Ibyo wamenya ku rugamba rwagamburuje Uganda yashakaga gukora mu jisho u Rwanda i Kisangani

Yanditswe na David Eugène Marshall
Kuya 5 Nyakanga 2018 saa 01:30
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Muri iki gihe Isi igoswe n’ibibazo bitewe n’uko bimwe mu bihugu bitagifite inyota yo kubana n’ibindi mu bufatanye n’ubwubahane busesuye. Bimwe byishingikiriza imbaraga bifite mu by’ubukungu, igisirikare n’imico karande yabyo, mu isura shya yo gutsikamira ibihugu bito izwi ‘Hegemony’ mu Cyongereza.

Ni ikibazo kitoroshye ariko kiri kuzamuka cyane mu mpande z’isi yose, kirenze kwitirirwa ibihugu bya kure nk’uko bamwe bashobora kubitekereza. Kuri iyi nshuro turareba hafi yacu, ku gihugu cya Uganda.

Uganda muri politiki ya mpatsibihugu mu Biyaga Bigari

Mu myaka ya 1981-1986 nibwo Perezida Yoweri Kaguta Museveni yari mu rugamba rwo gukuraho ubutegetsi bwa Milton Obote, abifashijwemo na bamwe mu bari impunzi z’Abanyarwanda muri icyo gihugu barangajwe imbere na Maj Gen Fred Rwigema, waje kwitaba Imana nyuma gato yo gutangiza urugamba rwo kubohora u Rwanda mu Ukwakira 1990.

Nyuma y’urupfu rwa Rwigema, ingabo zari iza FPR zahise ziyoborwa na Maj Gen Paul Kagame, ariko na nyuma y’imyaka myinshi, igihugu cya Uganda gikomeza gushaka kwivuga imyato y’umutsindo w’ingabo zari iza FPR-Inkotanyi.

Ibyuya abana b’u Rwanda babize baharanira kubohora igihugu cyabo ngo bakigobotore ubutegetsi bubi bwateguye bukanashyira mu bikorwa Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, izi ngabo zikayihagarika imaze guhitana abasaga miliyoni imwe, byose Museveni yumvaga yabigira icyivugo cye uko bwije n’uko bukeye.

Nyuma y’uko ingabo z’Abanyarwanda ziri mu bafashije Museveni kugera ku butegetsi, kuba mu kubohora u Rwanda barateye baturuka muri Uganda, ntibiha Museveni kwivuga imyato ku gikorwa cyose bagezeho.

Abahugukiwe neza ubuzima abasore n’inkumi b’Abanyarwanda baciyemo mu cyari igisirikare cya Museveni, NRA, ntibazibagirwa ikiboko cyabahoraga ku mugongo n’umugani wakoreshwaga n’abanya-Uganda mu gushaka gusigiriza ibikorwa byabo, mu Giswahili bati ‘Munyarwanda bila rungu haendi’.

Bisobanuye ngo ‘Iyo umunyarwanda utamuvutuye ikibando ntagenda, ntacyo akora’, wakoreshwaga n’abasirikare b’Abanya-Uganda mu gihe cy’urugamba rwo gufasha Museveni.

Nubwo hari abakeka ko abasore b’Abanyarwanda bambutse Kagitumba nk’imwe mu nzira yo kubohora igihugu no gucyura imiryango yabo yari mu buhungiro gusa, ukuri ni uko n’iyicarubozo bakorerwaga, ikidodo n’incyuro byari bibageze kure.

Harimo no guhora bakozwa hirya no hino na Museveni kugira ngo badashyira ubwenge ku gihe, Museveni akaba yarashakaga kubagira nk’agakingirizo k’ubutegetsi bwe, ngo batazatekereza kuzasubira mu gihugu cyabo.

FPR yaratsinze Museveni ntiyagoheka

Itangizwa ry’urugamba rwo kubohora u Rwanda ryahuriranye n’Inteko rusange ya Loni yaberaga i New York mu 1990, ba Perezida Museveni na Habyarimana w’u Rwanda bagwa mu kantu ubwo bumvaga Ingabo za FPR-Inkotanyi zambutse umupaka wa Kagitumba.

Museveni we ntiyiyumvishaga ukuntu abahungu bateguye ibikorwa byabo mu ibanga rikomeye ako kageni, kugeza ubwo bateye igihugu cy’amavuko adahari ngo agire icyo abikoraho, abidobye cyangwa azabone uko abyirata bya nyabyo.

Nyamara hejuru y’ibyo byose Museveni na we yatinyaga Inkotanyi, kuko yigeze kuvuga ati “Nabwiye Habyarimana nti aba bahungu ntiboroshye. Bamwe muri bo nka Fred (Rwigema) bari abarwanyi bacu bakomeye.” Yongeyeho ko bafite ubuhanga bwa gisirikare, ku buryo yibaza niba bashobora gutsindwa.

Gusa muri kwa kwirarira, nyuma yaje kuvuga ko yahisemo gufasha Inkotanyi kugira ‘zidatsindwa ku ruhande rumwe, anemera kumvisha Habyarimana ngo yemere ibiganiro bya Arusha, bitangira ubwo. Nyamara ibiganiro byabaye kubera igitutu gikomeye ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana bwari bwokejwe, nubwo nabyo bitatanze umusaruro.

U Rwanda na Uganda muri RDC

Nyuma yo kubohora u Rwanda no guhagarika Jenoside, Inkotanyi zamenesheje abayikoraga bahungira mu mashyamba ya Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo yitwaga Zaire, hakurikiraho urugamba rwo gucyura impunzi zari zarabaye ingwate yabo muri ayo mashyamba.

Uganda yatumiwe muri urwo rugamba nk’inshuti y’u Rwanda ariko igahora ikubita agatoki ku kandi ishaka ko na none ibikorwa by’indashyikirwa by’Ingabo z’u Rwanda byayitirirwa, mu gihe ingabo zayo zabaga zibereye mu bikorwa by’urukozasoni by’ubusahuzi budafite aho buhuriye n’intego z’urugamba rwariho.

Mu 1999-2000, imitwe nka RCD-Goma yarashinzwe muri Kivu, Uganda nayo iti natanzwe ishinga MLC muri Ituri. Guhera ubwo Uganda itangira gushaka uko yatangira gucengeza amatwara yo kubangamira inyungu z’u Rwanda n’incuti zayo.

Kuva ubwo, Uganda yubaka umubano wubakiye ku gupinga ibikorwa n’u Rwanda, rwaharaniraga kugarura umutekano ahegereye imbibe zarwo na Congo yari icumbikiye abasize bahekuye igihugu, aribo FDLR n’Interahamwe, ndetse n’ibisigisigi by’izahoze ari Ingabo z’u Rwanda bari bakiri ku izima bashaka gukomeza umugambi wa Jenoside.

Muri ibi byose ingabo za Uganda UPDF zirangajwe imbere na Gen James Kazini, muri bwa bufatanye n’ubuvandimwe u Rwanda rwazifuzagaho, zaciye inyuma zigira mu busahuzi bwa zahabu cyane cyane i Kisangani, u Rwanda rurabyanga, kugera ku rwego ingabo z’ibihugu byombi zagacishijeho mu rugamba rwahanganishije ibisirikare b’ibihugu byombi incuro eshatu muri uwo mujyi, hagati ya 1999 na 2000.

Urugamba rwa rurangiza ni urwamaze iminsi itandatu mu ntambara yabaye kimomo, yahereye kuwa 05 Kanama igahumuza ku wa 10 uko kwezi mu 2000, Uganda igakubitwa incuro.

Museveni yahaye Gen Kazini amabwiriza yo gutsemba Ingabo z’u Rwanda

Mu busanzwe Ingabo z’u Rwanda nizo zigaruriye Umujyi wa Kisangani zinawugenzura hamwe n’ikibuga cy’indege cya Bangoka giherereye ku bilometero 12 mu nkengero zawo, nyuma ziza guhaho iza Uganda agace ko kugenzura nk’abavandimwe.

Nkuko Colonel Akhram Hossein wo mu ngabo za Loni yabitangarije Ikinyamakuru Liberation, mu rukerera rwo kuwa 05 Kanama 2000, nibwo ingabo za Uganda zigera ku 7000 zitwaje ibitwaro biremereye, zatunguye iz’u Rwanda, zizimishaho ibisasu bya karahabutaka.

Kuva ubwo rurambikana, Igisirikare cy’u Rwanda gikora ku ntwaro zacyo kirasa kitababariye ingabo za Uganda, gitwika ibifaru bya UPDF karahava, ingabo za Uganda zihatakariza abasirikare n’ibikoresho bitabarika.

Muri iyo mirwano, Ingabo za Uganda zaharaniraga kwambuka ikiraro kiri ku mugezi wa Tshopo gitandukanya Kisangani y’Amajyepfo yarimo Ingabo z’u Rwanda, n’iy’Amajyaruguru yarimo iza Uganda, ariko ingabo z’u Rwanda zizibera ibamba.

Baca umugani ngo ‘Impamvu ingana ururo’, ku cyatumye Uganda n’u Rwanda byumvana imitsi na magingo aya, zimwe mu mpamvu zikomeje kuza isonga ni ukuba Uganda yarashatse gufata u Rwanda nk’intara yayo nyuma y’uko FPR-Inkotanyi ibohoje igihugu mu 1994, ikagarura umutekano n’ituze.

Muri icyo gihe, ku itariki 12 Ukwakira 1999, Col Jean Bosco Kazura (Ubu ni General Major) wari umuvugizi w’Ingabo z’u Rwanda, yatangarije Ibiro ntaramakuru PanaPress ko ibivugwa na Uganda ari amagambo adafite ishingiro.

Col Kazura anatangaza ko ibirindiro by’ingabo z’u Rwanda muri RDC bitari byigeze bihinduka ko kandi byamenyeshejwe Umutwe w’Ingabo Mpuzamahanga ugamije kureba iby’imipaka mu karere k’ibiyaga bigari.

Muri ayo makimbirane yose, mu kiganiro n’abanyamakuru, Col Karenzi Karake (Ubu ni Rtd Lieutenant General) wari uyoboye Ingabo z’u Rwanda i Kisangani, yabwiye The Washington Post ku wa 12 Kanama 2000, ko ibyabaye hagati y’ingabo z’ibihugu byombi nta gishimishije kirimo.

Yakomeje agira ati “Ariko ni bo baturasheho. Twatsinze urugamba kuko abasirikare bacu bazi icyo barwanira. Tugiye gusohoka muri Kisangani tutitaye ku byo Abanya-Uganda bashaka.”

Kuri uwo munsi urugamba rwahagaze ubwo Umugaba w’Ingabo za Uganda, Gen James Kazini yahamagaraga Col Karenzi Karake ku cyombo amusaba ko imirwano yahagarara, ndetse Ingabo za Uganda zigasubira inyuma ibirometero bisaga icumi hanze ya Kisangani.

Ni intambara bivugwa ko yahitanye abasirikare ba Uganda batari bake, inasiga intwaro nyinshi zabo zifashwe n’Ingabo z’u Rwanda zirimo n’ibisasu bitandukanye.

Col Danilo Paiva wo mu ngabo za Loni i Kisangani, ni we watangaje bwa nyuma ko agahenge kabonetse, nyuma y’ubuhuza bwa Perezida wa Zambia, Frederic Chiluba wari ukubutse Kampala na Kigali kubonana na ba Perezida Museveni na Paul Kagame bakaganira ku buryo haboneka umuti urambye kuri iya makimbirane.

Uganda yasabye u Bwongereza inkunga yo gutera u Rwanda

Ku wa 28 Kanama 2000 nibwo Museveni yandikiye Umunyamabanga wa Leta w’Ubwongereza ushinzwe iterambere mpuzamahanga, Claire Short, ibaruwa amusaba ko Uganda yahabwa inkunga yisumbuye ikava kuri Miliyoni 113$ ikagera kuri Miliyoni 139 z’Amadolari, mu rwego rwo kwiganzura igisirikare cy’u Rwanda.

Muri urwo rwandiko, Uganda yavugaga ko u Rwanda rwamaze gutegura umutwe w’ingabo ugizwe n’abasirikare 100.000 wo guhirika ubutegetsi bwa Museveni.

Ibi ariko Minisitiri w’Ububanyi n’Amahanga w’u Rwanda, Ambasaderi André Bumaya yabiteye utwatsi, abwira PanaPress ikorera i Dakar muri Senegal ko ahubwo ari Uganda yari mu macenga yo gushaka gutera u Rwanda.

Yagize ati “Ntituri mu myiteguro yo gutera Uganda na mba, u Rwanda rushishikajwe no gukemura ibibazo rwasigiwe na jenoside, bityo rero nta mwanya rufite wo kurwana intambara z’amafuti”.

Minisitiri Bumaya yongeyeho ko u Rwanda rukeneye Uganda nk’umufatanyabikorwa mu by’ubucuruzi, cyane ko ariho rwanyuzaga ibicuruzwa biva cyangwa bijya ku cyambu cya Mombasa.

Uganda yakurikijeho guhimba ikinyoma cy’uko u Rwanda rwateraga inkunga umutwe wa PRA (People’s Redemption Army), byavugwaga ko wari uyobowe na Col Samson Mande na Antony Kyakabale ngo bashakaga guhirika ubutegetsi bwa Yoweri Kaguta Museveni.

Uganda ndetse ikongeraho ko ingabo z’u Rwanda zari gusatira ibirindiro by’ingabo za Uganda biri ahegereye umupaka wa Kanyabayonga muri Kivu y’Amajyaruguru, hafi n’intara ya Kisoro muri Uganda y’Iburengerazuba.

Igikomeje kwibazwa muri ibi byose ariko, ni iherezo ry’ukwishyira hejuru kwa Uganda, cyane cyane ku bijyanye n’uko iki gihugu gihora gishaka kwiharira ijambo mu karere k’Ibiyaga bigari na Afurika y’Uburasirazuba, gisuzugura ibituranyi byacyo.

Ingabo za Uganda zaharaniraga kwambuka ikiraro kiri ku mugezi wa Tshopo
Ishyamba rya Kisangani ribitse amakuru menshi ku rugamba rwashyamiranyije u Rwanda na Uganda

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