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Gusaba imbabazi; intangiriro y’impinduka mu mateka y’Abazungu n’Abirabura

Yanditswe na Ndahayo Emmanuel
Kuya 3 Kamena 2021 saa 02:37
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Mu gitondo cyo kuwa 27 Gicurasi, Perezida Emmanuel Macron w’u Bufaransa yasesekaye ku kibuga cy’indege cya Kigali, yakirwa na Minisitiri w’Ububanyi n’Amahanga w’u Rwanda, mu ruzinduko rw’amateka kuko byari byitezwe ko aza kugira icyo avuga ku mateka ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994; igihugu cye cyagizemo uruhare kuva cyatsura umubano n’u Rwanda nyuma y’uko rubonye ubwigenge mu 1962.

Nyuma yo kwakirwa mu cyubahiro kimukwiye, uyu mugabo w’imyaka 43 yakomereje ku rwibutso rwa Jenoside ruri ku Gisozi, azengurutswa ibice birugize mbere yo gufata ijambo akemera uruhare igihugu cye cyagize mu mateka ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu myaka 27 ishize.

Icyo gihe yaragize ati "Kwemera aya mateka ni uruhare rwacu, ni ikimenyetso kidashidikanywaho. Tubikoze ku bushake, tubyikorera. Ni umwenda ku nzirakarengane nyuma y’igihe kirekire ducecetse. Ni impano ku bakiriho bagifite ububabare baramutse babitwemereye, twafatanya kubagabanyiriza umubabaro."

"Iyi nzira yo kuzirikana, binyuze mu madeni n’impano zacu, biraduha icyizere ko tuzayasohokamo twese dufatanyije. Muri iyo nzira, abanyuze muri iri joro ribi nibo bashobora kutubabarira, bakaduha impano y’imbabazi."

Mu gihe Perezida Macron yarimo kwemera uruhare rw’igihugu cye i Kigali, Heiko Maas, Minisitiri w’Ububanyi n’Amahanga w’u Budage, nawe yarimo gusaba imbabazi ku cyaha cya Jenoside igihugu cye cyakorewe abo mu bwoko bwa Nama na Herero, yaguyemo 80% by’abagize ayo moko kuva mu 1904 kugera mu 1908, bazira gusa ko barwanyije abakoloni b’Abadage babamburaga ubutaka n’inka zabo.

Mu 1904, abo muri aya moko yombi bakoze imyigaragambyo karundura bamagana Abadage, maze mu kwihimura, u Budage bwohereza Lothar von Trotha wari umusirikare ukomeye, kugira ngo ahangane n’ibyo bitero by’abo baturage. Uyu mugabo yaje atanga umuburo w’uko “Buri muntu wo mu bwoko bwa Herero, yaba afite intwaro cyangwa atayifite, yaba atunze inka cyangwa atayitunze, azaraswa.”

Ubu butumwa bwaje gusubirwamo mu mwaka wakurikiyeho, bugenerwa abo mu bwoko bwa Nama kandi nyuma yabwo, ibikorwa bya Jenoside byakorwaga n’abasirikare b’Abadage ku bagize ayo moko yombi.

Ku rundi ruhande, kuwa 27 Gicurasi, mu ishuri ryigishirizwagamo abana bakomoka mu miryango y’abasangwabutaka riherereye i Kamloops muri Canada, habonetse imirambo y’abana 215, barimo n’abafite imyaka itatu, bari bamaze igihe kinini barabuze ariko abo biganye n’imiryango yabo batazi aho bari.

Aya mashuri yari yarashyizweho mu rwego rwo kurandura umuco w’abasangwabutaka, binyuze mu kubabuza kuvuga ururimi rwabo, kwitabira imihango y’umuco wabo n’ibindi, byose bigamije kubigisha umuco w’abazungu, bityo umuco w’ubwoko bwabo ukaranduka gahoro gahoro.

Aya mashuri yatangiye mu mwaka wa 1831 afungwa mu 1996, amaze kupfiramo abana bari hagati ya 3.200 na 6.000, bicwaga n’ibyorezo, inzara n’ibindi bitandukanye birimo kwiyahura no kwicwa n’ubukonje. Abarenga 90% by’abana bize muri aya mashuri bakorewe ibikorwa by’ihohotera, birimo iry’umubiri, iry’ibitekerezo ndetse n’iry’igitsina.

Nyuma y’uko Komisiyo y’Ukuri n’Ubwiyunge muri Canada yemeje ko ibyakozwe na Leta ku basangwabutaka ari ’Jenoside y’Umuco’ muri 2015, Minisitiri w’Intebe w’icyo gihugu, Justin Trudeau, yasabye imbabazi abo basangwabutaka muri 2017.

Mu majyepfo ya Canada, muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, mu ntangiriro z’uku kwezi nabwo amateka yariyanditse, kuko ku itariki ya 1 Kamena, Perezida Joe Biden yabaye uwa mbere wasuye agace ka Tulsa kari muri Leta ya Oklahoma, kabereyemo isanganya ikomeye mu 1921, ubwo abahezanguni b’abazungu biraraga mu birabura bakabarasa bakicamo 300, bagasenya amazu 1 200 yabo, bakongeraho ivuriro, ishuri, insengero n’ibikorwa by’ubucuruzi by’Abirabura.

Intandaro y’ibi yatewe n’Abazungu bari bagose urukiko rwo muri ako gace, barusaba kurekura umugabo w’Umwirabura witwa Dick Rowland, wari warezwe na Sarah Page, umugore w’Umuzungu, gushaka kumuhohotera amukora ku kaboko undi atamuhaye uburenganzira. Aba bazungu bashakaga kwihanira Rowland.

Nyuma yo kumenya ko mwene wabo ari mu mazi abira, Abirabura barimo n’abarwanye intambara ya mbere y’Isi bagiye ku rukiko kurinda Rowland, birangira impande zombi zishyamiranye ariko Abazungu, ku bufatanye n’inzego zirimo Polisi, barasa Abirabura karahava kandi birangirira aho nta muntu n’umwe ubiryojwe.

Ibi bikorwa byose, kimwe n’ibindi byinshi byabaye mu mateka y’Isi, bihuriye ku ruhare Abazungu bagize mu marorerwa yabaye ku Birabura; amarorerwa atarabonewe ubutabera cyangwa indishyi z’akababaro, kandi Abirabura bayanyuzemo bakaba bakirwana n’ibikomere batewe nayo kugeza n’uyu munsi, nyamara ubukungu buteye imbere bw’ibihugu by’Abazungu bukaba bufite imizi kuri ayo mateka yasegeshe Abirabura.

Abazungu ntibakwiye kwigira abarimu b’uburenganzira bwa muntu

Buri mwaka, raporo z’imiryango itandukanye irimo Human Right Watch (HRW) zigaragaza imiterere y’uburenganzira bwa muntu mu bihugu bitandukanye, kandi ibihugu bya Afurika akenshi bikaza mu myanya ya nyuma mu kubahiriza ubwo burenganzira.

Nta gushidikanya ko bimwe mu bihugu bya Afurika bitubahiriza uburenganzira bwa muntu, ariko si byose, ari nayo mpamvu ibitangazwa n’izi raporo byose atari ukuri. Urugero ni raporo ya HRW yakozwe muri 2017, yagaragaje ko hari abantu 11 baburiwe irengero mu Rwanda, batangaza amazina y’abapfuye n’abashimuswe, ariko iperereza ryakozwe n’u Rwanda riza kwerekana ko abo bantu bose bariho, ndetse nta n’umwe washimuswe.

Birumvikana ko HRW itatanze ibisobanuro kuri ayo makosa yangiza isura y’igihugu, kandi ikibabaje ni uko izi raporo zikubiyemo ibyo binyoma, zizerwa n’abazisoma bari iyo mu Burayi, ku buryo usanga intero ari uko Leta za Afurika nta kindi zirirwamo kitari ukwica abenegihugu, bikandikwa muri za raporo n’ibinyamakuru mbega ku buryo umuntu utazi u Rwanda cyangwa ikindi gihugu cya Afurika, ashobora gukeka ko ari gereza ifungiwemo abantu barengana amanywa n’ijoro.

Ku rundi ruhande, uwabona izi raporo ashobora gukeka ko abazikora ari shyashya, nyamara amateka yerekana ko kuva mu bihe by’ubukoloni, Abazungu bahungabanyije uburenganzira bw’Abirabura ku rwego rukomeye.

Nk’ubu mu gihe u Bubiligi bwari bukolonije Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo, abaturage barenga miliyoni 10 bishwe n’abakoloni b’Ababiligi, abandi miliyoni nyinshi bacibwa amaboko n’izindi ngingo nk’igihano cy’uko batakoze imirimo yo kubaka bakoreshwaga ku gahato.

Ibikorwa bya kinyamaswa byo kwica uburenganzira bwa muntu kandi byakozwe n’Abafaransa mu bihugu nka Algeria, ndetse n’Abongereza mu Buhinde, ku buryo urebye neza, usanga ibikorwa byose by’ubukoloni byarishe amahame y’uburenganzira bw’Abirabura n’Abasangwabutaka bakoronijwe, nyamara biragoye kubona kimwe mu bihugu by’Abazungu byayagizemo uruhare bisaba imbabazi, n’ubwo amateka azwi neza kandi n’uruhare rw’abakoloni rukaba ruzwi.

Uretse amateka ateye ubwoba y’ubukoloni, mu bihe bya vuba nabwo Isi yaguye mu kantu nyuma yo kubona uburyo ibihugu by’i Burayi byitwaye mu kibazo cy’impunzi zo muri Libya.

Amashusho y’ibihugu nk’u Butaliyani na Espagne byima ikaze Abanyafurika bashyize ubuzima bwabo mu kaga bambuka inyanja, yakanguye abantu, abereka ko buryo bwose Abanyaburayi birirwa bigisha iyubahirizwa ry’uburenganzira bwa muntu, nabo batabwubahiriza nk’uko babwigisha.

U Rwanda ruhora muri raporo nyinshi rugaragazwa nk’ahantu hatagira uwubahiriza uburenganzira bwa muntu, ni rwo rwafashe iya mbere mu kwakira izo mpunzi zari mu makuba, n’ubwo rudafite ubushobozi nk’ubw’ibyo bihugu by’i Burayi byabanze.

Afurika ni Umugabane w’ahazaza

N’ubwo Afurika ari Umugabane utaratera imbere cyane, hari impamvu nyinshi zerekana ko uyu Mugabane ufite amahirwe y’iterambere mu myaka iri imbere, atakwirengagizwa n’uwo ari we wese, kabone na bya bihugu by’i Burayi.

Kuri ubu, Afurika ituwe na 17% by’Abatuye Isi, ariko ikagira uruhare rwa 3% ku musaruro mbumbe w’ubukungu bw’Isi.

Ibi ariko birimo guhinduka kuko ubukungu bwa Afurika buri gutera imbere mu nzego zose, ndetse byitezwe ko umutungo wa Afurika uzikuba inshuro 10 kugera muri 2050, mu gihe abawutuye bazikuba kabiri, bavuye kuri miliyari 1.3 uyu munsi, bakagera kuri miliyari 2.5 muri 2050, hafi 25% by’abazaba batuye Isi muri icyo gihe.

Ibi kandi bizajya n’uko abaturage bari hagati y’imyaka 25 na 59 ari nabo bari mu cyiciro cyo gutanga umusaruro uzamura ubukungu, bazaba ari miliyari imwe, bakazaba bangana na 23% by’abazaba bari ku Isi icyo gihe, bavuye kuri 12% uyu munsi.

Afurika kandi izakenera kubaka iryo terambere ryose, aho ikeneye miliyari 44$ buri mwaka kugera muri 2050 azatuma yubaka ibikorwa remezo birimo amazi n’amashanyarazi akenewe mu kuzamura urwego rw’iterambere.

Birumvikana ko ibihugu by’u Burayi biteye imbere mu myubakire y’ibikorwaremezo, bikeneye kuzagira uruhare kuri iri soko rya Afurika, bityo bikaba bigomba gutangira guca inzira byemera uruhare rwabyo mu mateka mabi yasegeshe Abarabura, mbere y’uko imikoranire mu bikorwa by’iterambere itangira.

Muri rusange rero, imbabazi ziri gusabwa n’abahohoteye Abirabura n’Abasangwabutaka, zirenze gusa kwicuza ku bw’amabi yakozwe kuva kera, zikagera ku rwego rw’inyungu z’ubukungu, ku buryo ari ngombwa ko ibihugu by’u Burayi byubaka umubano mwiza n’ibihugu bya Afurika mu rwego rwo gutangira kwitegura kubyaza umusaruro amahirwe y’iterambere ari muri Afurika.

Perezida wa Amerika yasobanuriwe amateka yaranze Abirabura biciwe Tulsa mu 1921
Minisitiri w'intebe wa Canada, Justin Turdeau, yasutse amarira ubwo yasabaga imbabazi kuri Jenoside y'Umuco yakorewe Abasangwabutaka bo muri Canada
Perezida Emmaneul Macron w'u Bufaransa yasabye imbabazi ku ruhare igihugu cye cyagize muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu Rwanda
Abadage bakoreye Jenoside abo mu bwoko bwa Nama na Herero bo muri Namibia, aho babajyanaga mu butayu bakicwa n'inzara

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