeza mu 2019, amashuri y’uburezi bw’ibanze bw’imyaka icyenda agera kuri 260 kuri 2499 yari amaze kugezwamo internet ugereranyije na 724 yisumbuye.

Ku rundi ruhande, iyo gahunda yagiye igira inkomyi nk’aho zimwe muri mudasobwa zigenewe abanyeshuri batazigejejweho, izindi zigapfa zikabura gisanwa, izibwe n’izanyerejwe.

Amasomo y’imyuga n’ubumenyingiro yongeye guhabwa intebe

Mu burezi bw’u Rwanda hahozemo ibigo byitwaga CERAI (Centre d’Enseignement Rural et Artisanal Intégré) byigishirizwagamo imyuga irimo ubuhinzi, ubworozi, ubwubatsi, ububaji n’ibindi byafashaga abatarabashije gukomeza ayisumbuye na bo bagasoza bafite ubushobozi bwo kugira icyo batanga ku isoko ry’umurimo.

Leta yatangiye gahunda yo guteza imbere amashuri y’imyuga yo ku rwego rw’ayisumbuye nk’uko bikubiye muri Gahunda yo kwihutisha Iterambere (NST1: 2017-2024). Hifuzwa ko umubare w’abiga muri iki cyiciro uzagera kuri 60% by’abanyeshuri barangiza icyiciro rusange.

Mu mpera z’umwaka ushize Minisitiri w’Intebe yabwiye Inteko Ishinga Amategeko ko hari kubakwa amashuri y’imyuga n’ubumenyingiro agera kuri 81 azafasha muri iyi gahunda.

Hari intego y’uko nibura mu 2024 buri murenge wazaba ufite ishuri rimwe nk’iryo kuko 385 yari ahari mu 2020 yose yari mu mirenge 194 gusa.

Ubu ni bumwe mu buryo bwo kurwanya ubushomeri kuko mu 2019 ubushakashatsi bwerekanye ko 64,9% by’abarangiza muri TVET na 75,2% by’abarangiza mu yo ku rwego rwa kaminuza (polytechnique) babona akazi nibura mu mezi atandatu barangije amashuri.

Ubushomeri mu barangiza muri ayo masomo bwavuye ku 18.7% mu 2017 buramanuka buba 17.4% mu 2018, na ho mu 2019 bwari bugeze ku 15.4%.

Leta yatangije amashuri y’incuke, ntibikiri iby’abikorera gusa

Ni nk’igitangaza kumva umwana wageze mu mashuri abanza ataranyuze mu y’incuke muri iki gihe.

Hambere si benshi bashoboraga kwiga mu kiburamwaka. Bene ayo mashuri yabaga ari ayigenga, akigwamo na bake na bo mu bice by’imijyi ariko kuri ubu leta ifite gahunda yo kuzamura ireme ry’uburezi no kubugeza kuri bose ihereye mu mashuri y’incuke.

Umwarimu witwa Hagumimana yabishimye agira ati “Ubu umwana aragera mu mashuri abanza azi gufata ikaramu, azi inyajwi n’ingombajwi zimwe na zimwe. Ahagera kandi atari wa mwana uteta cyangwa winyarira, akaba yaramenyeye kubana n’abandi.”

Kugeza mu mpera za 2020 ibigo by’amashuri y’incuke mu mu Rwanda byari bigeze ku 3.401 bigizwe n’ibyumba 5.879. Ubwitabire bwari bugeze kuri 24,6%, mu gihe intego ari uko bwagera kuri 45% mu 2024.

Ni impinduka zikomeye kuko byari byavuye ku 2.431 mu 2014 biba 2.618 mu 2015; mu 2016 byageze ku 2.757, mu 2017 biba 3.186, mu 2019 bigera ku 3.210 naho mu 2020 byari 3.401.

Leta y’u Rwanda yatangije gahunda yo gutegura abarimu bigisha mu cyiciro cy’incuke no kongera umubare wabo no kubahemba.

Mu mpera za 2020 abarenga 2.200 bari bamaze kurangiza amashuri yisumbuye mu ishami ry’uburezi bw’incuke n’icyiciro cya mbere cy’amashuri abanza.

9&12 YBE, amahirwe ku badatsinda ibizamini bya leta ku rwego rwo hejuru

Ntibyari byoroshye gukandagiza ikirenge mu yisumbuye utatsinze ikizamini gisoza amashuri abanza cyangwa icyiciro rusange n’amanota ari hejuru.

Byasabaga gusibira mu mwaka wa gatandatu ukagisubiramo kugeza ugize amanota y’indashyikirwa cyangwa ukishyurirwa ishuri ryigenga, ibintu bitari ibya bose.

Mu 2009 ni bwo hatangijwe gahunda y’uburezi bw’ibanze bw’imyaka icyenda, abanyeshuri batangira kwiga ayisumbuye ari benshi.

Mu 2012 hongereweho indi myaka itatu n’utabashije gutsinda ikizamini gisoza icyiciro rusange abasha gukomeza ikindi cyiciro ku buntu.

Hagunimana yatsinzwe ikizamini gisoza amashuri abanza mu 1988, mu 1989 asibiye na bwo yongera “gutsindwa”. Ngo se yahise ajya kumwishyurira iryigenga muri Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo kugira ngo agere mu yisumbuye.

Yashimye iyi gahunda nshya agira ati “Kuyishyiraho byatanze umusaruro ufatika kuko n’ubundi ba bandi wasangaga bahezwa inyuma ngo ntibagize amanota yo hejuru, bararangiza mu burezi bw’ibanze bw’imyaka 12 bakabona impamyabumenyi zishimishije, byarimba bakabona amanota abemerera kwiga kaminuza ku nguzanyo ya Leta.”

Ibigo biriho uburezi bw’ibanze bw’imyaka icyenda byari bimaze kuba 594 mu 2019, naho iby’ubw’imyaka 12 bigeze kuri 523.
Gutema no gusibiza umunyeshuri ntibigifite injyana

Kumva umunyeshuri wimutse atagize amanota ari hejuru ya 50% byari bigoye mu myaka nka 15 ishize. Mbere habagaho icyitwa “gutema”, bivuze ko uwatsindwaga mu ishuri yasubizwaga ababyeyi by’umwihariko mu yisumbuye.

Nyuma ya 2010 ni bwo hatangiye kujya hasibizwa nibura 3% no kwirukana biracibwa.

Byabaye igisubizo ku bataga ishuri kubera kurambirwa gusibizwa aho umwana yashoboraga kwiga imyaka itatu mu mwaka umwe.

Umuyobozi ushinzwe amasomo kuri APADE Lycée de Kicukiro, Habarurema Simon, yavuze ko gusibiza umunyeshuri kenshi byatumaga adakura mu mutwe.

Ati “Kwa guhora asibira mu mwaka umwe bigatuma ahora mu bwana. Ubu uko agenda yimuka mu yindi myaka bituma n’ibitekerezo bye bikura, akabasha gutekereza nk’abakuru.”

Ubu buryo kandi hari abavuga ko bwafashije mu kugabanya ubucucike mu mashuri, icyakora byakuruye ubunebwe bituma bamwe badakora cyane.

“Usanga umwana arangije amashuri abanza ataramenya kwandika izina rye, cyangwa akarangiza ayisumbuye ataramenya kwandika ibaruwa.”

Amabwiriza ya Minisitiri w’Uburezi yo mu 2020 agena ibyerekeye kwimura, gusibiza, kwirukana no guhindurirwa ishuri avuga ko buri mwaka w’icyiciro cya mbere cy’amashuri abanza umwarimu akora raporo ku munyeshuri utazi neza gusoma, kwandika no kubara; igashyikirizwa Akanama gashinzwe kwimura, gusibiza, no kwirukana abanyeshuri akaba ari ko gafata icyemezo cyo kumusibiza.

Mu bindi byiciro bikurikiraho kugeza ku cya kabiri cy’ayisumbuye, ayo mabwiriza agena ko umunyeshuri utatsinze ibizamini byo ku rwego rw’ishuri, urw’akarere n’urw’Igihugu “ahabwa amahirwe yo gusibira”.

Ijanisha ku gusibira mu cyiciro cya mbere cy’ayisumbuye ryari rigere kuri 5% mu 2019, rivuye kuri 11,6% mu 2013.

Mu cyiciro cya kabiri cy’ayisumbuye byari bigeze kuri 2,3% mu 2019, bivuye kuri 1,7% mu 2013 nk’uko bigaragazwa muri raporo ya NISR.

Ibivugwa ku guhanisha abanyeshuri inkoni

Hari ingero nyinshi z’abari mu kigero cy’imyaka 30 muganira bakakubwira ko bavuye mu ishuri kubera inkoni zari zibarembeje.

Abarezi benshi wasangaga guhanisha inkoni barabigize nk’aho ari yo nzira yonyine yo kugorora abana, kubaganiriza bafatanyije n’ababyeyi ntibihabwe umwanya.

Byatezaga urunturuntu hagati y’abarezi, ababyeyi n’abanyeshuri bitewe n’uko hari abarimu wasangaga bakomerekeje abanyeshuri.

Kuri ubu umwana ukoreye ikosa ku ishuri ahabwa ibihano bituma bagenzi be bigiraho bitamukomeretsa ku mutima no ku mubiri.

Byatangiye kugendera muri uwo mujyo neza nyuma y’amabwiriza Minisiteri y’Uburezi yo mu 2017, avuga ko kizira gukubita, kubabaza umubiri mu buryo ubwo ari bwo bwose, gusesereza, gutuka no gutesha agaciro uwakoze ikosa.

Abarezi bagaragaza ko byatanze umusaruro kuko umubare w’abavaga mu ishuri kubera amakimbirane bagiranye na bo waragabanyutse.

Ku rundi ruhande hari abarezi bavuga ko abana bataramenya gukoresha uburenganzira bwabo ari na yo mpamvu muri iyi minsi ari henshi humvikana abanyeshuri bakubise abarezi.

Minisitiri w’Intebe, Dr Eduard Ngirente, yigeze gukomoza ku guhanisha abanyeshuri inkoni, avuga ko atari igihano gikwiye kwimakazwa kuko uretse kumubabaza umubiri nta rindi somo kimusigira.

Impinduka zose zagiye zikorwa zigamije gutuma uburezi butera imbere. Kugeza ubu ikibazo cy’ibikorwaremezo bikenerwa mu burezi gisa n’ikirimo kijya ku murongo hakaba hasigaye icy’ireme ry’uburezi gisa n’aho gihangayikishije.

Uburyo bugezweho bwo kubaka amashuri ni amagorofa mu rwego rwo kudasesagura ubutaka buto
Ibyumba by'amashuri birimo kubakwa bifasha mu gutuma abanyeshuri biga bisanzuye
Uko hubakwa ibyumba by'amashuri niko hashyirwamo n'intebe, kwicara ku itafari cyangwa ingiga y'igiti byabaye amateka
Imyaka isaga icumi ishize mu mashuri abanza hagejejwemo mudasobwa zifasha abana kwihugura mu ikoranabuhanga
Ibikorwa remezo birimo ubwiherero byubatswe ku bwinshi mu mashuri
Ikoranabuhanga riri mu mutima w'uburezi bw'u Rwanda dore ko ariho isi yerekeza
Imikoro ngiro yongerewe ingufu mu mashuri ku buryo abanyeshuri bashyira mu ngiro ibyo bigishwa
Abanyeshuri bahabwa umwanya uhagije mu myigishirize, bitandukanye na mbere ubwo umwarimu ari we wabaga yihariye isomo
Leta ikomeje kubaka laboratoires hirya no hino nubwo zikiri iyanga
Ibikorwaremezo birimo amashuri ahenshi ntibikiri ikibazo nk’uko byahoze mbere abanyeshuri bigira munsi y’ibiti
Abanyeshuri babasha kurangiza icyiciro cy'amashuri abanza bafite ubumenyi bw'ibanze kuri mudasobwa
Abanyeshuri bahabwa mudasobwa zibafasha mu myigire aho nibura usoje icyiciro cy’amashuri abanza aba afite ubumenyi bw’ibanze
Mudasobwa ni igikoresho cy'ibanze haba mu mashuri abanza n'ayisumbuye
Umunyeshuri atanga igitekerezo mu ishuri

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