Impamvu gucinyira akadiho umunsi w’ubwigenge byaba ari ukwigiza nkana

Yanditswe na IGIHE
Kuya 1 Nyakanga 2019 saa 09:50
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Ubwanditsi: Iyi nkuru yasohotse bwa mbere ku wa 1 Nyakanga 2016, iva imuzi uburyo u Rwanda rwageze ku bwigenge ariko bucagase, ku buryo hari abafata uyu munsi nk’udakwiye gutegurirwa ibirori bihambaye.

Tariki ya 2 Gicurasi 1894 Lt Gustav Von Götzen, umusirikare w’Umudage washakishaga isoko [soma isooko] y’uruzi rwa Nil yakandagije ikirenge mu Rwanda. Bwari ubwa mbere umuntu ufite uruhu rwera ageze mu gihugu. Kuva ubwo amateka y’u Rwanda yahindutse bidasubirwaho biturutse ku bavamahanga b’abera bakomeje kwisukiranya mu gihugu, binjira mu mitegekere yacyo n’imibereho bwite y’abagituye, gahoro gahoro u Rwanda rugenda ruva ibuntu kugera rwisanze ibuzimu.

Kuba u Rwanda hari igihe rwigeze gucura intimba n’imiborogo kugeza ruhindutse umuyonga mu 1994, ku ikubitiro byagizwemo uruhare ntagereranwa n’abera kuva mu gihe cy’ubukoloni ubwo basenyaga ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda, biteza umwiryane ndetse n’izindi ngaruka zashegeshe igihugu mu nzego zose.

Uko ubuso bw’u Rwanda bungana ubu, bwagabanutseho kimwe cya gatatu ugereranyije n’uko rwanganaga mbere y’ubukoloni. Mbere yabwo kandi ntabwo Abanyarwanda barebanaga mu ndorerwamo y’amoko nk’uko biri ubu, tutirengagije uburyo abo bakoloni bayobeje imitekerereze y’abaturarwanda mu buryo dusobanura aha hasi.

Yewe n’igihe bahereye u Rwanda ubwigenge, bwagumye mu magambo gusa, ariko mu bikorwa biba ukundi. Kuva Gregoire Kayibanda yafata ubutegetsi kugera ku ngoma y’Abatabazi yaje isimbura iya Habyarimana Juvenal mu 1994, leta zose zayoboye u Rwanda zakunze kujya zikorera mu kwaha kw’abazungu, baziha umurongo ngenderwaho.

Kayibanda yakoreye mu kwaha kw’Ababiligi kuva yajya ku butegetsi tariki 26 Ukwakira 1961 asimbuye Mbonyumutwa Dominique wayoboye imyaka ibiri y’inzibacyuho nyuma y’ihirikwa ry’ingoma ya cyami mu 1959. Mu nzego za Leta zo ku ngoma ya Kayibanda harimo abayobozi b’Ababiligi byavugwaga ko batanga ubufasha mu bya tekiniki, nyamara bavugaga rikijyana ndetse na Kayibanda ubwe abumvira nk’uko umwana yumvira umubyeyi.

Tariki 5 Nyakanga 1973 Habyarimana yaje gukora kudeta, ahirika Kayibanda ku butegetsi, nubwo bari inshuti ndetse yaranamubyariye umwana muri batisimu. Habyarimana yaje gukorera mu kwaha kw’Abafaransa mu buryo bweruye. Yabaye inshuti magara ya François Mitterand wayoboye u Bufaransa kuva tariki ya 21 Gicurasi 1981 kugera ku ya 15 Gicurasi 1995 nawe yamwumviraga nk’uko umwana yumvira se.

Guhabwa ubwigenge byaje nyuma y’imyaka irenga 50 y’ubuhake ku bazungu mu gihe cy’ubukoloni yaje gukurikirwa n’indi myaka 30 yaranzwe n’ingaruka zari zifite inkomoko ku bukoloni ndetse n’isura yabwo nshya bwafashe nyuma ya 1962. U Rwanda rwamaze imyaka irenga 90 rubayeho mu buryo bw’agahomamunwa, mu bihe byaranzwe n’ivanguramoko, itotezwa, guhezwa hanze y’igihugu kwa bamwe, ubwicanyi, gutonesha n’ibindi byinshi bisa nabyo bituma umunsi w’ubwigenge ukwiye kutubera uwo gutekereza aho twavuye bityo tukamenya neza aho tugana ndetse n’abo turi bo.

U Rwanda rwarahungabanyijwe, rwaragambaniwe ndetse rurasenywa ruranasakamburwa na bene rwo biturutse ku ikubitiro no kuyobywa n’abazungu mu gihe cy’ubukoloni bwadusigiye ingaruka zikurikira:

Kayibanda na Habyarimana bari inshuti z’akadasohoka, basangira akabisi n’agahiye ndetse babyarirana n’abana muri batisimu

1. U Rwanda rwatakaje ubuso bunini bwarwo

Mbere y’ubukoloni u Rwanda rwari rugari kurenza ubu, hari igice cyarwo kinini rwatakaje mu majyaruguru ashyira uburengerazuba bwarwo, kuri ubu hahindutse uduce twa Uganda na Congo Kinshasa.

Hagati y’imyaka 1884-1885, i Berlin mu Budage habereye inama yahuje ibihugu byakolonizaga ibindi ku Isi, igamije gutera imirwi Afurika. Mu 1910-1912 bagennye imipaka mishya, maze bambura agaciro imbaraga z’abami bamaze imyaka n’imyaniko bakoresha mu kwagura u Rwanda. Igenwa ry’imipaka mishya ryanyaze u Rwanda igice kingana na bitatu bya kane by’ubuso bwarwo bw’ubu, kiba igihombo gikomeye cyane ndetse gikunze gushengura benshi mu banyarwanda bakunda igihugu.

2. Amoko n’umwiryane byarimakajwe, ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda burasenywa

1931 wabaye umwaka w’umwijima ubwo umwami Musinga wari waranze guhakirizwa ku Babiligi bahitagamo guhirika ingoma ye, bamusimbuza umuhungu we Mutara III Rudahigwa. Kuva ubwo Ababiligi bahise batangira gushaka uko bakwipakurura umwami, batangira guhihibikana bacamo Abanyarwanda ibice ubwo baremaga amoko.

Mu gihe byari bimenyerewe ko kuba umuhutu cyangwa umututsi byabaga bigendanye n’amikoro ya buri wese, aho wabaga ufite inka zirenga 10 wahitaga uba umututsi, waba ufite munsi yazo ukaba umuhutu, ibi byaje guhindurirwa isura.

Mu 1932 Ababiligi badukanye indangamuntu yiswe "ibuku" yagendanwaga na buri wese ndetse igaragaramo amoko "Hutu", "Tutsi", "Twa". Gusa mu kumenya ubwoko bwa buri wese mu ibarura ryakozwe bo ntibagendeye gusa ku mitungo kuko banapimaga indeshyo ya buri muntu, iy’amazuru n’ibindi.

Mu kwipakurura umwami n’ibyegera bye, Ababiligi batangiye kumvisha abari biswe "Abahutu", muri macye abari abakene, ndetse bari na benshi mu gihugu, ko abami n’ibyegera byabo by’Abatutsi babagize abaja, kandi bishoboka ko babigaranzura, nuko umwiryane ushingiye ku moko utangira utyo mu Rwanda, byaje kurangira ibyari ibyuya bibyaye amaraso ubwo Abatutsi bicwaga urubozo ndetse bakameneshwa guhera muri 1959 kugera mu 1994.

Abadage n’Abapadiri b’Abera nibo bera ba mbere bageze mu Rwanda

3. Umuco nyarwanda warasenzekajwe

Abakurambere b’u Rwanda bavuze ko “Agahugu katagira umuco gacika.” Umuco Nyarwanda wari ubumbiye mu ndangagaciro na kirazira wahungabanyijwe n’ubukoloni. Ibyiza by’uwo muco wari ubumbiyemo indangagaciro zo guharanira kuba abagabo n’abagore beza b’ ejo hazaza, gukunda no kurinda igihugu n’izindi, byose babitorezwaga mu itorero ry’igihugu.

Mu gihe cy’ubukoloni hari imvugo yasakaye yagiraga iti "Kiliziya yakuye kirazira", aho wasangaga imyemerere yari isanzwe ihuriza hamwe Abanyarwanda igendeye ku bupfura, kubaha, ubunyangamugayo n’ibindi, abaturarwanda bashyizwemo kubitera umugongo bayoboka gatigisimu, ndetse banashyirwamo umuco w’urwango no kudatinya guhemuka byaje kubyara ishyano.

4. Ubusahuzi bw’umutungo kamere w’u Rwanda

U Rwanda kimwe n’ibindi bihugu byakolonijwe byagiye bisahurwa umutungo kamere wabyo. U Rwanda rwasahuwe amabuye y’agaciro arimo gasegereti, zahabu, coltan, ambrygonitena na beryl.

Ababiligi bacukuye ayo mabuye guhera mu 1929 hifashishijwe amasosiyete Minetain i Rutongo mu 1930, i Nyungwe mu 1936 n’i Musha mu 1937. Hari sosiyete Somuki muri 1933, Georwanda na Corem yatangiye muri 1940 na 1946. Amabuye yose yacukuwe aha kimwe no muri Congo Kinshasa, yarapakirwaga akajyanwa mu Burayi mu rwego rwo gutengamaza ubukungu bw’u Bubiligi.

Kuva mu 1949 kugera 1960 basahuye u Rwanda amabuye y’agaciro asaga toni ibihumbi 17, yacukuwe mu birombe 16 byariho mu Rwanda birimo Rwinkwavu, Gatumba, Mushishiro na Rutongo.

Icyo gihe u Rwanda rwahinzwemo ibireti, icyayi n’ikawa byajyanwaga i Burayi kimwe n’impu z’inka nazo zitwarirwaga n’abo bera.

Hasahuwe kandi ibikoresho bifitanye isano n’ubwami mu Rwanda usanga biri mu nzu ndangamurage zo mu bihugu byakolonije u Rwanda; u Budage n’u Bubiligi.

Tariki ya 1 Nyakanga 1962, Abanyarwanda bacinye akadiho bishimira ubwigenge bwa baringa bari bahawe

5. Abanyarwanda mu ntambara ya mbere n’iya kabiri y’isi

Intambara ya mbere ndetse n’iya kabiri z’isi zabaye hagati ya 1914-1918 ndetse no hagati 1945-1949, inkomoko yari ibibazo hagati y’Abanyaburayi ubwabo, ariko izi ntambara zanageze muri Afurika, aho abakoloni barwanaga hagati yabo nkuko byari bimeze i Burayi. Abanyarwanda batari bacye rero barwaniraga mu Rwanda no mu bihugu bitandukanye bya Afurika baguye muri izi ntambara nubwo nta mumaro na mba zari zibafitiye.

Ingabo z’Abadage zari mu Rwanda zitabaje ingabo z’Abanyarwanda ziswe "Indengabaganizi" n’"Iziruguru" zateguwe zihurizwa mu mutwe wiswe "Indugaruga" wari ugizwe n’abasirikari 150. Hiyongereyeho abiswe "Askaris" basaga 2500.

Kurwana izo ntambara byatumye Abanyafurika bavumbura ko n’abazungu bapfa, ndetse bafite n’amaraso nk’ayabo babona ko ntacyo babarusha batangira guharanira kwigenga.

Ubukoloni ndetse n’ingaruka zabwo, kimwe n’isura nshya bwaje gufata nyuma byahombeje byinshi Abanyarwanda, ku buryo kwizihiza umunsi w’ubwigenge tutigeze duhabwa byaba koko ari ukwigiza nkana.

Ubwigenge nyabwo ni ubwabonetse nyuma yo Kwibohora kw’Abanyarwanda tariki 4 Nyakanga 1994, aho ubukungu bw’u Rwanda bwakuwe kuri -11% [11 munsi ya zeru] none kuva mu myaka 15 ishize bukaba buhoro butera imbere ku kigero cyo hejuru ya 6 ku ijana. Ubwigenge nyabwo ni ukuba turi mu nzira yo kugera ku kwigira nyakwo kuko kuri ubu inkunga z’amahanga zifasha ingengo y’imari ya Leta ku kigero cya 38% mu gihe byari 100% ku mwaka mu bihe bya mbere ya 1996.

Ubwigenge nyabwo bubumbiye mu kwiha agaciro gasigaye karanga Abanyarwanda aho bari hose ndetse no kwanga agasuzugura k’ibihugu bishyira imbere politiki ya "mpatse ibihugu". Kuri ubu u Rwanda ntiruvugirwamo, ntirukorera mu kwaha k’uwari we wese cyangwa igihugu runaka.

Umunsi nk’uyu w’ubwigenge, kuwizihiza nyabyo ni ukwicara tukaganira ku mateka yaturanze, ibikomere twatewe n’urugendo rw’inzitane twanyuzemo ndetse tunarushaho gufata ingamba nyazo zo kudasubira inyuma.

Abera babibye mu Banyarwanda amacakubiri, batangira kwishishana kubera ubwoko
Bariyeri muri Astrida yari yarashyizweho n’abazungu bacunga umutekano ku muhanda wa Usumbura-Kigali
Umwami Yuhi Musinga ari kumwe n’ababyinnyi ba Kinyarwanda
Habyarimana yagiye ku butegetsi akorera mu kwaha kw'Abafaransa

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