Ibigwi n’amateka by’imodoka z’intambara zizwi nk’ “Ibifaru”

Yanditswe na David Eugène Marshall
Kuya 16 Mutarama 2018 saa 09:47
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Ubusanzwe imodoka nini z’imitamenwa zibarirwa mu byiciro bitatu kugeza magingo aya. Hari izigendesha iminyururu, izigendesha amapine ariko adapfa gupfumurwa n’amasasu ndetse n’imodoka zisanzwe ahanini zitwara abategetsi n’abandi baherwe batandukanye ku isi yose ku bw’umutekano wabo.

Ibikoresho by’imitamenwa kandi byogeye ku Isi kugeza n’aho kuri ubu hari za Kajugujugu z’intambara zikoze mu mitamenwa, inzu zifite ibirahure cyangwa ibindi bikoresho bikozwe mu mitamenwa, kimwe n’uko hari imitamenwa ikoreshwa mu kubika ibintu by’ubutunzi bukomeye.

Imitamenwa ariko nayo umuntu yavuga ko igira imiterere yashyirwa mu byiciro nka bibiri. Harimo ibikoresho bifite ubushobozi bwo kutamenwa kubera ibyuma bikozemo bikomeye kandi biremereye, kimwe n’uko ugukomera k’umutamenwa gushobora no guterwa n’uruvange rw’ibindi bintu byashyizwe hamwe, kugira ngo bibyare ubwo budahangarwa bwo kutamenwa n’amasasu.

Ibifaru bishobora kwifashishwa mu gutwara abasirikare bibajyana mu birindiro runaka

Uko byagendaga ku rugamba mbere y’umwaduko w’ibifaru

Ubusanzwe akamaro k’ibifaru harimo gutwara abasirikare ku rugamba mu buryo butekanye, gushyira ingabo mu myanya yazo mu birindiro, gufasha mu bikorwa byo kuvura inkomere ku rugamba, gukora urukuta rukingira amasasu y’umwanzi ku rugamba, ibikorwa by’Ubutasi ndetse no kubasha kuvogera ibirindiro by’umwanzi bitagoranye.

Nk’uko tubikesha urubuga Musee de la guerre rw’imwe mu Nzu ndangamurage ibitse amateka y’ibifaru muri Canada, ubusanzwe izi modoka z’intambara zijya kwaduka, Ingabo z’Abongereza kugira ngo zigabanye ubukana n’umuvuduko w’umwanzi ku rugamba mu ntambara ya mbere y’Isi, byasabaga ko abasirikare babanza kubaka inzitiro z’insinga zizwi nka senyenge aho bakeka umwanzi hose.

Ikindi bifashishaga kwari ugukoresha imbunda zirasa urufaya rw’amasasu kugirango ruse n’urukoze urukuta rubuza umwanzi gukomeza abasatira, ibi kandi ngo byagize uruhare runini mu guhagarika imbaraga z’umwanzi mu ntambara ya mbere y’isi cyane cyane mu 1915 na 1916.

Uko Ingabo z’Abongereza zatangiye gucura ibifaru

Ibyo ariko Abongereza babibonye nk’ibintu bitazaramba maze bahimba ubu buryo bwo gukoresha imodoka z’imitamenwa.

Muri iyo myaka, Igihugu cy’u Bwongereza cyashyizeho Akanama kihariye mu ibanga rikomeye, kiswe The Landships Committee, maze gahabwa amabwiriza yo gukora inyigo yihuse y’uko hakorwa imodoka z’imitamenwa zakwifashishwa ku rugamba.

Ako Kanama kahise gakoresha ijambo “Tank” nk’ijambo ry’ibanga ry’uwo mushinga. Ubusanzwe Itanki, ni ikigega cy’amazi, muri urwo rwego rero, ngo igishushanyo mbonera cy’igifaru cyari cyakozwe, cyajyaga gusa neza neza n’ikigega kibika amazi.

Birumvikana kubera ko ibifaru byabaga bifite ubushobozi bwo kwihindukiza, kujya imbere cyangwa kuzenguruka impande zose ubu bwari uburyo bwiza bwo kubasha guhangana n’umwanzi, kumugabaho ibitero byihuse no kumusanga aho yabaga yihishe maze bikahamusenyeraho.

Ibifaru binashobora gukora urukuta, bigakingira ikibaba abasirikare bari kujya mu myanya yabo ku rugamba, kimwe no gutwara inkomere bazijyana aho kuvurirwa.

Muri iyi ntambara ariko, ibifaru byanenzwe umuvuduko wabyo ku rugamba ndetse kugeza n’aho ngo abasirikare bagenda n’amaguru babirushaga kwihuta. Ntibyabashaga kugenda ahantu hari ibyondo byinshi cyangwa ngo byurire imisozi.

Sir Douglas Haig wari Umugaba Mukuru w’Ingabo z’Abongereza yabaye nk’unenga cyane ibi byose, anategeka ko hakorwa andi mavugurura kuri ubu buhanga bw’intambara, cyane cyane nyuma y’aho itsinda ry’ingabo z’abanya-Canada zafashaga Abongereza ku rugamba ritakarije ibifaru bitandatu kuri birindwi byari ku rugamba rw’ahitwa Courcellette aho imbunda zikomeye z’ingabo z’Abadage bari bahanganye zamenaguye ibifaru byabo hafi ya byose, hakarokokamo kimwe gusa.

Izi ntwaro ariko ubusanzwe zakoreshaga imitende, zaje kwigirwa amayeri zishyirwaho iminyururu, bigirira akamaro cyane Abongereza mu myaka ya 1918-1919.

Kuva ubwo rero, ibihugu byinshi ku isi byahise bitangira igisa n’amarushanwa yo gucura no gukora izi modoka, ku buryo mu mbaraga igihugu iki cyangwa kiriya kigomba gukangisha ibindi, inyuma y’intwaro za kirimbuzi n’izindi zirasa kure, nyuma kandi y’igisirikare kirwanira mu kirere; amatsinda arwanisha ibifaru yigaragaza mu bigize uburinzi bukomeye bw’ibihugu.

Ibifaru kandi byongeye kwigaragaza cyane mu ntambara y’iminsi itandatu yahuje Abarabu na Israel mu 1967, ubwo ibya Israel byatsimburaga ingabo z’Abarabu mu Butayu bwa Sinai, iki gihugu kikabasha kunesha ibihugu birindwi by’Abarabu bidasubirwaho, kandi mu gihe gito.

Magingo aya, ni kimwe mu bikoresho karahabutaka byifashishwa mu rugamba
Ibifaru byakoze akazi gakomeye mu ntambara ya mbere y’Isi yose

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