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Sobanukirwa imikorere ya Banki y’Isi ifatiye runini ibihugu bikennye

Yanditswe na Muhonzire Sylvine
Kuya 1 Nzeri 2021 saa 04:37
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Banki y’Isi ubusanzwe si banki nk’uko izina ryayo ribivuga ahubwo ni umuryango mpuzamahanga w’imari ukomeye ku Isi ufatiye runini ibihugu bikennye n’ibiri mu nzira y’amajyambere kuko ubiha inkunga n’inguzanyo z’amafaranga menshi yo gukoresha mu bikorwa biteza imbere igihugu ikazishyurwa mu myaka myinshi nta nyungu nyinshi itanzwe.

Uyu muryango washingiye muri Leta ya New Hampshire muri Leta Zunze ubumwe za Amerika mu 1944, mu nama yabereye i Bretton Woods yigaga ku muti w’ibibazo by’ubukungu byari byugarije ibihugu by’i Burayi na Aziya kubera Intambara ya Kabiri y’Isi yahise inarangira mu mwaka wakurikiyeho.

Muri iyi nama yari yitabiriwe n’ibihugu 44 niho hashingiwe Banki y’Isi ndetse n’Ikigega Mpuzamahanga cy’Imari [IMF] ngo bifashe ibi bihugu kongera kwiyubaka no kuzahura ubukungu bigenerwa inguzanyo z’igihe gito ndetse n’ubujyanama mu by’imari.

U Bufaransa nicyo gihugu cya mbere cyahawe inkunga n’iyi Banki, ingana na miliyoni 250 z’amadolari, kimwe cya kabiri cy’amafaranga yari yasabwe kandi hashyirwaho itsinda rishinzwe kugenzura ko amafaranga akoreshwa icyo yasabiwe kandi yishyurirwa ku gihe.

Nyuma y’imyaka itatu, mu 1947 iyi banki yahinduye imirimo iva ku guha inguzanyo ibihugu byashegeshwe n’intambara ya Kabiri y’Isi itangira gutera inkunga imishinga itandukanye y’iterambere mu bihugu bikennye n’ibiri mu nzira y’amajyambere, kuko hahise havuka indi Porogaramu yiswe Marshall Plan yahaga inkunga ibihugu by’i Burayi byashegeshwe n’intambara ya kabiri y’Isi.

Banki y’Isi igizwe n’ibigega bitanu

Banki y’isi [World Bank Group] igizwe n’ibigega bitanu mpuzamahanga IBRD, IDA, IFC, MIGA, na ICSID byose bitanga serivisi z’imari, ubujyanama, ingwate, gukemura amakimbirane mu by’imari ndetse no gutanga inguzanyo ku bihugu cyangwa ku mishinga yigenga ikorera mu bihugu bikennye ndetse n’ibiri mu nzira y’amajyambere.

Bibiri muri byo IBRD [Ikigega mpuzamahanga gitsura amajyambere] na IDA [Ishyirahamwe mpuzamahanga ry’iterambere] nibyo bigize Banki y’Isi nyir’izina ‘World Bank’ kuko ni nabyo bitanga inguzanyo n’inkunga ku bihugu yo gukoresha mu mishinga iteza imbere ibikorwa remezo nko kubaka imihanda cyangwa ibyambu.

IDA itanga inguzanyo ku bihugu bikennye aho umuturage yinjiza amafaranga atarenze amadolari 1.085 ku mwaka ikabigenera inkunga irimo kubiguriza nta nyungu ndetse ikabiha igihe kirekire cyo kwishyura iyo nguzanyo, nubwo igihugu cyahawe inkunga cyishyura inyungu iri munsi ya 1% kugira ngo hishyurwe amafaranga aba yakoreshweje muri gahunda zo kuguriza.

IBRD yo itanga inguzanyo ku bihugu biri mu nzira y’amajyambere aho umuturage aba yinjiza amafaranga ari hagati y’amadorali ibihumbi 4 na 12 ku mwaka, bikishyura inyungu nto ugereranyije n’iyakwa n’amabanki asanzwe y’ubucuruzi.

Ibihugu umuturage yinjiza amafaranga ari hagati y’amadolari igihumbi n’ibihumbi 4 ku mwaka byo byemerewe kuguza muri IDA na IBRD.

IFC [Ikigo Mpuzamahanga gishinzwe ubufatanye mu by’Imari] itanga inguzanyo ku mishinga y’ubucuruzi ikorera mu bihugu bikiri mu nzira y’amajyambere naho MIGA [Ikigo Mpuzamahanga gitanga Ingwate] yo igatanga ingwate ku bashoramari bigenga kugira ngo ibashishikarize gushora imari y’abo mu bihugu bikiyubaka.

ICSID yo imeze nk’urukiko rwa Banki y’Isi kuko ishinzwe gukemura amakimbirane ashingiye ku ishoramari.

Igizwe n’ibihugu 189 ariko hari bitandatu bivuga rikijyana

Ibihugu 189 byose ni ibinyamuryango bya Banki y’Isi, bivuze ko ibihugu bitanu gusa ku Isi aribyo Koreya ya Ruguru, Monaco, Cuba, Andorra na Liechtenstein, ari byo bitabamo.

Ibi bihugu byose bimeze nk’abanyamigabane b’iyi Banki aho buri gihugu kiba gifitemo imigabane runaka, ndetse ibifitemo myinshi bikagira ijambo kuruta ibindi, aho usanga ibihugu bikennye cyane ibyo muri Afurika bikunda guhabwa inguzanyo kenshi bisa nk’ibitagiramo ijambo.

Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika niyo ifitemo imigabane myinshi igera kuri 15.76%, ikagira ijambo rikomeye mu myanzuro n’ibyemezo bifatwa n’iyi banki ndetse kuva Banki y’Isi yatangira kugeza ubu, abayobozi 13 bayiyoboye bose ni Abanyamerika.

Ibindi bihugu bifitemo imibagane myinshi ni u Buyapani bufite 6.84%, u Budage 4%, u Bwongereza 3.75%, u Bufaransa 3.75% ndetse n’u Bushinwa bufite 4% , aho bwongereye imigabane yabwo mu myaka ya vuba kuko ubukungu bwabwo bwazamutse kuva mu 2000, gusa n’ubundi ntakibuza ko ibihugu by’i Burayi, Amerika n’u Buyapani aribyo bivuga rikijyana.

Nigeria ni cyo gihugu cya Afurika gifite imigabane myinshi muri iyi banki ingana na 0.77% mu gihe u Rwanda rwo rufite imigabane ingana na 0.09%.

Iyi banki yagiye ishinjwa kenshi n’imiryango itegamiye kuri leta itandukanye kuba igikoresho cya Amerika n’ibihugu byo mu Burengerazuba bw’Isi, bivuga ko ishyiraho ingamba z’ubukungu ziharanira inyungu z’abanyaburayi n’abanyamerika, gusa kugeza ubu iracyayoboye indi miryango mpuzamahanga mu gufasha ibihugu bikennye n’ibikiri mu nzira y’amajyambere.

Intego yayo ni ugukuraho burundu ubukene bukabije mbere ya 2030

Banki y’Isi ifite intego ebyiri z’ingenzi zirimo gukuraho burundu ubukene bukabije mbere ya 2030 ndetse no kongerera ubushobozi abantu bakennye cyane bangana na 40% by’abaturage ba buri gihugu.

Imwe mu mishinga itangamo inguzanyo n’iyo itera inkunga ni iteza imbere ibikorwaremezo, uburezi, ubuzima, kugeza amazi meza ku batayafite, ubuhinzi n’ubworozi ndetse n’uburinganire n’ubwuzuzanye hagati y’abagabo n’abagore.

Iyi banki nk’izindi zose ikenera amafaranga ikoresha mu gutanga inguzanyo no gufasha ibihugu bikennye hagamijwe kugera ku ntego zayo. Ibihugu bikize urebye nibyo biyitunze kuko amafaranga menshi iyakura mu nkunga n’umusanzu ihabwa n’ibihugu binyamuryango cyane cyane ibikize.

Gusa hari n’ayo ivana mu nyungu z’aho yashoye imari cyangwa mu nyungu y’inguzanyo iba yarahaye ibihugu bikiri mu nzira y’amajyambere byagurijwe na IBRD kuko byo bigomba kwishyura inyungu.

Yafashije u Rwanda mu mishinga itandukanye irimo VUP na RDUP

Banki y’Isi ifasha u Rwanda nk’igihugu gikennye bivuze ko ihabwa inkunga binyuze muri IDA, aho iruha inkunga n’inguzanyo mu mishinga y’ubuhinzi, ijyanye n’ingufu, iteza imbere ibikorwaremezo by’ingendo n’ibindi.

Imwe mu mishinga iyi banki yafashije u Rwanda harimo inguzanyo ya miliyoni 200$ yayihaye mu 2019 yo guteza imbere ireme ry’uburezi bw’ibanze, ibikorwa remezo ndetse no kongera ubushobozi bwa mwarimu azishyurwa mu myaka 38, ariko rugasonerwa imyaka itandatu rukishyura inyungu ya 0.75%.

Undi n’uwo yatanzemo miliyoni 225$ yo guteza imbere ingufu z’amashanyarazi, aho igice cya mbere cy’aya mafaranga rwayakiriye mu 2017 nayo azishyurwa mu myaka 38 rugasonerwa imyaka 6 rwishyura inyungu ya 0.75%.

Hari kandi n’umushinga wo guteza imbere ubumenyi [Priority Skills for Growth] yatanzemo miliyoni 270$, uwo kubaka amacumbi aciriritse [Rwanda Housing Finance Project] yatanzemo miliyoni 150$, ndetse n’umushinga wo guteza imbere Imiturire igezweho mu gihugu [Rwanda Urban Development Project-RUDP) iyi banki yahayemo u Rwanda miliyoni 150$.

Banki y’Isi kandi yatanze inguzanyo mu mushinga wa VUP [Vision 2020 Umurenge Program] watangiye mu 2008 ugamije gufasha abatishoboye.

Muri iki gihe cya Covid-19 kandi yagiye igenera u Rwanda izindi nguzanyo zitandukanye zizarufasha guhangana n’ingaruka zayo, aho yaruhaye miliyoni 30$ yo kwifashisha mu bikorwa byo kurwanya Covid-19, irwemerera inguzanyo ya miliyoni 157.5$ yo kuzahura u bukungu, ndetse hari n’ibindi bikorwa byinshi yagiye irufasha.

Nigeria nicyo gihugu cya Afurika kiyifitiye umwenda mwinshi

Iyi banki kuko iguriza ibihugu ifite intego yo kubifasha gutera imbere no kuva mu bukene kandi ikazishyurwa mu gihe kirere, iba ifitiwe amadeni menshi amwe afitiwe icyizere cyo kuzishyurwa n’andi itegereza igihe kirekire cyane.

Muri raporo ya Banki y’Isi iheruka gusohoka muri Kamena 2021, yagaragaje ko Nigeria ari cyo gihugu muri Afurika kiyitiye umwenda munini ungana na miliyari 11.7$ ikaba iya Gatanu ku Isi, aho u Buhinde aribwo bwa mbere bufite umwenda munini ungana na miliyari 22$.

Ibindi bihugu biyifite umwenda munini ni Ethiopia (miliyari 11,2$), Kenya (miliyari 10,2$), Tanzania (miliyari 8,3$), Ghana (miliyari 5,6$) ndetse na Uganda iyifite miliyari 4,4$. U Rwanda rwo ruyifitiye umwenda wa miliarii 3,3$ aho miliyari 2.5$ muri zo zitaratangira kwishyurwa.

Iyi raporo yagaragaje ko umwaka w’ingengo y’imari wa 2020 na 2021 watanzwemo amafaranga menshi mu mateka y’iyi banki aho yiyongereyeho 15% ugereranyije n’umwaka wabanje kubera icyorezo cya Covid-19.

Imaze gutanga umusanzu mu mishinga irenga 12.000

Iyi banki imaze gutanga ubufasha mu by’imari bufite agaciro karenga miliyari 45.9$ n’inguzanyo ku mishinga irenga 12.000. Ifite abakozi barenga 10.000 baturuka mu bihugu 170, ikagira ibiro 130 hirya no hino ku Isi.

Perezida wayo ni Umunyamerika David Malpass w’imyaka 65 wahawe izi nshingano mu 2019 aho azamaraho manda y’imyaka itanu. Igira abayobozi 25 bahagarariye ibihugu binyamuryango bakorera ku cyicaro cya banki bayobowe na Perezida wayo.

Aba bahura kabiri mu cyumweru mu rwego rwo kurebera hamwe uko imishinga y’iyi banki imeze, kwemeza inguzanyo runaka, gushyiraho ingamba nshya kugena ingengo y’imari n’ibindi, mu gihe abayihagarariye muri buri gihugu [ba minisitiri b’imari cyangwa b’iterambere mu bihugu] bahura rimwe mu mwaka.

Iyi nyubako nicyo cyicaro gikuru cya Banki y'Isi. Iri i Washington DC
David Malpass w’imyaka 65 niwe uyobora iyi banki

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