Icyo Raporo ya ‘Komisiyo ya Duclert’ yagaragaje ku nyito ya ‘Jenoside ebyiri’ yatangijwe na François Mitterrand

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 12 Mata 2021 saa 10:10
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Imvugo y’uko mu Rwanda habaye Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi n’iyakorewe Abahutu ni imwe mu zakunze kuba intwaro ikomeye y’abahakana n’abapfobya Jenoside nyirizina yakorewe Abatutsi, ahanini hagamijwe guhunga no guhisha uruhare rwa bamwe muri ayo mahano yahitanye Abatutsi basaga miliyoni.

Raporo nshya iherutse gushyirwa hanze na Komisiyo yashyizweho n’u Bufaransa ngo igaragaze uruhare rw’icyo gihugu muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, yakuriye inzira ku murima abakwirakwiza imvugo ya ‘Jenoside ebyiri’ yatangiriye mu Bufaransa mu gihe Jenoside yakorwaga na nyuma yayo.

Iyi raporo yashyikirijwe Perezida Emmanuel Macron tariki 26 Werurwe 2021, ivuga ko “u Bufaransa bwakomeje gukina n’amagambo Jenoside, hamwe bugaragaza ko ibyabaye mu Rwanda ari Jenoside ubundi bukavuga ko ari ubwicanyi bwakozwe ku mpande zombi”.

Urwo rujijo rwo kudahuza kw’abayobozi b’u Bufaransa ku nyito z’ibyaberaga mu Rwanda guhera muri Mata 1994, raporo ivuga ko aribyo byatumye kugeza muri Kamena 1994 ubwo icyo gihugu cyoherezaga mu Rwanda abasirikare muri Opération Turquoise bafite inshingano zo gutabara abicwaga, nta musaruro byatanze kuko ubutumwa bari boherejwemo butari busobanutse kuko igihugu cyabo nta murongo uhamye cyari gifite ku byaberaga mu Rwanda nubwo byasaga nko kwirengagiza kuko amakuru yose yari azwi.

‘Nyuma y’icyumweru Jenoside ibaye, u Bufaransa bwari buzi ibibera mu Rwanda’

Tariki 15 Mata 1994, Perezida François Mitterrand yahuye n’uwari Umugaba Mukuru w’Ingabo, Amiral Jacques Lanxade. Raporo ya Komisiyo ya Duclert ivuga ko icyo gihe ubutegetsi bwa Mitterrand aribwo bwatangiye guhuzagurika ku byaberaga mu Rwanda.

Icyo gihe Mitterrand yagize ati “Twabonye uburyo ririya hanurwa ry’indege ya Perezida Habyarimana ryakongeje ubwicanyi buhuriweho.” Icyo gihe yabajije Amiral Lanxade niba abona ubwo bwicanyi bushobora gufata indi ntera. Lanxade amusubiza ati “Birashoboka cyane rwose ariko kuri iyi nshuro, ni abatutsi bazica abahutu muri Kigali.”

Mu nama yamuhuje n’inzego z’umutekano tariki 22 Mata 1994, Perezida François Mitterrand bwo yabaye nk’usobanura ko ibiri kubera mu Rwanda ari Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi ariko mu mbwirwaruhame n’inyandiko zigenewe rubanda, banga kugira aho babigaragaza.

Raporo Duclert igaragaza ko kuri iyo tariki Mitterrand yagize ati “Tugomba kwamagana Jenoside iri gukorwa n’abahutu. Bafashwe n’ibisazi nyuma y’urupfu rwa Perezida Habyarimana”.

Perezida Mitterrand na Amiral Lanxade wari Umugaba Mukuru w'Ingabo

Uwari Minisitiri w’Ububanyi n’Amahanga w’u Bufaransa, Alain Juppé, tariki 18 Gicurasi uwo mwaka, yabwiye abadepite ko ibiri kubera mu Rwanda ari ‘irimburabwoko bihuye neza n’igisobanuro cya Jenoside. Niyo mpamvu maze iminsi ndikoresha kuko rihuye neza n’ibiri kubera mu Rwanda. Kubera kugarizwa n’ibitero bya FPR, ingabo za Guverinoma y’u Rwanda ziraye mu kurimbura abatutsi ari nabyo byatumye ubwicanyi bwiyongera.”

Dr Vincent Duclert na bagenzi be, bavuze ko iyi mvugo ya Alain Juppé iyobya nubwo yemera ko ibyabaga byari Jenoside. Bavuga ko usesenguye ibyo yavugaga, wakeka ko Abatutsi bibasiwe kubera ibitero bya FPR, bitandukanye n’ibisobanuro bya Jenoside ko ari umugambi wateguwe wo kurimbura gice runaka cy’abantu.

Tariki ya 1 Kamena 1994, Alain Juppé yasubiye mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko, noneho avuga ko ibiri kubera mu Rwanda ari ‘ubwicanyi’.

Ati “Twamaganye ubwicanyi bwakozwe ku mpande zombi duhereye ko Nterahamwe ziri kwica mu bice biri mu maboko ya Guverimoma.”

Muri iyo mvugo, Alain Juppé wari umuvugizi wa Guverinoma y’u Bufaransa yumvikanishije ko abatutsi n’abahutu bari kwicana, mu gihe abatutsi aribo bari bari guhigwa, bicwa mu bice byose by’igihugu.

Raporo Duclert igaragaza kandi ko impamvu u Bufaransa bwagenderaga kure inyito nyayo ya Jenoside, bwirindaga inshingano zikurikira kubitangaza zirimo gufata ingamba zigamije kuyihagarika.

Tariki 13 Kamena, Alain Juppé yagiye mu nama i Luxembourg yongera gutera urujijo kuko yongeye kuvuga ko ibiri kuba ari Jenoside.

Ati “Ntabwo dushobora kwihanganira ko Jenoside ikomeza gukorwa, nkoresheje iyi mvugo nanone kuko nemera ko kuri ubu hariho umugambi wo kurimbura ubwoko bumwe.”

Icyakora, akenshi iyo Juppé yakoreshaga ijambo ‘Jenoside’, ntabwo yabaga ashaka kuvuga iyari iri gukorerwa abatutsi.

Nko mu nyandiko yoherereje ikinyamakuru La Liberation igasohoka kuwa 16 Kamena 1994 yagize ati “Tugomba kuvuga ko ari Jenoside kuko hari umugambi w’interahamwe mu bice bigenzurwa na Leta, wo kurimbura abatutsi, abagabo, abagore, abana, abanyamadini kubera ubwoko bwabo. Ku rundi ruhande, hari intambara y’ubutegetsi aho abatavuga rumwe na Leta babaye inzirakarengane za mbere z’abahezanguni b’abahutu n’aho ingabo za FPR zamaze gufata”.

Yakomeje agira ati “Ni ngombwa ko abakoze izo Jenoside bagezwa imbere y’ubutabera.”

Mitterrand na Alain Juppé bagaruka kenshi muri raporo Duclert nk'abatangiye bahuzagurika ku nyito y'ibyabereye mu Rwanda

Duclert na bagenzi be muri raporo bavuga ko iyo mvugo y’uko abahutu n’abatutsi bari kwicana, yari ifitwe n’abari ibyegera bya Perezida Mitterrand bose bashaka gushimangira ko FPR Inkotanyi ari ishyaka rigamije kwimakaza ubutegetsi bw’Abatutsi mu karere (Tutsiland).

U Bufaransa bwanze kwemera Leta ya FPR, Mitterrand akomeza kwinangira

Tariki 7 na 8 Ugushyingo 1994, i Biarritz mu Bufaransa habereye inama ya 18 ihuza abakuru b’ibihugu na Guverinoma za Afurika n’u Bufaransa. Yitabiriwe n’abakuru b’ibihugu 35 bya Afurika yiga kuri demokarasi, iterambere n’umutekano.

Mu bihugu byatumiwe, u Rwanda ntirwari rurimo. Hari hashize amezi atanu Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi ihagaritswe, harashyizweho Guverimoma y’Ubumwe.

Mu nyandiko za Bruno Delaye wari umujyanama wa Mitterrand zo mu Ukwakira 1994, hagaragaramo icyatumye u Rwanda rudatumirwa.

Raporo Duclert ivuga ko iyo nyandiko yagaragazaga ko gutumira u Rwanda bishobora guhindura amateka y’umubano wabyo cyane cyane ko Guverinoma y’Ubumwe yashinjaga u Bufaransa uruhare rukomeye muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

Delaye muri iyo nyandiko yongeye kugaragaza impungenge baramutse batumiye Guverinoma y’u Rwanda.

Ati “FPR na Guverinoma y’u Rwanda baracyarakariye u Bufaransa. Ntabwo bigeze bagaragaza ubushake bwo kwitabira i Biarritz. Kuba u Rwanda rwaza Biarritz bishobora guhindura ingingo z’ingenzi z’inama, ikaba iyo kwiga ku bibazo by’u Rwanda akaba ari nabyo itangazamakuru ryibandaho.”

Hasi kuri iyo nyandiko hariho ijambo ‘Oya’ riciyeho uturongo tubiri ku mwanya wari wagenewe Mitterrand ngo agire icyo ayivugaho.

Mu kiganiro n’abanyamakuru gisoza inama ya Biarritz, Mitterrand yabajijwe impamvu atatumiye u Rwanda, avuga ko na we atazi impamvu rutitabiriye.

Inama ya Biarritz, yafunguwe na Mitterrand ubwe nka Perezida w’u Bufaransa ari nabwo bwari bwatumije inama.

Mu mbwirwaruhame yatanze, hari aho yakomoje ku Rwanda, avuga ko mu Rwanda habaye Jenoside ebyiri ndetse ko kwicana abantu bapfuye amoko bisanzwe muri Afurika.

Ati “Abayobozi muri icyo gihugu bafashe umwanzuro wo gukemura ibibazo byabo bakoresheje inkota cyangwa imihoro. Nta polisi iyo ariyo yose ku rwego mpuzamahanga yabuza abaturage kwisenyera”.

Duclert na bagenzi be banenze iyo mvugo ya Mitterrand, bavuga ko ari igamije kwivanaho igisebo n’uruhare u Bufaransa n’amahanga byagize ubwo byirengagizaga gutabara abatutsi bicwaga, yitwaje ko n’iyo hoherezwa ingabo zo gutabara zitashoboraga guhagarika Jenoside.

Mitterrand ni umwe mu ba mbere bakoresheje inyito ya Jenoside ebyiri, ashaka guhisha uruhare rw'u Bufaransa mu byaberaga mu Rwanda

Mitterrand yakomeje avuga ko u Bufaransa ntacyo butakoze ngo bushakire u Rwanda amahoro, yongera kuvuga ko ibyabaye ari za Jenoside aho kuba Jenoside imwe.

Ati “Twari duhari ngo haboneke ibisubizo. Nyuma y’aho amasezerano ya Arusha atangiriye muri Nyakanga 1992 agasozwa muri Kanama 1993, hazaho iby’urupfu rwa Habyarimana, intambara na za jenoside byakurikiyeho bihagarika inzira yo kugarura amahoro.”

Ukuri ni Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi

Mitterrand na benshi mu bamusimbuye ku butegetsi mu Bufaransa, bakunze kuruma bahuha iyo byabaga bigeze ku kwemeza inyito nyayo ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, ari nabyo ahanini byagiye biba intandaro y’umwuka mubi hagati y’icyo gihugu n’u Rwanda.

Raporo ya Komisiyo ya Duclert ko u Bufaransa bwitwaye nk’impumyi mu byaberaga mu Rwanda bituma batabasha “gusesengura, ngo batandukanye Jenoside n’ubwicanyi.”

Isoza ivuga ko ‘Gusesengura ahahise hagamijwe kwemera ukuri nibwo buryo bwiza bwo kwigobotora ihungabana n’ibikomere. Kwigisha amateka ntibikwiriye kurwanywa kuko bituma habaho amahoro no kwibuka […] Ukuri ni ukwa Jenoside kwatumye abatutsi batsembwa. Ntabwo bazibagirana.”

Prof Vincent Duclert kuri uyu wa Gatanu nyuma yo gushyikiriza raporo Perezida Paul Kagame, yavuze ko ibikubiyemo bishimangira ko habayeho Jenoside imwe.

Yagize ati "Inyandiko z’u Bufaransa ziri mu bubiko zishimangira ko habaye Jenoside kandi yakorewe Abatutsi. Ubwicanyi bwo mu gihe FPR yateraga, ntaho buhuriye n’ibyabaye kuko bwabereye mu gihugu cyari kiyobowe na Leta ari nayo ikigenzura."

"Izo nyandiko ni zo zisenya imvugo y’uko habaye Jenoside ebyiri. Iyi raporo yerekana ko yabayeho ari Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.’’

Prof Vincent Duclert yavuze ko igihe FPR yateraga aribwo habayeho umugambi uhamye wo guhagarika Jenoside mu gihe mbere igisirikare cyariho kitigeze kibigira iby’ibanze.

Ku wa 23 Mutarama 2018 nibwo Inteko Rusange y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye yafashe umwanzuro ko tariki 7 Mata hazajya hibukwa Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, hahindurwa inyito yari isanzwe ko ari “Umunsi Mpuzamahanga wo kuzirikana kuri Jenoside yo mu 1994 mu Rwanda” yari yarashyizweho n’umwanzuro 58/234 wo ku wa 23 Ukuboza 2003, igatangira gukoreshwa mu 2004.

Alain Juppé wari Minisitiri w'Ububanyi n'amahanga yagiye ahindagura inyito y'ibyaberaga mu Rwanda, rimwe akavuga ko ari Jenoside ubundi akavuga ko ari ubwicanyi
Hubert Védrine wabaye Umuyobozi Mukuru mu Biro bya Perezida w’u Bufaransa hagati ya 1991 na 1995, aganira na Perezida Mitterrand
Ubwo Duclert yashyikirizaga raporo Perezida Emmanuel Macron
Nyuma yo gushyikiriza raporo Perezida Kagame, Duclert yavuze ko ibyabaye mu Rwanda ari Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi

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