Ibitaramenyekanye ku Mbwirwaruhame ‘I have a dream’ Martin Luther King yavuze uyu munsi mu 1963

Yanditswe na Iradukunda Serge
Kuya 28 Kanama 2019 saa 02:41
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Tariki ya 28 Kanama 1963 nibwo Martin Luther King Junior, waharaniye ko abirabura bagira ijambo muri Amerika yagejeje imbwirwaruhame yise ‘I have a dream’ bishatse kuvuga ko “Mfite inzozi’’, ku mbaga y’abakoraga urugendo rwo kwigaragambya mu mihanda ya Washington.

Kubera ivangura bakorerwaga n’ubuzima bubi bwo kutagira akazi n’ubwisanzure bari babayemo, Abanyamerika 250 000 bafite uruhu rwirabura n’abazungu bake barwanyaga ivangura bahuriye i Washington mu rugendo rwo guharanira uburenganzira bwabo.

Martin Luther King wagombaga kugeza imbwirwaruhame ku bitabiriye icyo gikorwa, mu ijoro rishyira ku wa 28 Kanama 1963 ubwo yari muri hoteli i Washington, yegereye abajyanama bamufashaga mu gutegura izo yavugaga ngo bamufashe ku y’uwo munsi.

Umujyanama we witwa Wyatt Walker yamusabye kudakoresha amagambo ya ‘I have a dream’, mu magambo ye yagize ati “Rirasanzwe kandi umaze kurikoresha igihe kinini.”

Marthin Luther yari amaze icyumweru akoresheje iyi ntero ya ‘I have a dream’ mu bikorwa byo gukusanya inkunga muri Chicago ndetse no mu yindi myigaragambyo yari imaze ukwezi ibereye Detroit, ibi byose byatumaga uyu mujyanama we yumva nta gishya cyaba kiri muri iryo jambo.

Nyuma yo kutumvikana n’abajyanama be ku ijambo yagombaga kuvuga yahisemo kuva aho bari bari ajya mu cyumba cye gukomeza kuyitegura yitonze.

Mu magambo ye yagize ati “Ubu ngiye hejuru mu cyumba cyanjye njye inama n’Imana yanjye, tuzabonana ejo.”

Martin Luther king wari wamaze kwemeranywa n’abajyanama be ko atazakoresha intero ya ‘I have a dream’ abifashijwemo na Walker yarangije gutegura imbwirwaruhame ye saa sita z’ijoro ajya kuryama saa kumi za mu gitondo ayisigira abajyanama be ngo bakore kopi nyinshi kandi bazitange.

Kuri gahunda y’uwo munsi imbwirwaruhame ya Martin Luther yari ku mwanya wa 16 nyuma y’indirimbo yubahiriza igihugu, isengesho, indirimbo ebyiri n’izindi mbwirwaruhame icyenda zagombaga gutangwa n’abandi.

Ku zuba ryinshi, mu ikoti n’ipantalo by’umukara, ishati y’umweru Martin Luther King yegereye aho yagombaga kuvugira ijambo atangira kubwira abari aho.

John Lewis wari uhagarariye itsinda ry’abanyeshuri muri iyo myigaragambyo avuga ko ijambo rya Luther King uwo munsi ritari ryiza nk’asanzwe.

Yagize ati “Nacyetse ko ryari ijambo ryiza gusa ntiryari rifite imbaraga nk’andi nigeze kumwumva avuga.”

Ubwo yaganaga ku musozo w’imbwirwaruhame ye umwe mu bari muri icyo gikorwa wari waramubonye avuga ijambo rye muri Detroit witwa Jackson Mahalia yavuze mu ijwi riranguruye ati “Babwire ibyerekeye inzozi Martin.”

Nyuma yo kumva ibi Martin Luther King yashyize urupapuro rwari rwanditseho imbwirwaruhame ye ku ruhande, ahindura imivugire n’uburyo yari ahagaze.

Yatangiye gusangiza abari aho inzozi ze Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika zirimo kubona umwirabura yahawe ijambo, umwana w’umwirabura yicaranye n’umuzungu ndetse ntawe umuziza ibara ry’uruhu rwe.

Benshi bakozwe ku mitima n’ijambo rye aho yagaragazaga ko afite inzozi zo kubona abana bane b’abirabura bicaranye n’abana b’abazungu nta muntu ubahora uruhu rwabo rwirabura.

Abirabura barahohoterwaga! Ku wa 2 Werurwe 1955, Claudette Colvin, umwana w’umunyeshuri w’umwirabura w’imyaka 15 yatawe muri yombi yanze guhaguruka mu mwanya we muri bisi ngo hicare umugore w’umuzungu nkuko amategeko yabigenaga.

Iri hohoterwa ryarakomeje kuko mu Ukuboza 1955, Parks Rosa yafunzwe azira kwanga guhagurukira umuzungu. Byatumye Nixon Richard Milhous wabaye Perezida wa 37 wa Amerika ashyiraho “Montgomery Bus Boycott” igamije kurwanya ivangura mu modoka zitwara abagenzi i Montgomery. Iyi gahunda yo kurwanya aka karengane kakorerwaga abirabura mu modoka zitwara abagenzi yamaze iminsi 385.

Muri iyi gahunda ibintu byarushijeho gukomera inzu ya Martin King itegwa ibisasu nawe arafungwa.

Ijambo Martin Luther King yavuze mu myaka 56 ishize ryakomeje kugaruka ku gaciro k’Umunyamerika utarangwa n’ivangura rishingiye ku ruhu.

Kugeza magingo aya riracyafatwa nk’iry’ibihe byose kubera uruhare ryagize mu kumvikanisha akarengane abirabura bo muri Amerika bakorerwaga.

Ibyafatwaga n’inzozi byabaye impamo kuko ivanguraruhu ryaragabanutse cyane, abirabura b’Abanyamerika bahabwa ijambo kugeza aho Barack Obama yagiriwe icyizere cyo kuba Perezida wa Amerika.

Mu 2013, Perezida Obama yavuze ko “Mfite icyizere ko aramutse (Luther King) agarutse yatungurwa n’ibyagezweho.”

Martin Luther King yabanje kutumvikana n'abajyanama be ku magambo akwiye gukoreshwa mu Mbwirwaruhame ye ‘I have a dream’

-  Amateka avunaguye ya Martin Luther King ni muntu

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. yavukiye i Atlanta muri Georgia muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika ku wa 15 Mutarama 1929.

Bimwe mu bikorwa yakoze byagiye bimugira intwari bigera n’aho yitirirwa imihanda, inzu, n’ibindi bikorwa ku Isi mu bihugu binyuranye ndetse hanubakwa n’amashusho ye mu bice bitandukanye by’iki gihugu, harimo iyiswe “Martin Luther King, Jr Memorial”.

Yahawe igihembo cyitiriwe Nobel mu 1964, yongeye guhabwa umudali n’igihugu wa Perezida mu 1977 n’ikindi cyiswe “Congressional Gold Medal” yahawe mu 2004.

Yaranzweho no guharanira uburenganzira bwa muntu muri Amerika n’ahandi ku Isi akoresheje uburyo bwo kurwanya akarengane akurikije inyigisho za Mahatma Gandhi uzwi cyane mu mateka y’u Buhinde.

Martin, nk’umwirabura w’Umunyamerika yayoboye umuryango waharaniraga uburenganzira bw’Abirabura bavuye muri Afurika bakajyanwa muri Amerika.

Ku myaka 26 yaharaniye uburenganzira bwa muntu, mu 1955 yayoboye igikorwa “Montgomery Bus Boycott” cyari kigamije kurwanya ivangura ryakorerwaga abirabura mu modoka zitwara abagenzi mu mujyi wa Montgomery, aho umwirabura byari itegeko ko ahagurukira umuzungu mu modoka.

Mu buzima bwe yagendeye ku bitekerezo n’ibikorwa bya bamwe byatumye agera kuri byinshi. Abo ni Yezu, Abraham Lincoln, Mahatma Gandhi, Benjamin Mays, Howard Thurman, Hosea Williams, Bayard Rustin, Henry David Thoreau na Leo Tolstoy.

Howard Thurman yari ahagarariye uburenganzira bwa muntu, akaba n’umwarimu waniganye na se wa King muri Morehouse College, akaba yari n’inshuti ye. Ibikorwa bya Howard byatumye aba ikirangirire, agenda amahanga ndetse aza no guhura na Mahatma Gandhi. Ubwo yari umunyeshuri muri Kaminuza ya Boston, King ngo yasuraga kenshi Howard Thurman.

King kandi yanagendeyeho mu bitekerezo bya Mahatma Gandhi na Bayard Rustin. Gandhi uvugwa ni uwarwanyije akarengane mu Buhinde abicishije mu nzira z’imyigaragambyo y’ituze.

Nyuma yo kwiyumvamo Gandhi, yaje gusura aho avuka mu 1959, urugendo yavuze ko rwamwongereye imbaraga mu guharanira uburenganzira bwa muntu.

Martin Luther King yitabye Imana ku wa 4 Mata 1968 ubwo yari i Memphis mu Ntara ya Tennessee.

Uyu mugabo wari ufite imyaka 39 y’amavuko ngo yapfanye hafi agace k’igitabo cye kitwa ‘‘Strength to Love’’, bisobanuye ngo ‘Imbaraga zo Gukunda’ ugenekereje, ijambo ryakomeje gucumita imitima y’abakurikiranaga inyigisho ze, zaharaniraga kwamagana akarengane kakorerwaga abakene bari biganjemo abirabura n’abandi baturage ba Amerika yo mu gice cy’Amajyepfo.

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