Inkomoko y’intambara idashira n’ukuboko kw’ibihangange muri Syria

Yanditswe na David Eugène Marshall
Kuya 12 Nzeri 2018 saa 04:20
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Imyaka irindwi irihiritse Syria ari isibaniro ry’intambara z’imitwe y’iterabwoba n’akarima ibihugu by’ibihangange bihiganiramo ubutwari. Inyungu za buri ruhande, ntizisiba gushyira mu kaga inzirakarengane zipfa umusubirizo ari nako urusimbutse aba impunzi.

Imvano y’intambara muri Syria, si ikimanuka, mbere yayo Abanya-Syria bahoraga bijujuta kubera ubushomeri, ruswa ndetse no kubuzwa amahwemo muri politiki na Perezida Bashar al-Assad wasimbuye Se, Hafez, wapfuye mu 2000 abumazeho imyaka 29.

Ni Perezida wa 19 wa Syria. Abamurwanya rero bakamushinja kwikubira ubutegetsi we n’umuryango we, kandi Abalawite avukamo ari bo bake muri Syria. Babashinja ko ku butegetsi bwabo ubukene bwiyongereye.

Mu 2011, muri Syria ntihasizwe n’inkubiri yo mu bihugu by’Abarabu ‘Arab Spring’, yakohokanye abakuru b’ibihugu byinshi by’Abarabu ku isonga, Muammar Gaddafi wa Libya, Zin Abdine Ben Ali wa Tunisia, Hosni Mubarak wa Misiri.

Ubwo ubutegetsi bwa Assad bwageragezaga guhosha ku ngufu imyigaragambyo y’abashakaga ko yegura mu Mujyi wa Deraa, byabaye nko gukoza agati mu ntozi bituma ikwira igihugu cyose, igamije ko ava ku butegetsi.

Imyigaragambyo ya Deraa bivugwa ko yakuruwe na bamwe mu bana bigaga mu Kigo cy’Ishuri cya Ban, bishyize hamwe bahuza umugambi wo kwandika amwe mu magambo yaseserezaga ubutegetsi bwa Bashar al-Assad ku rukuta rw’ishuri ryabo.

Uko yagendaga ikara, abatavuga rumwe na Assad bafashe intwaro batangira kwirwanaho bidatinze bafata ibice by’igihugu bagenzura. Assad ntiyabarebeye izuba abahukamo abita ‘umutwe w’iterabwoba ushyigikiwe n’amahanga’, bituma havuka intambara ya gisivili.

Uko ibihugu byinjiye mu ntambara ya Syria

Intambara yo muri Syria yarenze kuba iya Assad n’imitwe bahanganye. Ibihugu by’ibihangange byareruye buri kimwe kigaragaza aho giherereye n’uruhande cyifuza ko rwakwegukana intsinzi.

U Burusiya, Iran, umutwe wa Hezbollah, Iraq, Afghanistan na Yemen, bishyigikiye ubutegetsi bwa Assad, mu gihe Amerika, Turkey, Arabia Saudite, u Bwongereza, u Bufaransa n’ibihugu byifatanyije bishyigikiye abamurwanya.

Icyakora si izindi mpuhwe ahubwo ni inyungu zabyo birengera. Nk’u Burusiya busanzwe bufite ibirindiro bya gisirikare muri Syria, mu 2015 bwatangiye gufasha Assad mu bijyanye n’ibitero byo mu kirere.

Iran nayo yohereje amagana y’ingabo na miliyari z’amadolari yo gufasha Assad.

Nk’u Burusiya bufite inyungu nyinshi muri Syria, cyane ko Perezida Bashar al-Assad aherutse kubugabira icyambu cya Turtus, kiri ku Nyanja ya Méditterannée mu gihe kingana n’imyaka 49 nta kiguzi.

U Busrusiya buzagikoresha ndetse bunahashyire icyambu cy’ingabo zirwanira mu kirere no mu mazi.

Ibi birindiro bizashoboza u Burusiya kugenzura ibikorerwa mu burasirazuba bwo hagati, no mu Burayi bwo mu Burengerazuba, byumvikanisha impamvu n’inyungu iki gihugu gisibanira kudakura akarenge muri Syria.

Turkiya ni ikindi gihugu gihora kirekereje muri Syria, cyikanga ko inyeshyamba zo mu bwoko bw’Abakurudi zishobora kubyutsa umutwe zigaharanira ubwigenge bw’intara zabo.

Ibi ngo byatuma Abakurudi bo muri Turkiya nabo bashyugumbwa kubiyomekaho, bigatuma iki gihugu gicikamo ibice.

Israel na yo nk’igihugu gihana umupaka na Syria ihora yikanga ko ubucuti bwa Syria na Iran igaragara nk’umwanzi wa mbere wayo, byazavamo ko ibi bihugu bishobora gutera inkunga umutwe wa Hezbollah, ukaba watunga intwaro zikomeye zishobora kurasa no kwangiza byinshi ku mutekano wayo.

Amerika, u Bwongereza n’u Bufaransa bifite inyungu zihariye mu ntambara ya Syria, mu rwego rwo kwerekana ko igihande biherereyemo kigifite ubushobozi bwo kugena uko ibintu bigenda ku isi.

Kuba Amerika yaba ifite icyerekezo gisa n’icya Israel mu gutsinsura Assad, kimwe n’uko yaba ihuje inyungu na Arabia Saudite ishaka gupfukamisha Iran. Bivuze ko ibihugu birenze kimwe bishobora guhurira ku nyungu imwe muri iyi ntambara ya Syria.

Ntawakwirengagiza ko Syria ari igihugu gikize ku mutungo kamere cyane cyane peteroli, kuba rero ibihugu birwanirayo, birashaka no gusahura uwo mutungo.
Ubukeba bwa Iran na Arabia Saudite

Ubusanzwe aba-Suni bagira imico n’ibirindiro muri Arabia Saudite, mu gihe aba-Shia bagira ibirindiro muri Iran.

Yaba Iran cyangwa Arabia Saudite, buri gihugu gihora gishaka ko gitsintsura ikindi mu karere, ngo amahame kigenderaho mu bya kiyisilamu yimakazwe hose nta nkomyi.

Ni intambara yishe benshi ihitana byinshi

Kugeza muri Werurwe 2018, Ikigo cy’Abanya- Syria giharanira uburenganzira bwa muntu gikorera Londres mu Bwongereza, cyagaragaje ko muri iyi ntambara hamaze kugwamo abarenga 350.900, ubariyemo abasivili 106.000.

Aba ntihabariwemo abandi 56.900 baburiwe irengero bikekwa ko bapfuye ndetse n’izindi mpfu zigera ku bihumbi 100.000 zitabaruwe.

Muri Syria kandi imwe mu mijyi nka Aleppo, Homs n’ahandi yabaye amatongo, mu gihe abataye ibyabo imbere mu gihugu babarirwa muri miliyoni zirenga esheshatu, abakomerekeye muri iyi ntambara bangana na Miliyoni imwen’igice harimo ibihumbi 86.600 bacitse amaguru.

Impunzi zingana na Miliyoni eshanu n’ibihumbi magana atandatu zahungiye mu bihugu bihana imbibi na Syria nka Turkiya, Jordania, abandi bakwira ku mugabane w’i Burayi.

Syria yashegeshwe bikomeye n'intambara


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