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Uburyo Covid-19 yahinduye imiterere y’umurimo n’impinduka zishobora kuzabaho mu myaka iri imbere

Yanditswe na Ndahayo Emmanuel
Kuya 13 Ugushyingo 2021 saa 04:47
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Icyorezo cya Covid-19 cyahinduye imibereho ya muntu mu buryo budasanzwe, ndetse zimwe mu mpinduka cyazanye zishobora kuzagumaho na nyuma yacyo, mu gihe abantu bagira amahirwe cyo kikarangira.

Imikorere y’umurimo ku rwego rw’Isi, igirwaho ingaruka n’ibihe nk’ibi bidasanzwe, ndetse ibi si umwihariko wa Covid-19. Ubwo habaga Intambara ya Mbere y’Isi, abagabo bagiye ku rugamba bituma abagore binjira mu nganda bwa mbere batangira gukora. Ibi niko bikimeze magingo aya.

Ubwo haheruka ihungabana ry’ubukungu mu 2009, abakozi hirya no hino ku Isi bashyize imbaraga ku kazi kabo, bifuza kukagumaho kuko kari butume bagira icyizere cyo gukomeza kubona ikibatunga, ibintu bitandukanye na mbere kuko kuva mu 1990 kugera ejobundi mu 2009, ari bwo abakozi bahinduraga akazi cyane kurusha ikindi gihe.

Kuri ubu rero hagezweho Covid-19, kandi na yo yazanye impinduka zayo. Bitewe n’ingamba zo kuyirinda zashyizweho mu bihugu, abakozi benshi b’ibigo bitandukanye basabwe gukorera mu ngo zabo.

Ahagana rwagati muri uyu mwaka, ibintu byari bitangiye gusubira mu buryo mu bihugu bikize, byiganjemo ibyo ku Mugabane w’u Burayi na Amerika, byari bimaze gukingira abaturage babyo ku bwinshi. Aha rero, byabaye ngombwa ko abakozi bongera guhamagarwa, bagasubira ku mirimo yabo, cyangwa se bagasubira gukorera ku biro nk’uko byahozeho mbere ya Covid-19.

Byari ibihe byiza ariko ntibyari byiza kuri bose kuko hari igice kinini cy’abakozi kitishimiye gusubira ku mirimo yabo. Impamvu ni uko hari abakozi bari baramaze guhindura imyumvire, bamwe basanga kujya gukorera mu biro bitagikwiriye, abandi bakifuza kureka akazi kabo bagashaka akandi kubera impamvu zitandukanye. Izi mpinduka zazanywe n’iki cyorezo mu rwego rw’umurimo zizwi ‘Pandemic Epithany.’

Nk’ubu muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, umubare w’abakozi basezeye ku kazi kabo muri Nzeri uyu mwaka, wageze kuri miliyoni 4,3, aho urenze uw’andi mezi yose kuva iyi mibare yatangira kubarwa.

Muri rusange, kuva muri Mata uyu mwaka ubwo ibikorwa by’ubucuruzi byatangiraga kongera gusubukurwa mu bihugu byinshi bikize, ndetse abakozi bagasabwa gusubira ku biro, Abanyamerika barenga miliyoni 20 banditse basezera akazi kabo. Ibi niko byagenze mu Budage, aho kimwe cya gatatu cy’ibigo by’ubucuruzi byatangaje ko bifite abakozi bacye, kuko benshi mu bo byakoreshaga mbere ya Covid-19 bahisemo kureka akazi kabo. Kugeza ubu, mu Budage hari imyaka irenga ibihumbi 400 ikeneye abakozi bafite ubumenyi buhambaye.

Mu bihugu 38 biri mu Muryango w’Iterambere wa OECD, abakozi barenga miliyoni 20 bamaze gusezera akazi kuva icyorezo cya Covid-19 cyakwaduka.

Ibi ntibiri kuba mu bihugu byateye imbere gusa, kuko no mu bihugu nk’u Buhinde, abakozi bakora mu rwego rw’ikoranabuhanga bagera kuri 23% basezeye akazi kabo mu gihe mu bihugu byo muri Amerika yo Hagati, umwe mu bakozi batandatu bafite imyaka iri hagati ya 18 na 29, yasezeye akazi.

Ibi byanagize ingaruka zikomeye kuko imirimo irimo nko gutwara amakamyo, kuzimya inkongi, kugemura ibicuruzwa, abafasha b’abaganga n’indi myinshi itandukanye, yavuyemo abakozi benshi mu bihugu bikize ku buryo hari ubwo abakozi bashya bakuwe mu bihugu biri mu nzira y’amajyambere. Icyakora imirimo yagizweho ingaruka cyane ni imirimo yo mu rwego rw’ubuzima no kwakira abantu (abakora muri restaurant, utubari n’indi nk’iyo).

Ingaruka z’ibi byose ni uko abakozi bakora bari kuba bacye cyane mu bihugu byateye imbere, aho nko muri Amerika hakenewe abakozi miliyoni 10, by’umwihariko abakora mu nzego zirimo kwakira abantu no mu rwego rw’ubuzima. Ibi kandi niko bimeze ahandi nko mu Budage, ahakenewe nibura abakozi barenga ibihumbi 400.

Uretse abaretse akazi, imibare igaragaza ko hari n’abandi benshi bifuza kukareka. Nk’ubu 95% by’Abanyamerika bagaragaje ko bifuza guhindura akazi bari basanzwe bakora, muri uyu mwaka cyangwa mu mwaka utaha.

Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe na Microsoft mu bindi bihugu byiganjemo ibyo mu Burayi nabwo bwerekanye ko nibura abakozi 41% bagaragaje ko bakwishimira guhindura akazi basanzwe bakora, kuko ako bafite kadahaza ibyifuzo byabo.

Zimwe mu mpamvu zagaragajwe zituma abantu bareka akazi kabo ku bwinshi, harimo kuba icyorezo cyaratumye benshi bagira umwanya uhagije wo gutekereza ku miterere y’akazi bakora, bakabigereranya n’uko bari gukora mu bihe bya Covid-19 (aho bakorera mu rugo), bityo bakanzura ko nta mpamvu yo guhora bajya ku kazi, kuko ibi bijyana n’ubwiyongere bw’umuhangayiko, cyane nk’igihe ukorana n’umukoresha uvuga nabi cyangwa se uhora akunenga.

Hari kandi kuba abantu benshi barigiye muri iki cyorezo ko ibyo guhembwa amafaranga menshi, ariko batamarana umwanya munini n’umuryango wabo, cyangwa se babure umwanya wo gukora ibindi bintu bakunda birimo gukina imikino runaka n’ibindi bibashimisha, bidafite icyo bimaze. Ibi bigaragazwa n’uko benshi mu bakozi baretse akazi kabo, bavuze ko babikoze kuko akazi bari basanganywe katabahaga umwanya wo gukora ibindi bakunda mu buzima bwabo bwa buri munsi.

Niyo mpamvu hari benshi bemeye kureka guhembwa amafaranga menshi, bakemera kujya mu kazi kabahemba macye, ariko kakabaha ubwinyagamburira bwo gukora ibindi bintu bashaka.

Abakora mu rwego rw'ubuzima bari mu bakozi baretse akazi kabo ku bwinshi
Icyorezo cya Covid-19 cyatumye hari abantu bazakomeza gukorera mu ngo zabo na nyuma yacyo

Leta ziri ku gitutu

Nyuma yo kubona izi mpinduka zabayeho mu bijyanye n’imiterere y’umurimo mu bihugu biri mu nzira y’amajyambere, imiryango ivuganira abakozi yatangiye gusaba leta zitandukanye kwita kuri iki kibazo, zigakora amavugurura mu mategeko atuma abantu barushaho kunyurwa n’utuzi bakora.

Portugal ni kimwe mu bihugu biyoboye ibindi muri izi mpinduka. Kuri uyu wa Gatanu, iki gihugu cyatoye itegeko ribuza abakoresha guhamagara abakozi babo cyangwa kubandikira ubutumwa bujyanye n’akazi, mu gihe amasaha y’akazi yarangiye.

Aya mabwiriza kandi abuza abakoresha gushyira igitutu ku bakozi bari gukorera mu rugo, akababuza kuba babatuka cyangwa bakababwira nabi mu gihe wenda hari nk’abana bari hafi aho. Mu gihe ikigo kirenze kuri aya mabwiriza, gishobora gusabwa gutanga amande.

Abasabye iri tegeko bari bavuze ko bifuza ko ryagena ko mu gihe umukozi arangije akazi, ashobora kuzimya telefoni cyangwa kwikura ku miyobora y’amahuriro y’akazi, ariko ibi byaranzwe. Mu gihe gukorera mu rugo byongereye ikiguzi kirimo nka icya internet n’umuriro, ikigo gikoresha umukozi cyasabwe kubyongera mu byo kigenera abakozi.

Ikindi kidasanzwe muri iri tegeko, ni uko umugore ufite umwana, azajya yemererwa gukorera mu rugo nta yandi mananiza, kugeza nibura umwana we agize imyaka umunani.

Minisitiri w’Umurimo n’Imibereho Myiza y’Abakozi muri Portugal, Ana Mendes Godinho, yavuze ko izi mpinduka zigamije gufasha abakozi gukomeza gukora akazi kabo, ariko by’umwihariko, zikaba zigamije gukurura abakozi bafite ubumenyi buhambaye bakorera mu bindi bihugu birimo Amerika n’u Budage, kwimukira muri Portugal kuko ari ho hari amategeko aborohereza.

Imibare ya Leta ya Portugal iteganya ko kwiyongera kw’abakozi b’abahanga, bizazamura umusaruro batanga, bikongera udushya bakora bityo ubukungu bw’igihugu bukazamuka mu buryo bwihuse.

Yagize ati “Turifuza ko Portugal iba ahantu heza hashobora gukurura abakozi b’abahanga bakifuza kuba hano, turifuza kubazana muri Portugal.”

Icyakora uretse Portugal, ibintu bindi nabyo biri kugerageza kuvugurura amategeko yabyo kugira ngo ajyanishwe n’ibyifuzo by’abakozi. Nk’ubu amahuriro y’abakozi mu bihugu birimo u Budage ari gusaba ko iminsi y’akazi yaba ine mu cyumweru, mu gihe ahandi nko mu Bwongereza, bifuza ko amasaha y’akazi yamanuka akagera kuri atandatu.

Ibihugu byo mu Majyaruguru y’u Burayi, birimo Denmark, Finland n’ibindi, bimaze igihe bishyizeho amategeko yemerera ibigo gukora iminsi ine mu cyumweru, kandi ubushakashatsi bwagiye bwerekana koi bi byazamuye umusaruro mu kazi, bigatuma n’abakozi barushaho kugira ubuzima bwiza. Ibi bihugu kandi byungukiye mu kwigwizaho abakozi b’abahanga baturutse mu bihugu nka Vietnam, u Buhinde n’u Bushinwa, ari nabyo Portugal iri kugerageza gukora.

Uretse Leta, ibigo by’ubucuruzi nabyo birimo gukora iyo bwabaga kugira ngo bigumane abakozi babyo. Nk’ubu muri Amerika, ibigo birimo Twitter, Facebook, Google, LinkedIn n’ibindi byinshi bifite imirimo ishobora gukorerwa mu rugo, byahaye abakozi babyo uburenganzira bwo gukomeza gukorera mu ngo zabo, cyangwa se bigabanya igihe bakoreraga ku biro.

Imibare kandi yerekana ko ubwiyongere bw’imishahara ku bakozi bakora imirimo iciriritse yazamutse cyane kurusha ikindi gihe cyose kuva mu bihe by’ihungabana ry’ubukungu ryabayeho mu 2009.

Icyakora ibi siko bimeze muri Afurika, aho icyorezo cya Covid-19, cyatumye umwe mu bakozi batatu atakaza akazi, ndetse mu basigaranye, amafaranga binjiza akaba yaragabanutse ku kigero cya 15% cyangwa bikarenga.

Ibi bivuze ko benshi mu Banyafurika badafite amahitamo yo gutoranya akazi bakunze cyangwa bishimira, ahubwo bagomba gushaka akazi gashobora gusa kubafasha kwita ku nshingano zabo, kabone nubwo kaba ari akazi badakunze cyangwa badashaka.

Ibi biterwa n’uko 80% by’abakozi muri Afurika bakora mu mirimo bigoye ko yakorerwa mu rugo, ku buryo kugira ngo babone amafaranga, ari uko bagera ku kazi kabo buri munsi.

Benshi mu bakozi bo muri Afurika ntibishoboka ko bakorera akazi kabo hifashishijwe internet

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