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Ibyihariye ku ba-Taliban, umwe mu mitwe y’iterabwoba ikize ku Isi, ifite ibikoresho n’imyitozo bigezweho

Yanditswe na Ndahayo Emmanuel, Zigiranyirazo Bajecteur
Kuya 18 Kanama 2021 saa 12:22
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Mu Ukuboza 2001 ubwo Abanyamerika birukanaga Aba-Taliban muri Afghanistan, Isi yose yaketse ko iby’uyu mutwe ufatwa nk’uw’iterabwoba birangiye, na cyane ko iyi ntambara y’amezi ari munsi y’abiri yishe abarwanyi bakuru b’uwo mutwe, abandi benshi barafungwa, intwaro zirafatirwa ndetse n’amatwara uyu mutwe wari warazanye mu gihugu akurwaho.

Aba-Taliban bake basigaye, biganjemo abageze mu za bukuru bari bararwanye mu Ntambara yo kwirukana Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Aba-Soviyete muri icyo gihugu, babuze amahitamo bahungira mu misozi miremire yo ku mupaka na Pakistan, na cyane ko iki gihugu kiri muri bitatu ku Isi byemeraga Leta yabo yabayeho kuva mu 1996 kugera muri 2001.

Ubusanzwe ijambo Aba-Taliban risobanuye ‘abanyeshuri’ mu rurimi rw’igi-Pashtun rukoreshwa cyane muri Afghanistan. Iri zina ryakomotse ku banyeshuri biga amasomo akaze ya Islam bakomokaga mu bwoko bw’Aba-Pashtun bwiganje muri Afghanistan.

Aba banyeshuri bagize uruhare rukomeye mu kurwana intambara yo kwirukana Aba-Soviyete yasojwe ahagana mu 1990, ariko nyuma yo kuyisoza muri za 1992, bisubirira mu mashuri yabo nk’uko byari bisanzwe bigenda mu zindi ntambara bari bararwanye mbere, bakomeza kwiga amasomo yabo, dore ko abatwara igihe kinini kirenga imyaka 14.

Inkomoko y’Aba-Taliban

Mohammed Omar watangije umutwe w’Aba-Taliban, azwiho kuba ari indwanyi ikomeye cyane yagize uruhare rufatika mu kwirukana Aba-Soviyeti, ndetse akaba ari umwe mu bari barahawe amasomo y’imirwano muri Pakistan kugira ngo azarwane muri iyo ntambara.

Urwego rw’Ubutasi rwa Pakistan (ISI) rwagize uruhare rufatika muri iyi ntambara kuko rwatinyaga ko Aba-Soviyeti nibaramuka bigaruriye Afghanistan, bazakurikizaho Pakistan, dore ko ibi bihugu by’ibituranyi bisangiye umuco ndetse bikaba byarahoze ari igihugu kimwe mu gihe kirenga imyaka 2000, mbere y’uko Abakoloni b’Abongereza batandukanya impande zombi.

Ku rundi ruhande, Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika zagize uruhare muri iyi ntambara kuko zitifuzaga ko Aba-Soviyete bagira uruhare muri icyo gice cy’Isi, dore ko ibihugu byombi byari bigihanganye mu buryo bufatika mu Ntambara y’Ubutita.

Amerika yafashije Abarwanyi baje kuvamo Aba-Taliban, binyuze mu kubaha ibitabo bishishikariza urubyiruko kurwanya abanyamahanga batera igihugu cyabo, icyo gihe bakaba bari Aba-Soviyete, ariko baza kuba Abanyamerika kuva muri 2001 ubwo icyo gihugu cyateraga Afghanistan.

Nyuma y’izi ntambara, ari nabwo Aba-Taliban benshi bisubiriraga mu mashuri yabo, benshi muri abo barwanyi, barimo na Muhammed Omar, bari biteze ko nyuma yo kwirukana abanyamahanga, Afghanistan izaba igihugu kigendera ku mahame akaze ya Islam, kandi ibyo bikazakorwa na Leta yari bushyirweho icyo gihe.

Ibi ariko siko byagenze kuko nyuma y’iyi ntambara, abarwanyi b’imitwe itandukanye yayigizemo uruhare, bananiwe kumvikana ku muntu ugomba kuyobora igihugu, batangira kugicamo ibice aho buri karere kayoborwaga n’umutwe runaka, rimwe na rimwe akarere kakayoborwa n’imitwe irenze ibiri, ugasanga biragora abaturage cyane kuko mu gihugu hari bariyeri nyinshi zikoreshwa mu kwishyuza abaturage imisoro n’ibindi nk’ibyo.

Ibihugu birimo Pakistan, Iran na Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Abarabu byari bifite ukuboko muri izo mvururu, buri ruhande rufite umutwe rushyigikiye.

Uretse kwishyuza imisoro kuri bariyeri, iyi mitwe yanazikoreshaga mu bikorwa by’urugomo, birimo gufata ku ngufu abagore no kwambura ibicuruzwa by’abaturage. Ibi byaterwaga n’uko abarwanyi nabo babaga bashonje, kandi ubuyobozi bwabo butabafiteho ububasha busesuye ku buryo bababuza ibyo bikorwa.

Imwe muri bariyeri z’iyi mitwe yari hafi y’ishuri ry’Aba-Taliban, maze rimwe abarinzi bayo baza gufata umugore ku ngufu barangije baramwica, banamujungunya mu rugo rw’Aba-Taliban bari hafi aho. Ibi byarakaje Omar wari mu barimu b’iryo shuri ariko asabwa na bagenzi be kwihangana, gusa uku kwihangana kwashyizweho akadomo ubwo abarinzi ba bariyeri bongeraga kwica umwana w’umuhungu w’imyaka 14, bakongera kumuta mu rugo rw’ishuri ry’Aba-Taliban.

Ibi byatumye Omar wari usanzwe ari umurwanyi w’akataraboneka yongera kwegura intwaro, abwira abanyeshuri be ko atakwihanganira uru rugomo, ababwira ko niyo batamufasha muri urwo rugamba, azarurwana ari wenyine byaba ngombwa akarugwamo, aho kugira ngo akomeze kurebera ayo mabi.

Abanyeshuri bari munsi ya 50 baramukurikiye, batangirira intambara yabo kuri bariyeri zari zikikije ishuri ryabo, barushaho kwigwizaho abayoboke biganjemo abarwanye mu ntambara yo kwirukana Aba-Soviyeti ariko batari bafite uruhande babogamiyeho, ndetse n’abandi basore biganjemo abari mu buzima bubi mu nkambi.

Nyuma y’imyaka ibiri, Aba-Taliban bari bamaze kuba umutwe ukomeye wigaruriye bibiri bya gatatu by’ubuso bwa Afghanistan, baranigaruriye Umurwa Mukuru wa Kabul.

Mu ntangiriro, abaturage bari bakunze Aba-Taliban cyane kuko bababonaga nk’igisubizo kizabakiza abarwanyi benshi babajujubyaga amanywa n’ijoro, ndetse imiryango myinshi yemera kohereza abana bayo ku rugamba.

Iyi sura nziza ariko yahindanye mu mpera za 1995, ubwo Aba-Taliban bagerageza kwigarurira Umurwa Mukuru wa Kabul ariko bikabananira. Uyu mutwe wiraye mu baturage utangira kubica, bituma abari bawufitiye impuhwe ziyoyoka, uretse ko wakomeje kugira igikundiro kuko wavugaga ko ugamije kubaka Leta igendera ku mahame akaze ya Islam.

Bakoze mu jisho Amerika

Nyuma yo kwigarurira ubutegetsi, Aba-Taliban bari bayoboye kimwe mu bihugu byari mu bukene bukabije, aho 80% by’abaturage bari munsi y’umurongo w’ubukene, mu gihe 25% by’abana bavuka bapfaka batarageza ku myaka itanu, ari nacyo gihugu cyari kiyoboye ibindi ku Isi mu kugira umubare munini w’abana bapfa bataruzuza imyaka itanu.

Nubwo byari bimeze gutya ariko, Leta y’Aba-Taliban ntiyifuzaga inkunga z’amahanga yafataga nk’izigamije gushishikariza abaturage gukunda Idini ry’Abakirisitu, na cyane ko abakozi b’Umuryango w’Abibumbye n’indi myinshi yakoreraga muri icyo gihugu, bari Abakirisitu.

Muri icyo gihe abagore babujijwe kwiga no gukora, bagategekwa kwambara bakikwiza kuva hasi kugera hejuru, kandi bakagenda mu ruhame baherekejwe n’umugabo cyangwa abandi bantu ba hafi mu muryango.

Ku rundi ruhande, bitewe n’uko uyu mutwe utari ufitanye imikoranire myiza n’ibindi bihugu mu bucuruzi, wateje imbere ubuhinzi bw’ibiyobyabwenge, ari nabwo wakoreshaga ubona amafaranga yawufashaga mu bikorwa byawo. Byageze ku rwego uyu mutwe wasabaga abaturage kurandura imyaka yabo bagahinga ibihingwa bitandukanye bizakorwamo ibiyobyabwenge.

Mu gihe cy’ubuyobozi bw’uyu mutwe kandi, wahaye rugari indi mitwe y’iterabwoba irimo nka Al Qaeda, aho Umuyobozi wayo, Osam Bin Laden, ari ho yari atuye ndetse anahakorera.

Afghanistan niyo yateguriwemo ibitero byasenye inyubako za World Trade Center, ari nayo mpamvu nyuma y’ukwezi iri sanganya ribaye, Amerika yinjiye muri icyo gihugu igamije kurandura Umutwe wa Al-Qaeda, ndetse no gukuraho Leta y’Aba-Taliban yawushyigikiye.

Aba-Taliban ntibigeze bitambika Amerika, kuko bahunze bakigira mu misozi miremire iri ku mupaka wa Afghanistan na Pakistan, bagatangira kongera kwisuganya bigisha urubyiruko icengezamatwara ryabo, ari nako bakomeza guteza imbere ubuhinzi bw’ibiyobyabwenge n’ubucukuzi butemewe bw’amabuye y’agaciro, dore ko ari byo byakunze gutunga uyu mutwe kuva wabona izuba, hakiyongeraho n’inkunga z’ibihugu by’amahanga.

Abayobozi b’uyu mutwe bakunze kwicwa n’indege za Amerika, icyakora ikitarigeze gishidikanywaho ni uko hari igihe cyari buzagere Abanyamerika bakava muri Afghanistan, kandi uyu mutwe wari wizeye ko utahagarikwa n’ingabo za Leta ya Afghanistan nubwo zabarushaga umubare w’ingabo, ibikoresho, imyitozo n’ibindi bya ngombwa mu gutsinda urugamba.

Icyo gihe cyageze muri uku kwezi, ubwo ingabo z’Abanyamerika zamaraga kuva muri Afghanistan nyuma y’imyaka 20, aho zatakaje abasirikare barenga 2400, miliyari 2000$ zigatikira, ibihumbi 300 by’abasirikare, barenga 90% by’abagize igisirikare cya Afghanistan bagahabwa imyitozo, ariko byose bikarangira Aba-Taliban bafashe igihugu mu kanya nk’ako guhumbya.

Aba-Taliban mu isura nshya

Mu rwego rwa gisirikare, Aba-Taliban ba kera batandukanye n’abo turi kubona uyu munsi. Kuri ubu aba barwanyi ni amasura mashya, ndetse bikagaragara ko bafite imyitozo ikomeye kurusha ibisekuru byababanjirije.

Aba-Taliban bafite umutwe udasanzwe wa gisirikare, ushobora kwitabazwa aho rukomeye, ndetse bakagira intwaro zigezweho kandi nshya, bitandukanye n’abarwanyi ba kera bakoreshaga intwaro zishaje.

Uyu mutwe kandi urakize bitari iby’imikino, kuko mu mwaka ushize wabarirwaga imitungo ifite agaciro ka miliyari 1.6$, ivuye kuri miliyoni 400$ mu 2016. Ibi bituma uyu mutwe uza mu mitwe y’iterabwoba ikize ku Isi. Aba-Taliban kandi bafite abasikare benshi kurusha mbere, aho bikekwa ko bafite abagera ku bihumbi 200.

Uyu mutwe wabashije kugabanya amafaranga wakuraga mu nkunga z’amahanga, aho agize 15% by’ingengo y’imari yawo, nyamara yarahoze ari hejuru ya 80% mu myaka ya za 1990. Umutungo mwinshi w’uyu mutwe ukomoka mu bucukuzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro butemewe ndetse mu bucuruzi bw’ibiyobyabwenge, byose bikaba ari ibikorwa wigengaho, bishobora kuwutunga no mu gihe inkunga z’amahanga zahagarara.

Kuri ubu uyu mutwe uyobowe na Haibatullah Akhundzada, wabaye Umuyobozi w’Ikirenga mu 2016, nyuma y’uko indege za Amerika zirashe Akhtar Mohammad Mansour wari Umuyobozi w’uwo mutwe. Undi uri mu bayobozi bakomeye b’uyu mutwe ni Abdul Gani Baradar ukuriye Ishami rya Politiki ry’uyu mutwe, akaba ari nawe wari uwuhagarariye mu biganiro wagiranye na Leta Afghanistan nubwo bitatanze umusaruro wari witezwe. Uyu mugabo ni umwe mu bari abajyanama ba Omar washinze Aba-Taliban.

Uyu mutwe uvuga ko uzanye impinduramatwara zitandukanye n’izo wari ufite ubwo wafataga ubutegetsi kuva mu 1996 kugera mu 2001. Abayobozi bawo bumvikanye basaba abarimo abagore gusubira mu mirimo yabo, ndetse bakavuga ko bazabareka bagakomeza ibikorwa birimo kwiga, uretse ko abakurikirana iby’iki kibazo bavuga ko ibi byose bishobora kuba ari amatakirangoyi agamije gutuma uyu mutwe wemerwa ku ruhando mpuzamahanga.

Aba-Taliban ntibaratangaza Leta izayobora igihugu, ariko ikizwi ni uko izaba igendera ku mahame akaze ya Islam, icyakora bikavugwa ko ishobora kuzaba irimo n’abandi bantu batari basanzwe muri uyu mutwe.

Gani Baradar ni umwe mu bahabwa amahirwe yo kuzayobora Afghanistan, asimbuye Perezida Ashraf Ghani wahungiye muri Tajikistan.

Abayobozi b'Aba-Taliban bari mu Biro Bikuru byakoreragamo Perezida Ashraf Ghani wari umaze kubihunga

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