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Intandaro y’umutekano muke mu bihugu bya Mali, Niger na Burkina Faso

Yanditswe na Muhonzire Sylvine
Kuya 4 Ukwakira 2021 saa 10:42
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Ubu hashize imyaka itandatu agace ka Sahel yo hagati kagizwe na Mali, Burkina Faso na Niger kabaye isibaniro ry’ibitero by’imitwe y’iterabwoba ikorana n’umutwe wa Al-Qaeda, Islamic State na Boko Haram byajujubije abaturage, abayobozi barashoberwa ndetse n’Umuryango w’Abibumbye nturabibonera igisubizo kirambye kugeza ubu.

Kugeza muri Nyakanga 2021, Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ryita ku mpunzi, UNHCR, ryatangaje ko muri ibi bihugu habarirwa miliyoni zirenga ebyiri z’abaturage bavuye mu byabo, impunzi zagiye mu bindi bihugu zirenga ibihumbi 300 na miliyoni 6,4 zifite ikibazo cy’ibiribwa.

Umwaka wa 2020 niwo mwaka wabayemo ibitero byinshi, byahitanye abasivile bagera ku 244o, inyeshyamba zishimuta abana, bamwe bajyanwa mu gisirikare, abakobwa bafatwa ku ngufu, zangiza ibikorwaremezo birimo amashuri n’amavuriro, insengero hamwe n’inzu z’ubucuruzi.

Bivugwa ko impamvu z’ingutu ziteza aka kavuyo ndetse n’intambara z’urudaca muri ibi bihugu bitatu byakoronijwe n’u Bufaransa, harimo ivangura rishingiye ku moko no ku idini, ubukene, urubyiruko rwinshi rutagira akazi, kuba ari agace kari mu butayu kagwamo imvura nke bigateza amapfa kandi gakungahaye ku mutungo kamere no kuba amahanga aza gufasha ibi bihugu guhagarika izi ntambara bivugwa ko aba afite inyungu zayo bwite.

Mali ikungahaye kuri Zahabu na Uranium ndetse ihana imbibi na Niger ikungahaye kuri Peteroli.

Ibihugu bitanu byo muri Afuriika y'Uburengerazuba nibyo byibasiwe n'ibibazo cyane

Ibibazo byatangiriye muri Mali

Izi ntambara zatangiriye muri Mali, ubwo abo mu bwoko bw’aba Tuaregs [batuye mu gice cy’ubutayu bwa Sahara kuva mu Majyepfo y’Uburengerazuba bwa Libya kugeza mu majyepfo ya Algeria, Niger, Mali na Burkina Faso] bafite inkomoko muri Mali bari abatoni ku ngoma ya Muammar Gaddafi bagarukaga mu majyaruguru y’igihugu cyabo nyuma y’ihirikwa ry’ingoma ye muri Kanama 2011.

Bajya muri Mali mu Gushyingo 2011 bajyanye intwaro za rutura zirimo imbunda, za misile n’imodoka z’intambara zigera kuri 75 cyane ko benshi bari abasirikare k’ubwa Gaddafi, ndetse baranahawe ubwenegihugu bwa Libya.

Nyuma y’amezi atatu bahageze muri Mutarama 2012, bashyamiranye na guverinoma ya Mali bashaka ko Amajyaruguru y’iki gihugu bakundaga kwita ‘Azawad’ ahabwa ubuzima gatozi, hakaba ubutaka bw’aba-Tuareg bwite bakigenga. Kandi koko baza kubigeraho aka gace barakigarurira nubwo byabaye iby’igihe gito.

Guverinoma ya Mali yatabaje amahanga cyane u Bufaransa, araza afasha igisirikare cyayo cyigarurira amajyaruguru y’iki gihugu. Aba-Tuareg basinyana amasezerano y’amahoro n’iki gihugu mu 2013, ariko bakomeza kwiyenza bavuga ko guverinoma idakora ibyo bemeranyije bakomeza imirwano.

Mu 2015 barongeye basinya andi, ariko nabwo biranga biba iby’ububusa izi nyenshyamba z’aba-Tuareg zikomeza kurwana ndetse byongera ibikorwa by’urugomo muri iki gihugu n’imitwe yitwaje intwaro ya Kisilamu iri mu majyaruguru ya Mali isongamo kugeza n’ubu nta mutekano urahagaruka.

Ubu uduce twinshi two mu majyaruguru ya Mali twiganjemo imitwe y’iterabwoba igendera ku matwara ya Kisilimu ndetse ifite intego yo guhindura uburengerazuba bwa Afurika agace kagendera ku matwara ya Kisilamu ‘Sharia Law’.

Uko Burkina Faso yagezwemo n’ibitero by’iterabwoba

Mbere ya 2015, Burkina Faso cyari igihugu cy’intangarugero mu bijyanye n’umutekano kuko kitarangwagamo ibitero. Gusa byavugwaga ko uwari perezida w’iki gihugu, Blaise Compaoré [wayoboye Burkina Faso mu 1987-2014] yahaga ubufasha rwihishwa izi nyeshyamba mu rwego rwo kurinda ko zatera igihugu cye gihana imbibi na Mali.

Amaze guhirikwa ku butegetsi, nibwo inyeshyamba zo mu mitwe ya Kisilamu zivuye muri Mali iherereye mu Majyaruguru ya Burkina Faso zatangiye ibikorwa by’urugomo muri iki gihugu ndetse muri Mata 2015 zitera bwa mbere iki gihugu zashimuse umugabo w’umunya-Romania zirabyigamba.

Muri Kanama 2015, izi nyeshyamba zateye ibirindiro bya Polisi ya Burkina Faso bihereye hafi y’umupaka wayo na Mali, zimeneshwa ntawe zihitanye, gusa muri Mutarama 2016 zagabye igitero simusiga mu murwa mukuru Ougadougou kuri restaurant yitwa Cappuccino na Splendid hotel yakundaga gukoreshwa n’abasirikare b’Abafaransa, kigwamo abagera kuri 30 abandi 56 barakomereka.

Al-Qaeda yigambye icyo gitero ivuga ko yashakaga kwihimura ku Bafaransa ndetse no ku bihugu byo mu Burengerazuba bw’Isi.

Kuva ubwo iki gihugu cyakomeje kuba kurangwamo ibitero byinshi by’imitwe y’iterabwoba ndetse kugeza muri Kamena 2021 hamaze kuba ibigera kuri 30, aho igiheruka cyabaye mu ntangiriro za Kanama 2021 cyahitanye abasirikare ba Burkina Faso 12 barindwi baburirwa irengero, ni mu gihe icyari cyabaye ku itariki 6 na 7 Kamena mu majyaruguru y’iki gihugu cyahitanye abantu 132.

Niger nayo ntiyorohewe

Niger iri by’ibasiwe cyane kuko iri rwagati y’ibihugu birangwamo umutekano muke, aho mu bihugu birindwi biyiyikikije, bitanu muri byo byibasiwe n’imitwe y’iterabwoba harimo Mali, Burkina Faso, Nigeria yayogojwe na Boko Haram, Libya ndetse na Tchad.

Mu mateka ya politiki y’iki gihugu, cyaranzwe n’ihirikwa ry’ubutegetsi rya hato na hato kuva cyabona ubwigenge mu 1960, aho mu bakuru b’ibihugu 10 bayiyoboye kuva cyabona ubwigenge batatu muri bo bahiritswe ku butegetsi undi umwe aricwa.

Ziimwe mu mpamvu z’ingenzi zituma gikomeza kuba isibaniro ry’ibitero by’imitwe yitwaje intwaro cyane iturutse muri Mali, Burkina Faso no muri Nigeria ni uko ari igihugu cyaranzwe n’ubuyobozi budahamye kandi gifite ubukene bukabije, kuba gituranye n’ibihugu bibamo ibitero byinshi by’iterabwoba ndetse no kuba gifite umutungo kamere.

Kuva mu 2010 nibwo Niger yibasiwe cyane n’ibitero by’iyi mitwe cyane cyane mu gace ka Tillabéri kegereye Mali na Burkina Faso ndetse naTahoua ikora kuri Nigeria na Mali.

Muri uyu mwaka wa 2021 nibwo bwa mbere muri iki gihugu habaye ibitero bikomeye byahitanye abasivile n’abasirikare 508 abandi 101 barakomereka ndetse muri Mutarana kugeza muri Werurwe habaye ibitero byagiye bihitana abaturage barenze 100 ku munsi umwe.

Igitero giheruka cyabaye kuwa 25 Kanama 2021 mu gace kitwa Diffa gaherereye hafi y’umupaka w’iki gihugu na Nigeria, kigabwe na Boko Haram ku birindiro by’ingabo za Niger gihitana abasirikare 16, abandi 9 barakomereka. Mu gihe mu ntangiriro za Kanama muri Tillabéri naho hari hagabwe igitero cyahitanye basivile 32 harimo abana 14.

Kubera izi ntambara zose ibihugu bitanu byo mu gace ka Sahel aribyo Mauritania, Tchad, Mali, Niger na Burkina Faso byakoze umuryango wiswe ‘G5 Sahel’ ugamije gukuraho burundu ikibazo cy’imitwe yitwaje intwaro igendera ku matwara ya Kisilamu yigabije ibi bihugu, kugira ngo byongere birangwemo umutekano ndetse ubukungu bwabyo butere imbere.

Imitwe yitwaje intwaro yibasiye ibi bihugu ni itanu y’ingenzi irimo uwitwa AQIM [Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb] ufite intego yo gukuraho guverinoma ya Algeria ukimika leta ya Kisilamu; MUJWA [Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa] ugamije gushyiraho amatwara ya Kisilamu muri Afurika y’Uburengerazuba; Uwitwa ‘Al-Mourabitoun’ ufite intego yo gushyiraho amategeko ya Kisilamu mu bihugu bya Mali, Algeria, Niger n’Amajyepfo y’Uburengerazuba bwa Libya ndetse na Boko Haram ifite ibirindiro muri Nigeria yashinzwe mu 2002, ikaba urwana intambara yita ntagatifu za Jihad.

Umutekano muke muri aka gace, wateje ubukene abaturage babura ibyo kurya, abandi bava mu byabo
Imitwe yitwaje intwaro yigabije aka gace iha ihurizo Ingabo z'ibihugu byaho

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