Kwamamaza

Isano y’intambara z’Isi n’inzara za Rumanura na Ruzagayura mu Rwanda

Yanditswe kuya 6-08-2016 saa 08:13' na Cyprien Niyomwungeri


Ingaruka z’intambara ya Mbere y’Isi yo mu 1914-1918 n’iya Kabiri yo mu 1939-1945 mu Rwanda ntizirondoreka, kuko uretse kwica abantu no kwangiza ibyabo, zanabasigiye akaga k’inzara nka Rumanura na Ruzagayura zanditse amateka akomeye.

Mu Rwanda intambara ya mbere y’Isi yahamaze imyaka ibiri gusa kugeza mu 1916 nyuma y’uko Abadage birukanwe mu gihugu n’Ababiligi, icyo gihe yakurikiwe n’inzara ikomeye cyane yiswe Rumanura cyangwa se Rumanurimbaba yabaye hagati y’i 1916 n’i 1918.

Nta gushidikanya ko iyi nzara ifitanye isano n’intambara ya mbere y’Isi kuko agace ka Gisenyi [Ubugoyi] kabereyemo iyi ntambara, ariko kabanje kwibasirwa kuko abaturage birukanwe mu byabo, bakaraswa, imyaka yabo n’intoke bigatemwa n’ibindi.

Usibye Ubugoyi, Rumanura yayogoje n’Uburera [mu majyaruguru y’u Rwanda], ibice bifatwa kuva kera kose nk’ibigega by’u Rwanda, ibyo byatumye igihugu cyose kibura ibyo kurya, inzara iranuma ari nako yisasira imbaga.

Abapadiri bo kuri misiyoni ya Nyundo batangaje ko ku Nyundo honyine hapfiriye abantu barenga 25000, bishwe n’inzara.

Hagati y’intambara ya Mbere n’iya Kabiri y’Isi, mu Rwanda hateye inzara nyinshi iyateye ubwoba cyane ni iyiswe Rwakayihura yabaye hagati y’i 1928 n’i 1930. Yatewe n’amapfa, yica abantu barenga 35000.

Nyuma y’iyi nzara, ubuyobozi bw’Ababiligi bwatangiye gufata ingamba zo kurwanya inzara. Zimwe muri izo ngamba zirimo nko guhinga ku gahato imyumbati, ibijumba n’ibirayi. Iri hingishwa ku gahato niryo ryiswe “shiku”.

Ababiligi bizeye ko izo zari gutuma nta nzara izongera gutera mu Rwanda. Ariko baje gutungurwa cyane ubwo inzara ya Ruzagayura yadukaga mu gihe cy’intambara ya kabiri y’isi yose.

Inzara ya Ruzagayura yatangiye ahagana mu Kwakira 1943. Yatewe n’amapfa yamaze imyaka ibiri. Ayo mapfa yatangiye muri Nzeli 1942, yongera kubaho nyuma gato y’itumba ryo mu 1943.

Ruzagayura yatewe kandi n’igabanyuka ry’ibiribwa ryaturutse ku ndwara y’ibirayi bita «mildiou/mildew», ndetse no ku ndwara y’ibishyimbo bita «chortophila» no ku ndwara y’ibijumba bita «rhizoctonia/rhizoctonie». Nkuko bigaragara, izo ndwara zibasiye ibiribwa by’ibanze by’Abanyarwanda b’icyo gihe.

Yongerewe ubukana n’intambara ya kabiri y’Isi yose ndetse n’uko icyo gihe Abanyarwanda bagombaga guha umusanzu Leta nkoloni y’Ababiligi yari ihanganye n’ingabo za Adolf Hitler.

Uwo musanzu wari ugizwe n’ibiribwa n’amatungo. Abanyarwanda batangaga inka, ibishyimbo, amasaka, amashaza byo kugaburira abasilikare b’abanyekongo ndetse n’abakozi bo mu birombe byo muri Congo.

Usibye ibiribwa n’amatungo, umusanzu w’Abanyarwanda muri iyo ntambara wari ugizwe n’imirimo y’agahato irimo guharura imihanda, kubumba amatafari, gutwara imizigo y’abakoloni, gukora mu birombe bya zahabu na coltan no guhinga ibireti byakoreshwaga mu gutunganya umuti wica udukoko (insecticide).

N’ubwo inzara ya Ruzagayura yamaze umwaka umwe hagati ya 1943-1944, yahitanye abantu benshi cyane. Abamisiyoneri b’abagatolika batangaje muri raporo ngarumwaka yo hagati y’i 1939 n’i 1945, ko u Rwanda rwatakaje abantu bagera ku 300 000, harimo n’abasuhukiye mu bindi bihugu nka Tanganyika, Uganda na Congo Mbiligi.

Usibye guhitana abantu benshi intambara ya mbere n'iya kabiri zasize inzara mu gihugu

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